By considering, the biology, host-seeking and oviposition behaviours of Aedes mosquitoes species, new tools and techniques have been developed for the surveillance and treatment of mosquitoes such as BG-Sentinel traps.
Because, the methods used for nocturnal Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes were in- or partial efficient against the Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Surveillance is the backbone of any control program.Various ovitraps and adult traps have been used effective surveillance of egg and adult stages, respectively. These traps have been supplemented with infusions or lure to enhance the efficacy9,10 ). Similarly, the applications of recommended insecticides have been evaluated by several laboratories to treat the larval habitats and adult populations by utilizing a hand-held, back-pack and truck-mounted sprayer to reduce the manpower and make it more cost-effective11-13. In addition, there are several other methods that have been found effective to reduce mosquito population effectively.
Elimination of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are the most difficult task 14. Studies have shown that cryptic habitats of these mosquitoes are immune to most effective and powerful machines used for spraying larvicides and support the population resurgence15,16.
Several devices and methods have been used with pyriproxyfen, juvenile hormone analogue, which have shown promising results 17-20. To enhance the penetration of larval habitats, we and others have developed novel methods of. Autodissemination. For adults, nighttime ULV spray and Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits applications have been found to be effective to reduce populations 13,21,22. The recent developments in molecular sciences, genetics and microbiology techniques have also been provided new avenues to curtail the mosquito population and block the disease transmission 23-25.
The anthropophilic nature of Aedes mosquitoes has direct impact on human activities 26. Therefore, protection by using repellents and insecticide-treated cloths have become considerable important to avoid mosquito biting. An effective repellent can protect a person from mosquito biting up to 8 hours whereas treated clothes were able to reduce landing and biting rates of mosquitoes27,28. This shows the possibility of the reduction of the arboviral case if used properly. This is a public concern, hence the education and participation of residents and another volunteer can help reduce mosquito bite and possibly reduce mosquito populations. In this chapter, we have discussed the biology, surveillance and control measures of different life-stages of Ae. aegypti and Ae.
albopictus mosquitoes. The development of novel vector control techniques for eco-friendly controls and personal protection measure to minimize the mosquito bite may be key to arresting arbovirus disease transmission.