By responsibility a literature review you are able to criticallysummaries the current information in the area under search, identifying anystrengths and weaknesses in previous work. A good and full literature look forwill provide the context within which to rest your study. Therefore, beforecommencing writing my research proposal, it will need to allocate time to readthe literature that is relevant to my proposed research study. Literaturereview is an impression about the important aspects of the topic. It needs torecognize data sources that other researchers have used. And to identify andbecome well-known with the style of writing that is used mainly withinthe ethos of the area that you are researching.
Finally to identify the associationbetween concepts and identify ideas for further reflection. Anumber of diversified studies had been passed out about the use of aqua-drugsand chemicals on aquatic animal health management. These papers hold a lot ofinformation about aqua-drugs and chemicals. The following information, relevantto the present study was briefly reviewed.Afnan et al. (2015) studied that the mostcommon dose of lime used by the farmers during pond preparation (62.
67%) andculture period (53%) is 0.5-1 kg/40m2. Urea and TSP used by the farmers mostlyduring culture period with most common dose of 100-150g/40m2(37.3%) and 50-100g/40m2 (68%) respectively.. For pond and water quality management lime, ureaand TSP are mostly used. Bleaching powder, Timsen, EDTA, Polgard, Virex,Aquakleen, Germnill, Pond safe were widely used as disinfectant. Healthmanagement and disease treatment were the major activities where farmerswere seen to use a lot of chemicals.
Golamet al.(2017) studied that the practice of chemicals and antibiotics for fishhealth management in freshwater aquaculture in Gowainghat and Balaganj Upazillaof Sylhet, Bangladesh..
A range of chemicals including antibiotics were foundavailable in market and being used in the aquaculture sector. Lime, salt,potassium permanganate, sumithion, melathion, formalin, bleaching powder,methylene blueandmalachite green were some commonly used traditional chemicals in heathmanagement. Of the new products JV Zeolite,Mega Zeo Blue, Green zeolite, 5 StarAqua, Aqua C, Aquavit, Bio-Ox, Oxy plus and Bio care were most widely usedcompounds. About 18 trade names of antibiotics were found and their majoractive ingredients were oxytetracycline, chlorotetracycline, amoxicillin,co-trimoxazole, ulphadiazine, azithromysin. Lipton (1991) studied the consequence of antibiotic compoundson the growth inhibition of fish pathogen Aeromonashydrophila isolated from the haemorrhagic lesions of Laheo rohita.
The author found that among the ten antibiotics,gentamicin, Doxycycline oxytetracyclin, tetracycline. streptomycin. penicillin chlorotetracyclinand neomycin inhibited the growth of the bacteria. Antibiotics gentamicin,streptomycin and tetracycline were effective at 10 mg/L.
Tetracycline waseffective at 20 mg/L and gentamicin. neomycin and streptomycin at 50 mg/L for Aeromonas hydrophila. Banik et al. (1991) carried out examination on theeffect of epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) and showed that application oflime in ponds gave 68% positive result.
Reilly (1992) stated that aquaculture products withcertain food safety issues such as the danger of contamination of products bychemical and biochemical agents. Various food safety issues ranging fromfood-borne parasitic infections, pathogenic diseases, residues of agrochemicals, veterinary drugs and heavy metal contamination, identified aspotential hazards of aquaculture products emanate from inappropriate practicesand environmental pollution.Plumb (1992) suggested using potassium permanganatefor the treatment of external protozoan and external bacterial infections. Theauthor applied potassium permanganate at a dose of 5 to 10 mg/L for 1 hour and2 to 6 mg/L in tanks and in pond treatment, respectively. in the both cases,the author obtained positive result.China buy and Lilley (1992) reviewed that quick limeand slaked Lime both had a very high pH and in addition to increasedalkalinity, could have a sterilizing effect against disease. A range ofchemotherapeutics were used to control fish disease.
Yadava et al. (1993) observed the toxicity ofherbicides on weeds in pond. The safe concentration of five herbicides wassimezine at 0.5 ppm, dalapon at 0.75 ppm diquate at 1.0 ppm, MSMA at 1.5 ppmand 2, 4-D at 2.
0 ppm for the control of Ceratophyliwn dernersum.Floyd (1993) obtained bath treatment was effectivein controlling external infection in fish. The author observed that coppersulfate, formalin and potassium permanganate had similar efficacy againstprotozoan infestations on skin, gills and fins. The author also found that ofthe three chemicals, potassium permanganate had broader spectrum of in itsactivity, as it was very effective against both bacterial and fungal infection.Smith et al. (1994) found that oxytetracycline isone of the most widely used antibacterial in aquaculture. The vast majority ofoxytetracyc line supplied in mediated feed can be found in hatchery effluent atconcentrations that account for newly the entire drug supplied.Ahrncd and Rab (1995) suggested that addition of limeto ponds during the culture period decreased the severity of EUS outbreaks.
Tamuli and Shanbhogue (1996) reviewed the efficacyof some commonly available chemicals in the treatment of anchor worm (Lernaeamaelraensis) infection in India. The authors used potassium permanganate,forrnain and sodium chloride bathing treatment twice a day over fiveconsecutive days at 30 ppm KMnO4 for 20 minutes was found to be 100%effective in killing adult and embedded larval parasites.Prasad et al.(1996) mentioned that chloramphenicol and oxytetracycline would be effectivedrug in curing EUS lesion, tetracycline and streptomycin were less effective incuring ulcers.Li et al.
(1996) studied on the efficacies of formalin. Potassium permanganate. Sodiumchloride and copper sulphate as prophylactic treatments for saprolegniosis.Formalin (25 mg/L) was effective as both for a prophylactic and post infectivetreatments. Sodium chloride at 5000 mg/L was effective in preventingsaprolegniosis.Inglis (1996) stated that excessive use ofantibiotics contributes the development of resistant strains of bacteria.Singh and Singh (1997) obtained seven isolates ofEdwardsiella garcia and showed that all the isolates were resistant to colistinand gentamicin but sensitive to ciprofloxacin.
chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid,nitrofurantioin, ofloxacin and streptomycin.GESAMP (1997) found that for soil and watertreatments, alum (aluminium sulfate) at the rate of 10-20 mg/L, gypsum atconcentrations of 250-1000 mg/L, lime at dose of 100-8000 Kg/ha, geoiite at adose of 100-500 Kg/ha. Antibacterial agent amoxiciflin, nitrcffuran. macrolidesactive against grani-positive bacteria. Used of suiphonamides to controldiseases such as furunculosis, enteric red mouth disease and vibriosis.Burka et al. (1997) observed that one of thecommonly used products was benzalkoniurn chloride, applied to inhibit bacterialgrowth in the gills of salmon. -UHey and higHs (1997) carried out trials aridobserved that 5 ppm corprol (a chelated copper compound) prevented induction ofEUS lesions in abraded African catfish while malachite green (0.
1 mg/L) waspartly effective and formalin (25 mglL) was ineffective. The authors alsoreported that malachite green arid hydrogen peroxide showed a fungicidal activityagainst Aphanomyces invadwu in vitro trial.Saha et al. (1998) evaluated the effects of varioustreatments for tail and fin rot f Asian catfish, Clarius batrachiss usedvarious doses of salt (NaCl), formalin, malachite green, acriflavin andoxytctracycline, and it was shown that actiflavin dip treatment (6 and 8 ppm)gave the best resultRahman and Chowdhury (1999) conducted trials ofchemotherapy to control the ulcer disease affecting catfish. The best resultwas obtained by a successive bath in 1-2% NaCI suspension and subsequent oraltreatment with commercial oxytetracycline at a dose of 75 mg/Kg body weight offish for 5 days.Wilkinson (2000) mentioned that liming materialsmight contribute substantially to fish yields by improving conditions for fishand by enhancing the primary productivity of the pond. Alum is an effectiveflocculants for reducing clay turbidity. Potassium pennanganate is a usefuldisinfectant but ponds suffering from oxygen depletion.
Sarker (2000) conducted an experiment to test drugsensitivity of five isolates of Aeror Aonas sorbia and found that most of theisolates were found sensitive to oxytetracyc line, oxolinic acid andchioramphenicol but resistance to crythromycin and suiphamethoxazole.Zahura (2001) stated that malachite green, salt andlime, formalin and potassium pennanganate application by immersion was give thegood result in the treatment of fungus affected flab. A combination of salt andlime was found to be suitable in reducing Aphwsomyces invadans infection. Infield condition, a preventive treatment with equal ratio of salt and lime werefound to be most effective in preventing the occurrence of flings in theinvestigated fish ponds of Mymensingh region.Brown and Brooks (2002) reviewed that 52% farmers inBangladesh used potassium per- while 40% used lime, 11% used salt as a diseasetreatment A few farmers used other macb dlalnfa, biases tanvea fertilizer, alumand water exchange.Cbowdhury et a!.
(2003) observed that theantibiotic.. renamycin (óxytetracyciine) had positic effect again bacicrialinci…. at a dose of 50 mg/Kg body wtfday applying for seven days and 8040%fish were recovered under laboratory condition.SuIts (2004) stated that commonly used chemicals inaquaculture are lime, salt, urea, triple super potassium: pennanganate,vitamins, antibiotics (mainly oxytetracycline and chkwotetracyciinc), rotenone,phostoxin, swnithion, melathion and hormones.
The author also stated that mostof the farmers used chemicals and antibiotics indiscriminately without knowingtheir mode of action, doses and appropriate procedures of application.Liu et a!. (2004) found that norfioxacin,gentamicin, tobrarnycin, ciproifloxaci.n,, tetracycline, tctacfyiin, polyrnyxiaetc., have a significant bacteriostatic effect on Pseudomana sp.Faruk et at. (2004) mentioned that the mostprevalent diseases were tail and fin rot, epizootic ulcerative syndrome,nutritional disease, red spot and gill rot. Forty six percent farmers usedcombination of time and potassium petmanganate, 22A% farmer used only lime and10% farmer used lime and salt together in response to particular diseaseproblem.
Anderson et a!. (2005) reviewed that malachite greenis readily absorbed by fish tissue and is metabolically reduced toleucomalachite green (LMG) which is lipohilic and can be stored in edible fishtissues for extended periods of time.Uddin and Kader (2006) found that about 40% of thehatcheries in Bangladesh used the chloramphenicals, 25% hatcheries usederyrhromycin. 20% used prefuran and 15% used oxytetracycline in brood stockmaintenance to prevent potential bacterial infection after eye stalk ablation.Where 75% of the surveyed hatcheries used formaiin and 25% used malachite greenhave been used as antifungal agents Eighty eight percent of the hatcheries usedtreflan and 12% hatcheries used mal. bite green as antifungal agents in larvalrearing operation.Parimal et al (2006) tested on the sensitivity ofAeromonas h. ophila and concluded that bacterium was susceptible to gentamicia,ciprofioxacin, chioramphenicol and oxytetracycline but resistw to erythromycin,nifiurantloin and peniiilin.
.BPR. (2007) mentione that malachite green andleucomalachite green were suspected of bciflg capable cfausi gene damage andcancer.Faruk et al.
(200.) stated that a. mge of :c:.k sincluding antibiotics were used in aqc.dc fr . fl health : disc: tEeann..
JVzeolite, Octox, Green zeolite, Orgavit aqua, Fish vitaplua, AQ ow-G, Oxyflow, Oxy mix and 02-insane were themorn widely used aqua-dnigs and chemicals inBangladesh. Major active ingredients of these antibiotics were oxytetracychne,suiphadiazine, chiorotetracycline, sulphamethoxazole. amoxicillin andco-trimoxzoIe.Rodgers and Furones (2009) ,bserved that antibioticsare used in infestation of salmon by sea lice parasitic copepods. Infestationshave been treated by a variety of bath treatments including hydrogen peroxide,pyrethrins, dlchiorvos, azamcthiphos and ivermectin administered through fishfeed, has also been used to deal with sea lice.
Daniel (2009) found that control of externalprotozoa and monogenetic trematodes were done by applying formalin 15 to 25mI/L. Oxytetracyclinc was used 50 mg/Kg/day for 5 days for enteric septicemiafurunculosis and 2.5 to 3.75 g/100 lb/day for 10 days for ulcer disease.Bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia was controlled by applying oxytetracycline atthe rate of I g/ib medicated feed for 5 days.
Sulfamerazinc also used forcontrolled of Furuncutosis at the rate of 10 g/100 lb/day for up to 14 days.Barde (2009) reviewed that the treatment of sumidonand acephate causing pollution of Godavari basin of India. In addition lipase,and protease enzyme activity in the tissues are severely affected by thepesticides. Effects of these pesticides showed variation of enzyme activity indigestive system of the crab.Khan et al. (2011) mentioned that traditionalchemicals in fish health management included lime, salt, potassiumpermanganate, sumithion, melathion, formalin and bleaching powder in Mymensinghregion.
The authors also concluded that twenty eight pharmaceutical companieswere producing and marketing aqua-drugs and chemicals in Mymensingh region.These include Polgurd plus, Deletix, Timsen, Vectisol. Virex, Renamycin,Aquamycine and OxyDox-F.Rasul et al.
(2017). Studied that A range of chemicalsincluding antibiotics were found available in market and being used in theaquaculture sector. Lime, salt, potassium permanganate, sumithion, melathion,formalin, bleaching powder, methylene blue and malachite green were some commonlyused traditional chemicals in heath management. Of the new products JV Zeolite,Mega Zeo Blue, Green zeolite, 5 Star Aqua, Aqua C, Aquavit, Bio-Ox, Oxy plusand Bio care were most widely used compounds. About 18 trade names ofantibiotics were found and their major active ingredients were oxytetracycline,chlorotetracycline, amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole, sulphadiazine, azithromysin.Among the available antibiotics, Oxy-Dox-F and renamycin was used widely andpopularly by the freshwater aqua farmers in study area.