BIOMETRICS particular physical or biological aspects of

Biometrics in Security
Biometrics in security applies the use of technological recognition on particular physical or biological aspects of human being such as the face, iris, fingerprint, palm print, retina, gait, voice and hand geometry. The biometric systems are composed of different modules that allow its ability to operate effectively. They include: matching, feature extractions and sensing. They capture different traits within human which are later digitally represented to identify and match similar modules already recorded in the computer systems. The major stages involve enrollment and recognition. Some information about the individuals such as the ID number and name are also stored together with biometric references.

This study aims at comparing two major types of biometric systems. The Biometric Consortium (BC) has been a unique point of research in United States that other than involving in biometric research activities it also conducts testing, development, application and testing of biometric based on verification technology and personal identification. The two major common type of biometric include fingerprint recognition and facial recognition. Each of these systems has a number of characteristics that facilitate its ability to operate and other that could compromise the ability to effectively serve in the security aid.

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NEC neo face recognition
NEC neo face recognition is a software application used to solve crimes using facial recognition technology. The NEC neo face technology identification has been positive with the capability of capturing even the low quality videos which were previously regarded as of less value and could not be used. It’s high in accuracy making it able to match even the low resolution images. The technology is able to recognize even the latent photos with high accuracy. However this technology has some limitations, its accuracy in result can be affected by the light, size of the image, age of person and wearing of glasses at the same time it uses cameras for identification and therefore it cannot work if there are no cameras installed.
Turnstile system
Turnstile system is a fingerprint access control system which gives access control at the entry level. This system has been in used for example in Disney world, for example, the full height pedestrian turnstiles. They are able to detect unauthorized entries at the entry level providing access control at the entrance; unlike the use of doors they limit the number of people entering a premise. They have weaknesses too they can only be installed at the entrance only, they are expensive compared to other traditional methods and when they do not have barriers they provide less security. The NEC neo facial recognition is non in invasive while the turnstile systems are invasive Kouwenhoven, L. P., et al 1626.

Strengths and weaknesses
Facial recognition systems have been associated with a number of benefits in the areas where they are applied. The technology is easily compatible with already existing technologies and is non-intrusive. Fingerprint technology is highly accurate and compared to other biometric security systems and can be applied easily even among first time learners. Fingerprint biometric is among the most widespread and developed biometric systems. Unlike facial recognition which calls for huge amount of storage space, fingerprint technology requires stores small sizes of database thus occupying small spaces.
Facial recognition system produce a lower quality image level when compared to a digital camera thus affecting the functionality of the algorithm functionality within these systems. When the image is captured under the installed algorithm, the relative size could be a major issue as it affects the accuracy in face recognition. This recognition could also be affected by the angle to which the target face is turned which influences the recognition score profoundly. The images occupy huge amount of storage space regardless of the low resolution images. The technology also raises issues of privacy concerns thus creating an issue between individual and national level rights.
There is an increase in the criminal activities involving fingerprints as the systems may not effectively differentiate between genuine and fake fingerprints. Fingerprint technology could also be limited by such aspects as dirty or wet finger as well as other factors as age. Biometric technologies vary remarkably on how invasive they are. Biometric technology varies in regard to how invasive they are including invasive, minimally invasive and those collected to individuals with little or no knowledge of the subject. Facial recognition could be an example of the category involving data collection with little knowledge of the subject knowledge. Fingerprints technology tends to be more invasive as compared to facial recognition due to its ability to flexibly be utilized under different environments. The devices applied in collection and analysis of data in biometrics is becoming less obtrusive, more advanced and getting smaller and smaller.
There is a concerned in the use of surveillance technology. Most people fear that the technologies are undermining people right to privacy since their whereabouts can always be known to security agencies and even the government. Also the NEC neo facial recognition can enable these entities to know the kind of activity a person engages in at a particular time. Organization with such capabilities can abuse their ability by using the technology for their own benefits especially in economic sector and politics. For the biometric facial recognition uses face recognition and match for it to work well then the company has to satisfy their customers that their information will be well kept and protected against any data form of breach. Most individuals don’t know all the data collected by the security agencies. This poses a privacy threat to people since if the data can get to the hands of the wrong person it can be misused or used for criminal purpose. The right for individuals to know what kind of information they hold concerning a person gives them the opportunity to challenge the relevance of the information and to confirm its accuracy.

The NEC neo facial recognition are very accurate in matching and identification of images, it recognizes even the most poor quality images from videos which wre considered to be of no value since the other biometric systems could not get any information from these videos. Images with low resolutions are detected by the other systems. (Zhao, Wenyi, et al, 75).The facial technology captures image immediately at the real time and capture the particular intense features on the face making it more accurate than any other form of the surveillance recognition. Turnstiles are made from high quality materials this makes them very accurate in the execution of their function. Most turnstiles are handled by very well trained workers making them effective and efficient. They are durable since they are of high quality and most companies provide a three years warranty since they are sure of their products. The NEC neo facial recognition uses the face of a person as the key to for recognition; it allows visitors, employees, or any other authorized person to access the premises as it recognizes the face through the most conspicuous features like the skin texture.

The issues of privacy require serious interventions usually among the individuals applying these systems. Personal information ought not to be exposed to public as this could result to harm or insecurity among most of the individuals as these systems possess huge amounts of private information within them. There exist a number of objections against the use of these devices as they are attributed greatly with the use of such devices as facial recognition systems in surveillance and fingerprint data checking against forensic databases.
Biometrics has to huge extents marked a strong foundation enhancing security in a wide range of aspects. However, there exist a number of challenges in the application of these technologies. Some factors ought to be considered to facilitate improvement in future development of these technologies. They include such aspects as improving the recognition performance, privacy issues and system security.

Kouwenhoven, L. P., et al. “Quantized current in a quantum-dot turnstile using oscillating tunnel barriers.” Physical Review Letters 67.12 (1991): 1626.

Zhao, Wenyi, et al. “Discriminant analysis of principal components for face recognition.” Face Recognition. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1998. 73-85.

Matyáš, V., ; ?íha, Z. (2002). Biometric authentication—security and usability. In Advanced Communications and Multimedia Security (pp. 227-239). Springer US.

Jain, A. K., ; Kumar, A. (2010). Biometrics of next generation: An overview. Second Generation Biometrics, 12(1), 2-3.

Introna, L., ; Nissenbaum, H. (2010). Facial Recognition Technology A Survey of Policy and Implementation Issues.


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