The benefits of Mainstreaming within traditional Schooling for special needs students as opposed to Homeschooling in America
Brescia House School Grade 12
The benefits of Mainstreaming within traditional Schooling for special needs students as opposed to Homeschooling in America
Brescia House School Grade 12
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc512327950 h 2Review of Literature PAGEREF _Toc512327951 h 3Source:A PAGEREF _Toc512327952 h 3Source:B PAGEREF _Toc512327953 h 6Source:C PAGEREF _Toc512327954 h 8Source:D PAGEREF _Toc512327955 h 10Source:E PAGEREF _Toc512327956 h 12Source:F PAGEREF _Toc512327957 h 14Source:G PAGEREF _Toc512327958 h 16Analysis of Findings PAGEREF _Toc512327959 h 18References PAGEREF _Toc512327960 h 21
IntroductionOutline: A special needs student is defined as a student with learning difficulties, emotional or behavioural problems or physical disabilitiesCITATION Ran171 l 7177 (Random House Dictionary, 2017). Homeschooling is the education of children at home CITATION Ame18 l 7177 (American Psychological Association, 2018) Mainstreaming is an education system that requires that a special needs student be given permission to be in a regular classroom for at least one class. During other times the special needs student is studying in a resource room where the student has access to more one-on-one time with special education teachers CITATION Mas18 l 7177 (Masters in Special Education Degree Program Guide, 2018). The research will be obtained by secondary research from website sources and various online articles, thereafter it will be summarised and analysed to answer the research question.
Research Question: My research task looks at the benefits of mainstreaming within traditional schooling for special needs students as opposed to homeschooling.
Research Hypothesis: I believe that all the information provided should be taken into consideration when choosing the best fit for a special needs student, but I also believe that mainstreaming will be a better option for special needs student.
Aim: The aim of this research task is to prove if a special needs student would be better off participating in mainstreaming within traditional schools in America or if they should do homeschooling.
Reason for chosen topic: I have chosen this topic because it is something that effects millions of students around the world. I am not a special needs student, but I have seen several special needs students who instead of participating in homeschooling, participate in mainstreaming. Of the few I have seen, they all benefitted greatly in mainstreaming and so I decided to do more research on the topic.
Review of Literature
Author: Spielgaben (Corporate Author)
Date: December 9 2015
A traditional school is defined as a conventional school. It is categorised by age and all the students are taught the same thing at the same time CITATION Spi15 l 7177 (Spielgaben, 2015).
There are many advantages of mainstreaming within traditional schools such as; traditional schools have a more defined structure of learning as opposed to other alternative schooling options. Important life skills are learnt and they are often bigger and therefore provide plenty of opportunities to teach students to socialise with their peer. They provide a real-world environment, which is beneficial to children in terms of their futures when entering the world of working. Traditional schools are more challenging and can enable students to reach their full potential. Traditional schools are built around the principle of inclusion CITATION Spi15 l 7177 (Spielgaben, 2015).
However, there are also disadvantages to consider for instance; all students are taught the same thing at the same time. If there is a student who struggles with something, there is not enough individual attention in order to overcome problems this could lead to students not being able to keep up with the rest of the class and can sometimes fail CITATION Spi15 l 7177 (Spielgaben, 2015).
Another option is homeschooling. This is a popular and ever-growing movement around the world, in which parents choose to educate their children at home, or at a homeschool centre, instead of sending them to a traditional public or private school. Families choose to home school for a variety of reasons, including dissatisfaction with the educational options available, different religious beliefs or educational philosophies, and the belief that children are not progressing within the traditional school structure CITATION Spi15 l 7177 (Spielgaben, 2015).
The advantages of homeschooling is that the learning is customised and a lot of individual attention is given to the student ensuring they actually understand the material. If the curriculum being used is not working there is always the option to change it as homeschooling is very flexible. Furthermore, there are no worries about bullying or school violence. Parents know that their kids are safe and sound and they know what is going on all the time, and don’t rely on feedback from teachers of the school. They can watch their kids daily and give them the time that they need CITATION Spi15 l 7177 (Spielgaben, 2015).
Nevertheless there are a number of disadvantages that include; Socialisation students do not spend their days with other kids, which also means they are not exposed to diversity and different cultures, which can give them a disadvantage in the real-world CITATION Spi15 l 7177 (Spielgaben, 2015).
Homeschooling also does not provide the opportunity for team sports, while at a traditional school most sports are included in the fees. If your child does not participate in team sports, they will never learn how to work as a team, which is a disadvantage when it comes to a career CITATION Spi15 l 7177 (Spielgaben, 2015).
Every child is unique and parents will need to make a decision based on their own circumstances. If you are considering homeschooling, you need to make sure that you have the time to dedicate to this important task and also consider the financial implications. If the traditional route is what you want, make sure that your child is ready for the mainstream schooling environment CITATION Spi15 l 7177 (Spielgaben, 2015).
The source is logical and relevant because it gives both the disadvantages and advantages of both sides.
It is not biased
It is written by a reliable education company, Spielgaben.
The research is not older than 10 years
The research was published by Spielgaben which is a reliable company and it deals specifically educational toys for homeschoolers as well as special needs students.
The advantage of this source is that it is well rounded and each part of the topic is discussed in detail making it easier for parents to understand the information.
It is useful as discusses both the advantages and disadvantages of each school system
It is an American company so all the information provided is based on students in America
The research does not use any scientific research done to prove all the advantages and disadvantages
The source is speaking of general students instead of special needs students
Source:BWebsite: Bright Hub Education
URL:https://www.brighthubeducation.com/special-ed-inclusion-strategies/87058-examining-the-pros-and-cons-of-mainstreaming/Author: Kathy Foust
Date: 12 October 2012
Mainstreaming is placing special education students into a regular education. Students with special needs are placed into a self-contained classroom or multi-classroom program in which they learn alongside peers. Placing students into either of these classroom environments could be the right decision for any specific student CITATION Kat12 l 7177 (Foust, 2012).
Mainstreaming has social and academic advantages and disadvantages. The main social advantage is that students get to receive their education with their non-disabled peers who are the same age as them. By doing so, students get to work together with their peers in ways that the special education classroom will not allow for. Many students with special needs often have an identified need to improve their social skills. By placing them into classes with a diverse group of students they can increase those skills. The main disadvantage is the fact that some students with special needs have behavioural issues that will need to be addressed in the classroom. These issues are not only disruptive to the rest of the class, but can also be embarrassing to the student, causing more damage to their self-esteem and social world CITATION Kat12 l 7177 (Foust, 2012).
Academics is also another big factor to be considered. The students are receiving the same curriculum material as their non-disabled peers. Although the curriculum is usually changed for the special needs students. It gives these students a chance to learn something that they may not have had a chance to learn in a special education classroom. However, while the students with special needs are able to use the same curriculum as students without special needs, they may not be able to keep up with the work. This can result in them feeling excluded CITATION Kat12 l 7177 (Foust, 2012).
Many more students with special needs are being placed into regular education classes because of a general belief that it is the best placement for them, based on their needs. This situation comes with a lot of work for the students, parents, and teachers involved in the process CITATION Kat12 l 7177 (Foust, 2012).
The decision needs to be carefully thought out, and if the student is mainstreamed, they need to be carefully monitored and also need to make sure that they have all they need to be successful in the regular education setting. The advantages and disadvantages need to continue to be weighed so that the plan works to the benefit of the student and does not cause a decrease in achieving the academic goals of either the individual or of the other students in the class CITATION Kat12 l 7177 (Foust, 2012).
It is able to support the argument that there are benefits to mainstreaming special needs students, providing the benefits and detriments of mainstreaming.
The source consists of information specifically about the benefits and drawbacks of mainstreaming special needs students
The website is Brighthub Education so it deals with specifically educational topics
The outcome will be accepted by the general public as it is simple and understandable
The website is focused on education
Brighthub is a widely known website internationally and nationally which means that the users trust the information that they provide and it is accurate.
The webpage was made in the year 2012 so it’s not older than 10 years
The webpage contains information, which relates to mainstreaming with is an important component of my topic
The webpage discusses both the disadvantages and the advantages of mainstreaming
There is no information on the author so there is no way to tell if she is qualified
It is not older than 10 years, but it is older than 5 years so the information could have changed from then to now
It only focuses on one point in my research topic
There is no information on the author Ms Kathy Foust so there is no way to know if she is qualified to write this article.
There is no way to know if this article is based on special needs students in America
Website: Special-Ed Resource
URL: https://specialedresource.com/traditional-school-vs-homeschoolingAuthor: Suzie Dalien
Date: 13 March 2015
When discussing options for special needs students homeschooling and traditional schooling is usually brought up. Both have their advantages and disadvantages and both methods of schooling are worth discussing CITATION Suz15 l 7177 (Dalien, 2015).
Traditional schools prepares children for the real world by having them interact with diverse people. In a classroom, children must learn to work in groups of their peers and to negotiate the world around them without constant supervision or intervention from their parents. In this, environment children learn the necessary social skills. Traditional school offer children more enrichment activities as well as services for students with special needs. Children in traditional schools have more access to sports, particularly team sports. Sending a child to a traditional school benefits their entire family financially as both parents are able to work full time. Having two incomes enables the family to provide opportunities that a homeschooled child might never have CITATION Suz15 l 7177 (Dalien, 2015).
Homeschooling, on the other hand, allows parents to provide their children with an exceptional education enriched by real-world experiences with people of all ages and backgrounds through involvement with clubs. Homeschooling enables families to explore a variety of activities. Often, the flexibility of homeschooling allows children who are particularly gifted in one area extra time to maximize that gift. Many homeschooling parents homeschool their children and run thriving online businesses CITATION Suz15 l 7177 (Dalien, 2015).
The problem with traditional school is that once a child is enrolled in a traditional school, the entire family’s schedule is dedicated to that school’s schedule. Sick days are limited and travel during the normal school schedule is frowned upon. Children with special needs could fall below the standards of the school. Placing your child into a traditional school environment can be expensive and you could be asked to buy uniforms, donate to the PTA, contribute to the teacher gift fund and school parties and to have your children participate in school fundraisers CITATION Suz15 l 7177 (Dalien, 2015).
Nevertheless in homeschooling, your children are always home especially when they are young. Homeschooling is time-consuming. If your child has special needs, you will spend that much more time finding the best methods and resources for helping your child reach their full potential CITATION Suz15 l 7177 (Dalien, 2015).
If you are interested in homeschooling there are thousands of available Homeschool Resources to help with your journey. Whether you make the decision to homeschool, or prefer your child remains in the traditional school setting, it is important to know there are resources available that can help increase grades and decrease behaviours. Special Education Tutoring has increased in popularity over the past 10 years. Many parents are turning to this alternative source of supplemental learning to help give their child with special needs an academic edge CITATION Suz15 l 7177 (Dalien, 2015).
It provides information that develops the argument as it discusses homeschooling and mainstreaming within traditional schools, contrasting and comparing the advantages and disadvantages of both.
The research is able to answer all the components of my topic
The research done in this source is done by a website that focuses on special education resources
However, the website is not very well-known
The source is only 3 years old, so the information is not outdated
The author has a master’s in education so they would have more accurate information
It discusses both the advantages and disadvantages for both education styles
It gives both sides to the argument
The webpage gives useful information about the topic
It is specifically for special educational needs students
The source targets no specific area so there is no way to know if it is truly based in America
Source:DBlog: Concordia University-Portland
URL: https://education.cu-portland.edu/blog/classroom-resources/mainstreaming-special-education-in-the-classroom/Author: Room 241 Team
Date: 12 October 2012
Every child has the ability to learn, but the way children learn and how much knowledge they can absorb can vary considerably — especially for a child with special needs. Many people suggest mainstreaming special needs children into regular classrooms rather than assigning them exclusively to special education classes as this creates the best possible learning environment CITATION Roo12 l 7177 (Room 241 Team, 2012).
Figuring out the best education for a child is never easy because what is best for one child may not be best for another. With mainstreaming, special education students are allowed in a regular classroom for at least one class to see if they are ready for the challenge rather than having special education only classrooms. It focuses on the benefits of being in a regular class CITATION Roo12 l 7177 (Room 241 Team, 2012).
Supporters of mainstreaming point to the possible benefits of bringing a special-needs child into the regular classroom. Children who are mainstreamed will spend time in a resource room where they can receive more attention from teachers so that they are still keeping up with the work. By using both the regular classroom and individualized time in special education classes. Several studies have suggested that overall, including disabled children in mainstream classrooms improves academic achievement, self-esteem and social skills CITATION Roo12 l 7177 (Room 241 Team, 2012).
However, when looking critically at mainstreaming of special education students, one of the first problems that comes up is budget. A 2005 study conducted by the Special Education Expenditures Program (SEEP) showed that the price of educating a special-needs student is between $10,558 and $20,000. Educating without special education services costs $6,556, by comparison. Another issue is that a special-needs child can easily get lost in a regular classroom. In some cases, they may be disruptive and may compromise the learning environment of other students. Mainstreaming may not be right for every child, so it is important that an Individual Education Plan be developed for each special-needs child to help them find the balance between regular classroom exposure and getting the attention each requires. Deaf children face a special challenge because the significant communication barriers between them and their mainstream classmates can cause feelings of lower self-esteem and isolation among the hearing impaired CITATION Roo12 l 7177 (Room 241 Team, 2012).
When addressing the needs of a special needs student, it is important to remember the needs of the rest of the class. Including special-needs children in a regular classroom can be disruptive and make learning more difficult for the other children in the class. However, children without special needs can benefit from interacting with children who struggle in some ways. This exposure encourages children to help one another and develop empathy for other human beings, whether they suffer from disabilities or not. Mainstreaming special education may be the way to assure we are as prepared as we possibly can be for all of the challenges that lay ahead CITATION Roo12 l 7177 (Room 241 Team, 2012).
The source is relevant to my topic as it deals with mainstreaming
This will be accepted by the general public
The source is taken from Concordia University Portland
The source is younger than 10 years
The source a university blog so it is checked for accurate facts before publishing the information
The source discusses mainstreaming in detail and it states that mainstreaming is a way to ensure that the special needs students are prepared for when they grow up which links with my hypothesis that mainstreaming will be a better choice for special needs students.
The source only focuses on mainstreaming, so it is not contrasted by homeschooling
The source is made in 2012 so it is older than 5 years which means that any new information would be excluded from it.`
Source:EBlog: Homeschooling A Struggling Learner
URL: https://www.hslda.org/strugglinglearner/sn_Klicka.aspAuthor: Christopher J. Klicka
Date: October 2009
Teaching a special needs child is a privilege, but it is also hard. It requires sacrifice, patience and unconditional love from the parents. One should also take into account what the special needs child experiences. Living with a handicap such as blindness, cerebral palsy, a speech impediment, autism, retardation, a disease, or one of many types of learning disabilities is difficult. It is a daily struggle for both the child and the parent emotionally, mentally, and many times physically. The child’s self-esteem is constantly put to the test. Some learning disabilities can be overcome with consistent and focused effort whilst other learning disabilities can only be managed and may never go away. A special needs child needs extra support and reassurance. Home schooling your special needs child makes that intense, loving support possible. Homeschooling children with special needs is the most effective way to teach them successfully and is the ideal environment in which they will learn and thrive CITATION Chr09 l 7177 (J.Klicka, 2009).
Parents excel in teaching their special needs children. Studies show that parents are providing a higher form of education for their special needs children by teaching them at home. Contrary to claims, parents do not have to be certified to teach their children at home. In fact, in one of the most thorough studies performed on the subject, Dr. Steven Duvall did a yearlong study involving eight elementary and two junior high students with learning disabilities. He compared one group of five students that received instruction at home with a group of five students who attended public schools. He was careful to match the traditional school students to the homeschool students according to grade level, sex, IQ, and area of disability. His results show that the homeschooled, special needs students were academically engaged about two-and-one-half times as often as public school special needs students. Dr. Duvall summarized, “These results clearly indicate that parents, even though they are not certified teachers, can create instructional environments at home that assist students with learning disabilities to improve their academic skills. This study clearly shows that home schooling is beneficial for special needs students.” CITATION Chr09 l 7177 (J.Klicka, 2009).
The home is the ideal environment for special needs children. Homeschooling gives the parents an opportunity to teach what really matters. A learning disabled child is constantly aware of his weakness and inability and this can often regularly lead to feelings of worthlessness and inadequacy. In homeschooling, parents can spend much time teaching their special needs child that they were created in the image of God. They have worth and value because God loves them CITATION Chr09 l 7177 (J.Klicka, 2009).
Homeschooling special needs children takes a large amount of effort from the parents. HSLDA receives regular reports of the consistent success that these parents are achieving, oftentimes far beyond the progress the special needs child made in a traditional school. One of the major reasons for success seems to be the fact that parents know their children best and, therefore, can best meet the needs of their learning-disabled child CITATION Chr09 l 7177 (J.Klicka, 2009).
The information is relevant to my source
It brings God into the discussion which is an aspect that has not been discussed yet
It is understandable for the general public
The website focuses purely on homeschooling
It is written by a man who’s children need special education so he actually knows if the homeschooling works
It is only 9 years old
It contains information that is useful to my topic
It can help me develop my conclusion
It includes the aspect of faith and a belief system
It only deals with homeschooling whereas my topic deals with homeschooling and mainstreaming
It is quite old so there could be more information from then to now.
It is also very opinionated and not objective so it might not be very accurate
Source:FJournal: The Future of Children SPECIAL EDUCATION FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES Vol. 6 • No. 1 – Spring 1996
URL: https://www.princeton.edu/futureofchildren/publications/docs/06_01_04.pdfAuthor: Anne M. Hocutt
This journal discusses the effectiveness of special education. It compares special education, where there is just a class full of special needs students, to mainstreaming and it includes research that shows that various intervention models can have a positive impact in improving academic outcomes for students with disabilities, improving relationships between students with and without disabilities, or reducing referrals for special education. Yet, when relationships between students with and without disabilities are the focus, the research suggests that acceptance rather is the more likely outcome rather than friendship. The intervention and descriptive research indicates that other supports might be required in mainstreaming within traditional schools. There are researchers who argue that, given the effort required by this school system, teachers should volunteer for this work, not be forced to participate. On the other hand, this could affect the number of students with disabilities who would be in each volunteer teacher’s classroom CITATION Ann96 l 7177 (Hocutt, 1996)VALIDITY
The information can be used and discussed further
It looks at mainstreaming compared to special needs classes where the class is just full of special needs students.
It will be accepted by the general public
Anne M. Hocutt, Ph.D., is a research associate professor at the School of Education, Department of Educational and Psychological Studies at the University of Miami so it is credible
It is 22 years old so it is outdated and is less reliable because a lot has changed from 1966 to 2018
The journal uses research and scientific studies this gives a more accurate perception of mainstreaming within traditional schools.
It deals with mainstreaming compared to special education classes where as my topic compares mainstreaming to homeschooling
It is 22 years old so all the information is outdated
Source:GBook: Homeschooling: An alternative to mainstream: Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Management and Technology in Knowledge, Service, Tourism & Hospitality 2015 (SERVE 2015), Bandung, Indonesia
URL:http://repository.um.edu.my/100718/1/Homeschooling-An%20alternative%20to%20mainstream%20Edited.pdfAuthor: Lee Ching Yin & Abd. Razak Zakaria, Hazleena Baharun
Date: 1 August 2015
This chapter of the book reviews a number of homeschooling studies from Indonesia and overseas linked with the history and development of homeschooling. Then they document the findings of reasons that lead to homeschooling and the possible outcomes to give a guideline and reflection to parents who intend to homeschool their children. It also discusses concerns, challenges and critics towards homeschooling. In the conclusion it states how homeschooling is completely supervised by parents, but there is also an option to mainstream that has risen during the past half century internationally, however they believe homeschooling is better. The book draws on the fact that homeschooling has become a major alternative to mainstream education CITATION Lee16 l 7177 (Lee Ching Yin, 2016).
The information is relevant to my source
It was written by professionals
All the information comes from a conference
It is understandable for the general public
The conference focuses purely on homeschooling
It is written for a conference
It is only 3 years old
Informs me about how it is in Indonesia and international studies.
It also talks about what can be improved in homeschooling so that it is more accepted.
It is mostly based on information done in Indonesia whereas I focus specifically in America.
It compares homeschooling to mainstreaming and it makes homeschooling seem better, but it does not include the benefits of mainstreaming so it is more one sided.
Analysis of FindingsSpecial needs students have special requirements because of their learning difficulties, emotional, behavioural or physical disabilities CITATION Ran171 l 7177 (Random House Dictionary, 2017) because of these disabilities their parents usually try to find a better education option for their special needs child. There are two education systems that are of importance to look into when considering an education system that would be better for a special needs student, mainstreaming and homeschool. Mainstreaming is an education system that requires that a special needs student be given permission to be in a regular classroom for at least one class. During other times the special needs student is studying in a resource room where the student has access to more one-on-one time with special education teachers CITATION Mas18 l 7177 (Masters in Special Education Degree Program Guide, 2018). Homeschooling is an advancing association around the United States and the world, in which parents choose to educate their children at home instead of sending them to a traditional public or private school CITATION Jam12 l 7177 (Martin, 2012). To better, enable a parent ,with a special needs child, to make a decision between which education system would be better for their child they need to know the advantages and disadvantages of both and decide for themselves based on the information whichever is better.
In 2014–15, the number of children and youth were enrolled under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA was 6.6 million. In school year 2014–15, a higher percentage of children and youth ages 3–21 received special education services for specific learning disabilities than for any other type of disability. A specific learning disability is a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. In 2014–15, some 35 percent of all children and youth receiving special education services had specific learning disabilities, 20 percent had speech or language impairments, and 13 percent had other health impairments CITATION NCE17 l 7177 (NCES, 2017).
In 1982, mainstreaming was tried for the first time where special needs students and regular students were taught in the same class. It was seen as a moral imperative as well as a human rights effort for the special needs students. At first, it had its various problems because there was no actual plan or preparation it was more of a campaign. This would lead to problems where the needs of an individual child were ignored so one deaf child might do very well in a regular classroom while a different child with the same degree of disability might need a customized mix of standard education, special education and one-on-one instruction. However, as mainstreaming education has become a growing interest it has also improved and so many special needs students flourish in this system. With mainstreaming, special education students are allowed in a regular classroom for at least one class to see if they are ready for the challenge rather than having special education only classrooms. It focuses on the benefits of being in a regular class CITATION Roo12 l 7177 (Room 241 Team, 2012).
As mentioned by Kathy Foust CITATION Kat12 l 7177 (Foust, 2012)students are given the chance to receive their education with regular class students who are the same age as them. By doing so, students get to interact with their peers in ways that the special education classroom would not allow for. Many students with special needs often have an identified need to improve their social skills. Placing them into classes with a diverse group of students can certainly help increase those skills. It also helps self-esteem as well, because the students know that they are in normal education classes with their peers. No matter how hard we work to break down walls and build acceptance, the social stigma of being different still exists. By sharing a classroom with students who offer different abilities, it helps the special needs students as well as the regular students as well, by teaching them how to work with others who are different from them. It teaches all students compassion, acceptance, collaboration and patience, life-long skills that will better prepare them for the future. Another advantage of mainstreaming is that the students are receiving the same curriculum material as their normal peers. Although they may receive adjustments and alterations to the curriculum, they are still learning what everyone else is learning. It gives these students a chance to learn something that they may not have had a chance to learn in a special education classroom. Mainstreaming special needs students with the rest of the population exposes all students to all types of people, whether they have disorders or not. As the other students learn tolerance, the students with special needs will learn what behaviours are acceptable and which ones are not CITATION Kat12 l 7177 (Foust, 2012).
However, there are also disadvantages to mainstreaming because as mentioned by the Room 241 Team CITATION Roo12 l 7177 (Room 241 Team, 2012), when addressing the needs of a special needs student, it is important to remember the needs of the rest of the class. Including special needs students in a regular classroom can be disruptive and make learning more difficult for the other children in the class. Mainstreaming is not always right for every child, which is why it is important that an Individual Education Plan be developed for each special needs student to help them find the balance between regular classroom exposure and getting the attention each requires. Based on the Brighthub Education source by Kathy Foust CITATION Kat12 l 7177 (Foust, 2012), the main disadvantages are that some students with behavioural issues will need to be addressed in the classroom. These issues can be embarrassing to the student which would cause damage to their self-esteem and social life than would happen if the student was not mainstreamed. In addition, while the students with special needs are able to use the same curriculum as the regular students they may not be able to keep up with the work. The teacher will have to make an extra effort to ensure that everyone understands the work. This can influence the pace of the classroom as a whole CITATION Kat12 l 7177 (Foust, 2012).
The modern homeschool movement began in the 1970s when John Holt (Ref), an educational theorist and supporter of school reform, began arguing that formal schools’ focus on rote learning created an oppressive classroom environment designed to make children compliant employees. Soon after, Holt’s arguments inspired the first homeschoolers, Holt’s friend educational theorist Raymond Moore added his voice, arguing that early schooling was detrimental to children and that children should be schooled at home until age eight or nine in order to give them a firm educational, psychological, and moral foundation CITATION Coa17 l 7177 (Coalition for Responsible Home Education, 2017). In 2012, there were an estimated 1.8 million homeschooled students in the United States with 61% of them being children with special needs, physical or mental health problems CITATION USD18 l 7177 (U.S. Department of Education, 2018). Homeschooling is a popular and ever-growing movement around the world, in which parents choose to educate their children at home, or at a homeschool centre. Based on information provided by Spielgaben, a company that makes educational toys, the apparent advantages of homeschooling, is that the learning is personalized and a lot of individual attention is given to the student, homeschooling is very flexible and there are no worries about bullying or school violence CITATION Spi15 l 7177 (Spielgaben, 2015). Suzie Dalien CITATION Suz15 l 7177 (Dalien, 2015), who has a master in education, states, “homeschooling allows parents to provide their children with an exceptional education enriched by real-world experiences with people of all ages and backgrounds through involvement with clubs like 4H, scouting, church groups, and a variety of community volunteer opportunities.” Often, the flexibility of homeschooling allows children who are particularly gifted in one area extra time to maximize that gift CITATION Suz15 l 7177 (Dalien, 2015). She wrote this article for the Special Education Homeschool Resources, which is an academic guide for parents with special needs children.
References BIBLIOGRAPHY American Psychological Association, 2018. Dictionary.com. Online Available at: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/homeschooling?s=tAccessed 28 January 2018.
Dalien, S., 2015. Traditional School Vs Homeschooling. Online Available at: https://specialedresource.com/traditional-school-vs-homeschoolingAccessed 29 December 2017.
Foust, K., 2012. Examining the Pros and Cons of Mainstreaming. Online Available at: http://www.brighthubeducation.com/special-ed-inclusion-strategies/87058-examining-the-pros-and-cons-of-mainstreaming/Accessed 27 December 2017.
Hocutt, A. M., 1996. Special Education For Students With Disabilities. The Future of Children , 6(1), p. 102.
J.Klicka, C., 2009. Homeschooling A Struggling Learner. Online Available at: https://www.hslda.org/strugglinglearner/sn_Klicka.aspAccessed 13 December 2017.
Lee Ching Yin, A. R. Z. H. B., 2016. Homeschooling: An alternative to mainstream. In: F. H. Z. B. H. Ford Lumban Gaol, ed. Knowledge, Service, Tourism ; Hospitality: Proceedings of the Annual International Conference on Management and Technology in Knowledge, Service, Tourism … 2015), Bandung, Indonesia, 1-2 August 2015. Bandung: CRC Press LLC, 2016, pp. 65-71.
Masters in Special Education Degree Program Guide, 2018. Masters in Special Education Degree Program Guide. Online Available at: https://www.masters-in-special-education.com/faq/what-does-mainstreaming-mean/Accessed 2 January 2018.
Random House Dictionary, 2017. Dictionary.com. Online Available at: www.dictionary.com/browse/special-needsAccessed 29 December 2017.
Room 241 Team, 2012. Mainstreaming Special Education in the Classroom. Online Available at: https://education.cu-portland.edu/blog/classroom-resources/mainstreaming-special-education-in-the-classroom/Accessed 29 December 2017.
Spielgaben, 2015. Pros and Cons of Mainstream Schools, Homeschooling and Unschooling and which one should I Choose for my Child. Online Available at: https://spielgaben.com/pros-and-cons-of-mainstream-schools-homeschooling-and-unschooling-and-which-one-should-i-choose-for-my-child/Accessed 29 December 2017.