center-5000502920hist 111 11000065000hist 111 -50006172205900057696104950045000445003559175590005769610maysa abdullah 6050045000maysa abdullah center5900057696101100004500075000582930049000492823500 question:1the hellenistic age stain the transformation of hellenic spoken communication society from the localized and introverted metropolis -states to an open cosmopolitan and at prison term s exubgeological era nt culture that permeated the entire eastern mediterranean sea and sw asia while the hellenistic reality incorporated a number of different people hellene thinking mores and way of life dominated the public affairs of the time.
all view of culture took a hellenic language hue with the greek language being established as the functionary language of the. and of the era were transformed accordingly. previous preoccupation with the ideal hellenistic prowess focused on the real. characterisation of mankind in both art and literature revolved around exuberant and often amusing motif that for the most part explored the daily life and and heroes alike. the autonomy of soul metropolis of the classical era springiness way to the will of the large realm that were booster cable by one normal r. as smyrnium olusatrum left no apparent heir his general ascendency the empire. they fought common enemy and against each other as they attempted to establish their power and eventually three major land emerged through the strife that followed the decease of alexander in 323 bce and persisted for the most part over the next three hundred years. egypt and parting of the middle orient came under the rule of claudius ptolemaeus seleucus controlled syria and the remnants of the persian empire while macedonia thrace and parts of northern asia minor came under the hegemony of antigonus and his son demetrius.
several smaller kingdoms were established at various metre in hellenistic greece. notably the attalid kingdom was formed around pergamum in eastern asia minor and the free-lance kingdom of bactria was created after diodotos led a rising of greeks there against seleucid rule. most of the classical greek cities south of thessalia and on the southern shoring of the black sea remained independent. hellenistic doctrine went through a peculiar evolution—or retrogression it might almost be better to say.
during the first stage it was still under the influence of greek thought and consequently showed an elemental regard for reasonableness as the key to the solution of valet de chambre s trouble during what may be considered a second stage skepticism concerning all truth and all 6 senses of value resulted in the rejection of reason entirely. toward the end of the civilization doctrine degenerated into a barren mysticism with the consequence that the whole intellectual approach whether based upon reason or experience was thrown into the discard. despite the first harmonic difference in their education the philosopher of the hellenistic eld were all agreed upon one thing: the necessity of finding some way of salvation for human from the asperity and immorality of his existence. the first and most important of the hellenistic philosophical system were epicureanism and stolidity both of which originated about 300 b.c. the founders were respectively epicurus and zeno who were house physician of greek capital though the former was born on the island of samos while the latter was a aborigine of cyprus probably of phoenician blood epicureanism and stoicism had several features in common. both were individual istic concerned not with the welfare of society primarily but with the good of the individual. hellenistic art preserved only a few of the superior quality of the art of the greeks.
in place of the humanism balance and restraint which had characterized the computer architecture and carving of the goldiamond state n age qualities of exaggerated pragmatism sensualism and voluptuousness now became dominant. the simple and dignified doric and ionic dialect temples gave way to luxurious palace costly mansions and elaborate populace buildings and monuments symbolical of power and wealth. a typical example was the great pharos of el iskandriyah which rose wine to a height of nearly 400 feet with three diminishing taradiddle and eight columns to support the light at the top. carving likewise exhibited tendencies in the direction of extravagance and sentimentality. many of the statues and figures in easement were huge and some of them almost grotesque.
violent emotionalism and sordid realism were features common to the legal age among the good example of this type of carving may be mentioned the laocoon and the frieze of the great altar of zeus at pergamum with its giant gods ferocious animals and hybrid goliath mingled in desperate scrap to symbolize the struggle of greeks with gauls. but by no means all of hellenistic sculpture was overwrought and grotesque. some of it was distinguished by a calmness and poise and compassion for human suffering reminiscent of the best work of the great fourth-100 artists. statue which exemplify these superior qualities include the aphrodite of melos venus de milo and the winged victory of samothrace.