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P MOKWENA 214055728p.n matleng 215068645center4500480695Communication Science 3.2 – Assignment 111540067000Communication Science 3.2 – Assignment 1centerbottom1154000right230024574576009800Table of Contents TOC o “1-3″ h z u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc523380875 h 2Question 1: PAGEREF _Toc523380876 h 2Culture from our personal perspectives: PAGEREF _Toc523380877 h 2Mass media and social networking in the next 10 years: PAGEREF _Toc523380878 h 2Question 2: PAGEREF _Toc523380879 h 4How mass communication connects us with different cultures: PAGEREF _Toc523380880 h 4Is transcultural communication enriching even though it is also imperialistic? PAGEREF _Toc523380881 h 8Question 3: PAGEREF _Toc523380882 h 10Intercultural context and advertisements: PAGEREF _Toc523380883 h 10Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc523380884 h 11References: PAGEREF _Toc523380885 h 13Introduction”Culture is communication and communication is culture”.
This statement describes or speaks of how culture and communication interrelate. This statement can go as far as saying that you “learn” your culture via communication, while at the same time communication is a reflection of your culture. Question 1:Culture from our personal perspectives:Culture is basically, a set of shared values that a group of people holds. Such values affect how you think and act and more importantly, the kind of criteria by which you judge others which in a sense makes studying other cultures from the perspective of our own culture. This is proven by the many cultural differences we have between people of different cultures, we vary in our ways of thinking and ways of behaving which makes us view things in different ways “culturally”. For instance, “in India, the people that reside there do not eat beef, which makes it a “taboo” to slaughter a cow while in other countries beef is a primary meat consumed by people who live there”. From this statement we can safely say that India has put its ignorance aside and taken a step at learning the effects beef has on human beings and have decided that they would not be part of that “culture”.
They basically studied another culture to put into perspective their own culture and made laws of their own from this “culture”. Do you believe that mass media and social networking will make major alterations to gender roles in upcoming 10 years? Why or why not?Yes. I believe that mass media and social networking will make major changes to gender roles in upcoming next ten years. Mass media and social networking form a part of media so media is unavoidable as it is powerful and it has much influence on gender roles especially when it comes to people’s way of thinking. Despite all the information and misinformation present in the media, one damaging presentation is that one of male and female roles.
To prove that mass media will make major alterations in upcoming next ten years mass media now includes more and more important female roles in movies , television series, advertisements, video games etc. to avoid portraying gender stereotypes that ultimately form society’s perception of gender roles.As people are constantly exposed to various forms of media, among all the forms of media television is the one with much influence as it is a relaxing source of entertainment. So, adults only spend half of their leisure time watching television or using other media as children spend about an average of twenty-five hours watching television programs. So, all these forms of media whether you are a male or female whether intentional or not they all promote certain to beliefs and opinions towards all the genders, so this can make everyone adapt his or her own opinion when coming to gender roles.Mass media usually depicts women as submissive and domesticated and woman who are contrary to that are bad woman. And depicts man as fearless, tough, and decisive. Like for example Superman or Batman they are depicted as super-powered men fighting for justice and safety in helpless communities.
So that has influenced children and young parents that men are powerful than women.So, going back to the question that mass media will make major alterations to gender roles in the next ten years I still agree because mass media is the one that emphasized or changed people’s perception on gender roles and looking at the movies and television series that are being currently broadcast it shows that mass media is currently working on setting records straight and balancing all the gender roles. So, in upcoming ten years we believe that mass media and social networking will make huge alterations concerning gender roles.
Focusing on the changes that social network can bring to gender roles. It has been shown that users do not spend time taking gender roles into account when interacting with the opposite gender online .in face to face interaction women can be very influential because of social networking.It has been statistically proven that majority of females are active on many social networks compared to men. Going through a female person phone you will be aware that they have at least more than four social networks on their phone, you can maybe find, for example (Instagram, Facebook, twitter, my space, WhatsApp,) accounts. But comparing to a male person you only find few social network accounts.Question 2:How mass communication connects us with different cultures:It is widely acknowledged that people from different cultures communicate differently, and the differences in communication styles become major sources of misunderstanding, frustration, and conflict in intercultural communication.
The communication styles of an individual, which combine both verbal and nonverbal elements, are shaped and reshaped by shared cultural values, worldviews, norms, and thinking styles of the cultural group to which they belong. Needless to say, understanding the fundamental patterns of communication styles as well as the underlying systems of thought that give rise to them will help to reduce cultural barriers that hinder intercultural relationships and collaborations. Culture has been defined in many ways.
Some commonly applied definitions view culture as patterned ways of thinking, feeling, and reacting, common to a particular group of people and that are acquired and transmitted through the use of symbols. Others view culture as a function of interrelated systems that include the ecology (e.g., the physical environment, resources, and geography), subsistence (e.g., how individuals use ecological resources to survive), and sociocultural systems (e.g.
, institutions, norms, roles, and values) (Erez ; Earley, 1993). It is fair to say that culture includes both objective and subjective elements. These interrelated systems do not dictate culture; rather, we can use them as a general framework to understand culture and its relation to individual and collective actions.
A communication style is the way people communicate with others verbally and nonverbally. It combines both language and nonverbal cues and is the meta-message that dictates how listeners receive and interpret verbal messages. Scholars have proposed different typologies for describing communication styles. Of the theoretical perspectives proposed to understand cultural variations in communication styles, the most widely cited is the differentiation between high-context and low-context communication by Edward Hall (1976).Hall’s high-context and low-context communication is inspired by Bernstein’s (1966) conceptualization of restricted and elaborate codes. Bernstein hypothesizes that our speech patterns are conditioned by our social context. Restricted codes involve transmission of messages through verbal (words) and nonverbal (intonation, facial features, gestures) channels. They rely heavily on the hidden, implicit cues of the social context, such as interpersonal relationships, the physical and psychological environments, and other contextual cues.
Jargons or “shorthand” speeches are examples of restricted codes where speakers are almost telegraphic in conveying their meanings: Succinct, simple assertions are used “against a backdrop of assumptions common to the speakers, against a set of closely shared interests and identifications, against a system of shared expectations; in short, they presuppose a local cultural identity which reduces the need for the speakers to elaborate their intent verbally and to make it explicit” (Bernstein, 1966, pp. 433–434). Code words used by doctors, engineers, prisoners, street gangs, or between family members and close friends are highly implicit in meaning and are known primarily to the members of such groups. Elaborated codes, on the other hand, involve the use of verbal amplifications, or rich and expressive language, in transmitting meaning, placing relatively little reliance on nonverbal and other contextual cues. The verbal channel is the dominant source of information for transmitting elaborated codes; context is not critical in understanding elaborated codes.
Although restricted and elaborated codes are universal styles of communication, according to Hall (1976), cultures differ in the importance they place on words, and one communication style tends to be more predominant in one culture than another. Hall differentiated between high-context and low-context communication cultures and argued that low-context communication is used predominantly in individualistic cultures, whereas high-context communication is used predominantly in collectivistic cultures. Specifically, high-context communication occurs when most of the information is either in the physical context or internalized in the person, with very little information given in the coded, explicit, transmitted part of the message. Members of high-context communication cultures rely on their pre-existing knowledge of each other and the setting to convey or interpret meaning, which reduces their reliance on explicit verbal codes. Explicit, direct messages are considered either unnecessary or potentially face threatening. It is the receiver of the message who assumes responsibility for inferring the hidden or contextual meanings of the message.In contrast, in low-context communication most of the meaning is conveyed in the explicit verbal code. Members of low-context communication cultures expect the message sender to be direct, provide detailed information, and use unambiguous language because they do not assume pre-existing knowledge of the people or the setting.
If there is miscommunication or misunderstanding, the sender of the message is often held responsible for not constructing a clear, direct, and unambiguous message for the listener to decode easily.According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, the language we speak, especially the structure of that language, determines how we perceive and experience the world around us. To date, this position has received a number of criticisms; most research in the related areas does not support a strict interpretation of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. Nevertheless, considerable evidence shows that high-context and low-context communication styles can be attributed to the languages spoken in different cultures.The structures of Asian languages, for example, are found to promote ambiguity, and therefore, a tendency to engage in high-context communication. Kashima and Kashima (1998) examined the use of pronouns in 39 languages and found that cultures in which speakers can drop the pronouns that indicate the subject of sentences are more collectivistic than cultures in which speakers cannot drop pronouns.
For example, in the English language, to produce a grammatically correct sentence, a subject, served by a noun or pronoun, must precede a verb, as in the sentence “He came back.” In Chinese, however, “came back” can stand alone as a correct sentence without a subject. The message receiver must look for contextual cues in order to know who “came back.” In the Japanese language, verbs come at the end of the sentence, after the object; therefore, the message receiver cannot understand what is being said until the whole sentence is uttered. The Japanese language also allows the speakers to talk for others without expressing their opinions to others.
For example, the Japanese “yes” (hai) simply indicates “I understand what you mean,” instead of expressing agreement.In a similar vein, difference in sentence structures and compositional rules also reflects high-context and low-context communication styles. In the English language, the main clause states the central idea, such as who does what, followed by a subordinate clause that provides contextual cues, such as when, where, why, and how. In the Chinese language, however, it is the subordinate clause that is stated first, followed by the main clause. For example, the sentence “I came late because of a bad traffic jam on Route 95,” in English, would turn into “Because of a bad traffic jam on route 95, I came late,” in Chinese.
Similarly, an effective English essay or speech must begin with a clear thesis statement in the introduction, followed by a main body that provides explanations and supporting evidence.UNESCO (1994) defines culture as including ‘the whole complex of distinctive, spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features that characterize a society or social group. It includes not only arts and letters, but also modes of life, the fundamental rights of the human being, value systems, traditions and beliefs’. Culture is the totality of human endeavour in a given time and place. People are constructs of their culture.
Culture gives people their identity and dignity. It is every day expression and future aspirations. Culture and development are intertwined because culture underpins development and reinforces it. In defining culture Taylor (1874) noted that it ‘….
is a complex thing which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morality, laws, customs and all the dispositions and habits acquired by man as a member of society’ (cited in UNCTAD/NGLS, 1992: 18). Culture is society’s way of life including its language, religion, organization of family, etc. Culture is best learnt through its language. Communication is the exchange of information between individuals, friends, families, nations, regions and at the international level. The role of communication in development is to expound major socioeconomic development priorities to increase say agricultural productivity, to promote social welfare, health issues etc. Communication plays a socio-political function.
Thus mass communication inculcate into the people, most of which are illiterate, patterns of behaviour likely to help them become active protagonists in different processes of social and economic change (Lihamba, 1992). Todaro (1992) noted that development implies the multidimensional process involving changes in structures, attitudes and institutions as well as the acceleration of economic growth, the reduction of inequality and eradication of absolute poverty. Development must encompass more than the material and financial status of people. In addition to improvement in per capita income and living standards, it also involves adequate changes in institutional and social structures, attitudes, norms, customs and belief. Is transcultural communication enriching even though it is also imperialistic?Intercultural communication involves interaction between people whose cultural perceptions and symbol systems differ enough to influence the communication event.As much as I wanted to be positive. I’ll have to say no transcultural communication is not enriching. Take this story for one.
Long story short according to Tokelo, he got a scholarship and went to USA where he shared an apartment with two Indians, two Pakistanis and one Indonesian. It took them more than 3 months to effectively communicate, they had to take compulsory English classes. Another thing they had Spanish people over there who work at public places (Retail stores, general workers) however they couldn’t even assist them when they needed directions. So I believe that the reason why transcultural communication is not improving it’s because in some countries we can say English is compulsory but in others it’s a luxury. Some people are comfortable (I do not want to say they ignorant) with what they know and don’t want to broaden the horizon by getting out of their comfort zone. Until to date you’d think English would be the most spoken language but it’s not its Mandarin. Think about this, if China’s population is 1.
4 Billion (Stand to be corrected). What about the countries that speak English? The earthly population standing at roughly 7. 6 billion. This clearly states the minority (being one country China) dominates. That states the rest of us are inferior so we can say it’s improving but not at the rate that we’d be comfortable with.
Let’s take south Africa for instance, we as south Africans have 9 different cultures and traditions yet we refuse to accept other people from outside our country, we call it xenophobia, we abuse the people because we feel like they are taking away our jobs, land’s and resources while they are just people trying to get a better life in South Africa. Nigerian, Congolese, French and Zimbabwean people suffer badly in South Africa including the Pakistani people as well, they are terrorised and they are always living in fear, We as South Africans refuse to learn about their cultures but yet we expect them to know more about our cultures since they are living in “our land” and our country so we say. These people are often bullied by our South Africans making their stay in our country a living hell. Again we strongly feel that Nigerian or foreign people are mostly bringing drugs into our country and making money out of that, which we feel there are killing our communities.
We also believe that the Pakistanis are selling us their own home made products with big brands. You would mostly find pictures of all these news roaming around on social media pages.Then another example would be the Zulu culture and the Sesotho culture, now here I’m comparing people that come from Kwa-Zulu Natal and the Lesotho province. These two cultures are filled with mostly stubborn people that are not willing to learn about other cultures or even speak other languages, for example you would find Zulu taxi drivers in the rank of Bree in Johannesburg pretending that they do not understand Sesotho and they find other languages “Stupid” and like most people say Zulu people would rather solve everything with violence than talking, then we have the typical Sesotho people that are also stubborn when it comes to learning about other cultures or languages, we learn that both cultures are much comfortable with their own cultures that they don’t find it important or reasonable to know about other cultures expect their own, Both of these cultures are stereotype.It is also not getting better due to rising popularity of conservatism in 1st world countries.Cultural diversity continues to grow in the U.S.
The ability of the nurse to foster transcultural communication is a challenge when it comes to rendering culturally competent health care. By Accepting differences in people and displaying a non-judgmental attitude are essential for the nurse to communicate successfully and to avoid language barrier with different cultural groups.One leading example of this is the uproar that was created in 2006 by the publication of cartoons of the prophet Mohammed that was followed by protests in the so?called Arab world and a discussion that was public of the Islam people in Europe. The cartoons were published by the Danish newspaper Jyllands?Posten with an intention of creating controversy. Transcultural Communication, Andreas Hepp, Wiley Blackwell Pg. 2.
This incident goes to show the perspective of a certain media outlets on a “foreign culture.” The Arab people also found out about these cartoons, and likewise, from a critical Angle it had started circulating amongst Islamic preachers, from the Internet, from reports and from there on different forms of protest followed. These were then the subjects that were reported by the European mass media, which they also commented that they will be distancing themselves from this issue. The transcultural communication made possible by the globalization of media which led to these conflicts between cultures, and this did not enhance mutual understanding.?Question 3:Intercultural context and advertisements: Dove, a company that sells health and sanitary products, is under attack for its latest ad.
Late last week the brand posted a three-second video to its Facebook page that looked as if it would depict a black woman transforming into a white woman after using the Dove body wash.This advert was problematic in such a way that it depicted racism values in an intercultural context, Intercultural communication occurs when one member of a certain culture produces a message for consumption by a member of another culture. This becomes a problem when there was a communication breakdown or when a message was not well interpreted by the other person.
The aim of the campaign may have not been to depict a black woman transforming into a white woman but to show that women from all walks of life may use the body wash. There for as a result this advert became problematic in such a way that people assumed racist values from the company.On Saturday Dove removed the ad and issued an apology on Twitter, along with an extended statement on Facebook.
It reads: “Dove is committed to representing the beauty of diversity. In an image we posted this week, we missed the mark in thoughtfully representing women of colour, and we deeply regret the offense that it has caused. The feedback that has been shared is important to us, and we’ll use it to guide us in the future.”Unilever, Dove’s parent organization, discharged an extra articulation to Refinery29, saying, “As a component of a crusade for Bird body wash, a 3-second video cut was presented on our US Facebook page. It highlighted three ladies of various ethnicities, each undressing a shirt in coordinating skin tones to uncover the following lady. The visual was planned to pass on that Dove body wash is for each lady and be a festival of decent variety, however we missed the point and accordingly annoyed numerous individuals.
We are profoundly sad. We have expelled the post and have not distributed any related substance. We don’t approve any movement or symbolism that put-down any group of onlookers.
We are reconsidering our inner procedures for making and auditing content.”This goes to show the intercultural conflict that occurred and gave a wrong message, hence the company issued an apology after this event.ConclusionIn conclusion, it is knowledgeable to learn more about other cultures and traditions including your very own culture if you don’t know much about it, this helps with better communication amongst people of different races and people of the same race, it also helps us to be multi lingual and to be able to deal with people from other cultures easier, communication flows and work gets done, all this is rather better than dealing with people that don’t hear nor understand each other, although English is our most common language, there are still people who are not fluent in the language, hence we encourage people to learn more about different cultures globally especially the countries you consider visiting or take countries where you’re taking your business to. Nowadays nothing is preventing people from learning about other cultures, as information is easily accessible.
People need to know about cultural differences, and how other people from different cultures behave from certain activities or towards certain situation. Like “Alisha from Georgia” she managed to do research on how New York people behave in subways before she concluded that they are unfriendly and the reasons why they are not talking to anyone in subways.Learning about other cultural differences is a great thing because it helps you as an individual to be able to interact with people from different cultures and this will likely promote and maintain healthy relationship, most importantly for people with businesses worldwide as they might receive investors from different cultures.
So, it is important for them to also learn about other cultures to develop healthy working relationship with the investors from different cultural backgrounds.References:Chandler, Daniel. “Television and Gender Roles.” Aberystwyth.
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Elaborated and restricted codes: An outline. Sociological Inquiry, 36, 253–261.Find this resource:Chen, M.
K. (2013). The effect of language on economic behaviour: Evidence from savings rates, health behaviours, and retirement assets. American Economic Review, 103, 690–731.Find this resource:Ellis, D. G., ; Maoz, I. (2011).
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com/articles/how-technology-has-improved-communicationCommunication Between Cultures, Eighth Edition, Carolyn S. Roy, Edwin R. McDaniel, Larry A. Samovar, Richard E. Porterhttps://hbr.org/2016/06/3-situations-where-cross-cultural-communication-breaks-downhttps://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=658202https://medium.com/@chloeemeriau/the-importance-of-communication-in-a-transcultural-context-53dce8338311Transcultural Communication, Andreas Hepp, Wiley Blackwellnytimes.com/2017/10/08/business/dove-ad-racist.htmlheavy.com/news/2017/10/dove-racist-ad-2017-soap-racism-advertisement-advert-analysis glamour.com/story/dove-body-wash-adquizlet.com/36040208/communication-between-cultures-chapter-1-flash-cards