centertopBN2105 Management and project planning: Assignment 2
Jack Belshaw – 20656691
Submission Date –
Word Count –
76500BN2105 Management and project planning: Assignment 2
Jack Belshaw – 20656691
Submission Date –
Word Count –
778454topUniversity of Central Lancashire: School of Engineering
00University of Central Lancashire: School of Engineering
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1.0Introduction PAGEREF _Toc510273312 h 31.1 Design and Build Approach PAGEREF _Toc510273313 h 31.2 Leadership and Teamwork PAGEREF _Toc510273314 h 32.0Health and Safety Management PAGEREF _Toc510273315 h 42.1 Construction Design Management PAGEREF _Toc510273316 h 42.1.1 The Pre Tender Health and Safety Plan PAGEREF _Toc510273317 h 42.1.2 The Construction Phase Health and Safety Plan PAGEREF _Toc510273318 h 52.2 Risk Management PAGEREF _Toc510273319 h 62.2.1 Risk Registers PAGEREF _Toc510273320 h 73.0Environmental Management PAGEREF _Toc510273321 h 84.0Sustainability PAGEREF _Toc510273322 h 84.1 BREEAM PAGEREF _Toc510273323 h 94.2 Minimizing Waste PAGEREF _Toc510273324 h 94.3 Correct Plant PAGEREF _Toc510273325 h 104.4 Full and Part Loads PAGEREF _Toc510273326 h 104.5 Nature Protection PAGEREF _Toc510273327 h 104.6 Considerate Contractors PAGEREF _Toc510273328 h 104.7 Economic Issues PAGEREF _Toc510273329 h 114.8 Institutional Issues PAGEREF _Toc510273330 h 11Waste Management PAGEREF _Toc510273331 h 11Site Waste Management Plan (SWMP) PAGEREF _Toc510273332 h 1110.0 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc510273333 h 12Bibliography PAGEREF _Toc510273334 h 12
This report will analyse and appraise a variety of management systems that will help improve health and safety standards and minimise environmental impacts within all stages of a construction project. A deliberation of multiple health and safety plans will be discussed whilst undertaking an in-depth appraisal into how sustainability is managed within construction. Various industry standards and codes of practice will be referred to throughout adding further substance to the proposed management plans put in place.
1.1 Design and Build ApproachPhase two of the proposed development comprises construction of a new five storey university teaching block procured using a design and build approach. The proposed contract document to be used will be the Joint Contract Tribunal (JCT) Design and Build Contract 2016. According to CITATION Mar16 l 2057 (Statham, 2016) this approach obliges the Contractor to design and complete the works in accordance with the details specified in the Employer’s Requirements and the Contractor’s Proposals.
1.2 Leadership and Teamwork”A process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal” – CITATION Pet12 l 2057 (Northouse, 2012)It is the necessary role of a leader to motivate, organise and allocate tasks within a group towards its achievement. (Yukl, 2006) indicates that “leadership has been described as a process of influence and such inspiration can come from both internal and external stakeholders of the establishment.”
The development will be constructed in accordance with various industry standards. (British Standards Institution, BS6079-1:2010) states “Projects should, by their nature, be directed towards achieving a definite result. Individuals at all management levels should be able to stimulate action, progress and change through their personal behaviours”.
Health and Safety Management
“Effective health and safety provision concentrates on ensuring that the project site, its environs and the works themselves are carefully planned, organised, monitored and controlled.” – CITATION Ala04 l 2057 (Watson, 2004)Effectual health and safety management is created upon the establishment of a safe working environment including safe practices of work. Safeguarding the risk of danger and hazards to a person are carefully considered when discussing potential site activities. As a principle contractor we have implemented a formal health and safety management system comprising site specific health and safety plans to combat such issues.
Health, safety and welfare legislation has a substantial impact on the development and execution of a Health and Safety Management System. Acts of parliament and regulations necessitate that specific needs are met. The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 impose that employers implement clear health and safety procedures. The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 necessitate that risk assessments are undertaken. The Construction Design and Management Regulations 2015 mandate pre-tender and construction phase health and safety preparation CITATION Ala04 l 2057 (Watson, 2004).
2.1 Construction Design Management
2.1.1 The Pre-Tender Health and Safety Plan
The Construction Design Management Regulations propound that the management of H&S on any development begins with planning, design and specification. Designers and Clients, therefore, make a significant contribution to the classification of risks and determining construction hazards by formulating a clear and extensive health and safety plan early in proceedings. The accumulated data is crucial to project assessment and expansion. The pre-tender H&S plan should comprise information that permits potential main contractors who tender for the project to plan and price for safety methods in their bid. Information will be issue by the client, planning supervisor and designer. The document information packs are project specific and therefore will differ from one project to the next. The information within each shall consist of:
Type of the project
Present environment state
Intersect with clients activities
Site safety guidelines
Continuing co-operation and liaison
This information is important to the probable main contractor who must contemplate, include and resource for any noteworthy risks inside the pretender health and safety proposal. CITATION Ala04 l 2057 (Watson, 2004)2.1.2 The Construction Phase Health and Safety Plan
The main contractor has responsibility for producing the construction-phase health and safety plan (CPHSP). The information encompassed within the pre-tender health and safety plan outlines the basis of development for the CPHSP. Ensuring the H&S plan is developed subject to any unresolved information from the supervisor is the responsibility of the Client. Subcontractors can contribute to the CPHSP by providing their knowledge regarding; recognised hazards from their involvement, a valuation of hazards identified and the probable measure of alleviating the risks.
Distinctive content and presentation of the CHPSP may comprise the following:
Health and Safety methods and procedures
Management hierarchy and Organisational systems
Reporting and Assessments
The Site Itself
Input to Clients H&S File
Monitoring and Controlling H&S Performance
CITATION Ala04 l 2057 (Watson, 2004)2.2 Risk ManagementRisk Management – “Coordinated activities to direct and control an organisation with regard to risk” – CITATION Bri18 l 2057 (Institution, Risk Management – Guidelines: BS ISO 31000:2018, 2018)The obligation for developing safe processes of work falls with the main contractor. Risk assessment is an essential aspect of establishing safe processes of work and is a vital element in the main contractors H&S Management Plan. The purpose of the risk assessment is to present management with specific details of potential risks and hazards; and to indicate when safe processes of work are required to control them. Comprehensive guidelines to risk assessment for safety management is provided in the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999. Risk assessment for the works on site include any construction operation that requires a consideration for; the recognition of potential hazards, the assessment of the degree of risk and the deliberation of preclusion and protection measures. CITATION Ala04 l 2057 (Watson, 2004)ALARP” is an acronym for “as low as reasonably practicable”. This includes evaluating risk against the issues, time and money required to control it. ALARP outlines the level to which we assume to see risks are controlled within a workplace. It is a vital part of the general obligations of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 and several sets of health and safety regulations that we and Local Authorities administer. CITATION Hea18 l 2057 (Executive, 2018)2.2.1 Risk Registers
As part of the risk analysis assessment, a list of recognised hazards may be produced and extended to comprise significant information relating to each risk. This catalogue of records may be used as a management device and will normally contain key specifics of each acknowledged risk with possible reference to the following:
Number Risk Evaluation Response
Probability Importance 1 Access to site Low Low Considered Low Risk. No Action.
2 Lecture theatres too small Low/Medium High Client Research; confirmation of additional seats required / provided following incorporation of VM proposals. Client to request details of cost implications from contractor.
3 Risks from noise Medium Medium Client / Contractor Review. Works to be undertaken at suitable hours. No weekend works and no night time working.
4 Advice re incoming services Very Low High Client to eliminate by order of substation. Survey has reduced risks of problems associated with existing services
5 Funding availability Very Low Very High Client review and monitor requirements of funding council and eliminate by compliance.
The risk register acts as a controlling document that helps assist as a means of monitoring the management of risks during a venture. For example, a recognised risk in a refurbishment development may be the need to eliminate dry rot, which at the period of project design is not apparent. Since, based on previous involvement, the likelihood of its manifestation in the building is deemed high, and the potential influence high, as a provision, a contingency budget is created for timber treatment throughout the structure. In addition, risk registers may be used as a reference device for future project appraisal, with many of the comprised risks being comparatively common in incidence and very comparable in content in most project circumstances. CITATION All07 l 2057 (Hogg, 2007)Environmental ManagementEnvironmental Management System – “Part of the management system used to manage environmental aspects, fulfil compliance obligations and address risks and opportunities” – CITATION Bri15 l 2057 (Institution, Environmental Management Systems: BS EN ISO 14001:2015, 2015)As the main contractor we must create our own Environmental Management System (EMS), but it is for the project manager to ensure that it is being managed properly and is progressing sufficiently to achieve all EMS objectives. Therefore, the project manager should: receive details of the contractors EMS and the environmental plan specific to the project.
3.1 Plan-Do-Check-Act Model
The basis for the approach underlying an environmental management system is founded on the concept of Plan-Do-Check-Act (PCDA). The PDCA model provides an iterative process used by organisations to achieve continual improvement. It can be applied to an environmental management system and to each of its individual elements.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1 PDCA Model www.cleanenergyministerial.org/Our-Work/Initiatives/Energy-Management/Energy-Management-ISO-50001
Plan – Establish environmental objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the organisations environmental policy
Do – Implement the processes as planned
Check – Monitor and measure processes against the environmental policy
Act – Take actions to continually improve
Sustainability – “development that meets the environmental, social and economic needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” – CITATION Bri17 l 2057 (Institution, Building and Civil Engineering Works – Vocabulary: BS ISO 6707-3:2017, 2017)The project brief shall propose sustainability objectives and targets, in particular carbon and water targets in response to drivers for sustainability. Determine whether assessment methodologies are required and ensure the project contributes towards all relevant targets.
Construction Sustainability Strategies
All relevant tender packages should be reviewed against the sustainability requirements for the project
Recommend that subcontractor and supplier selection takes account of environmental credentials
Recommend a periodic review of sustainability against objectives and targets
Observe construction site practices and comment on practices that could have significant impact on the environment
CITATION The14 l 2057 (Building, 2014)To achieve sustainable development objectives and measure progress in a way which enhances transparency, the organisation should identify those indicators that are key to meeting these objectives and establish the chosen Key Performance Indicators across relevant parts and functions of the organisation. CITATION Bri13 l 2057 (Institution, Managing Sustainable Development of Organisations: BS8900-1:2013, 2013)4.1 BREEAMThe Building Research Establishment Assessment Method (BREEAM) is the leading and most widely used environmental assessment method for buildings. It sets the standard for best practice is sustainable design and grades performance as pass, good, very good, excellent and outstanding. The assessment of the environmental impacts is carried out at; Design stage and Post construction stage, which ultimately leads to a final BREEAM certificate.
It is measured against Management, Health and Well Being, Energy, Transport, Water, Material, Waste, Land Use and Ecology, Pollution and Innovation. CITATION The14 l 2057 (Building, 2014)4.2 Minimizing WasteThe main consideration is the reduction of waste in manufacturing and construction processes. Whilst the designer often specifies the material, it is the contractor that procures it unless a supplier has been nominated by the employer. Contractors should aim to minimise solid waste well below current standards and as far as practicable dispose of waste by recycling the inorganic and composting organic substance. (Doesn’t need re wording)
4.3 Correct PlantThe selection of appropriate plant for the project can help improve energy efficiency. For example, using a greater capacity vehicle than required will consume more fuel. (Doesn’t need re wording)
4.4 Full and Part LoadsConsultation with suppliers regarding delivery of materials to site should consider using full load deliveries as opposed to part loads. Due to quantities needed this is not always possible and issues of storage on site may occur. A solution to this problem may be that the supplier delivers a part load to another customer in the area and a conciliation between all parties even though this may conflict with just-in-time deliveries. (Doesn’t need re wording)
4.5 Nature ProtectionDamage to flora and fauna during construction can be avoided by minimizing the area for temp works and accommodation; minimizing excavation and earth movement and destruction of landscape and natural habitats on completion; arranging temp support for flora and fauna during the construction process and reintroduction of reinstated habitat after construction.
4.6 Considerate ContractorsThe local community is important. Considerate Contractors believe the establishment of good relations with the local community is essential, such as advising on timing and duration of potential inconveniences, the phasing of operations to minimize disruptions, having an effective communication system such as a free newsletter delivered to residents, schools and businesses. A single point rapid response procedure for handling complaints means action can be taken promptly. Other issues include the control of dust and fumes and elimination of burning of mats on site; the regular cleaning of streets and pathways; consideration of the impact on the elderly and disabled caused by temporary walkways, scaffolding, and the disruption to public transport due to bus stops being moved. The provision of illumination around the site assists in making it safer for the public at night as improving security.
4.7 Economic IssuesUnnecessary costs are incurred using landfill sites, paying pollution penalties arising from poor practice and environmental management, eg escape of fuel, and inadequate protection of tree, landscape and other buildings. Impacts from transport can be reduced by providing incentives for car-sharing, use of public transport and cycling. Management can use their position to persuade their suppliers and subcontractors to do the same with their employees. On large projects, rail and water transport may be competitive for bulk materials as well as having less impact on the environment.
4.8 Institutional Issues
The contractor must have environmental process and procedures in place, e.g. ISO14001 with clear sustainable objectives for all those involved in the project. This responsibility should embrace the social and economic development objectives as well as environmental resource minimization and efficiency objectives in terms of energy, materials and water management.
ALL ABOVE SECTIONS NEEDS TO BE REWORDED CITATION Chr17 l 2057 (March, 2017)CHRIS MARCH PG 463
5.0 Waste Management
Companies approach on-site waste management differently. This can vary depending upon a company’s financial status, philosophy and time available. To help display the contractors approach to waste management some of the key techniques involved in removing waste include; delivering waste storage facilities upon commencement of work, located appropriately and well managed to gain maximum output. Toolbox talks undertaken to increase the knowledge of benefits of waste minimisation on site. Ordering materials to specification resulting in reduction of offcuts and wastage whilst compaction systems can help reduce void spaces in skips by up to 40%. (Doesn’t need re wording) CITATION And14 l 2057 (Bordoli, 2014)5.1 Site Waste Management Plan (SWMP)In April 2008, Site Waste Management Plans (SWMP’s) became a legal requirement for all construction and demolition projects in England, for projects valued over £300,000. A SWMP provides a framework for managing the disposal of waste throughout the life of a construction project. In essence, it should contain the following:
Ownership of the document
Information about who will be removing the waste
The types of waste to be removed
Details of the site(s) where the waste is being taken
A post completion statement confirming that the SWMP was monitored and updated on a regular basis
Generally, the SWMP will be instigated by the client at the pre-construction stage, where the designers will also have to provide the required information. At the construction stage the document becomes the responsibility of the principal contractor. CITATION The14 l 2057 (Building, 2014)6.0 Conclusion
7.0 Bibliography BIBLIOGRAPHY Bordoli, A. B. (2014). A Handbook for Construction Planning and Scheduling. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.
Building, T. C. (2014). Code of Practice for Project Management for Construction and Development: Fifth Edition. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.
Dictionary, O. E. (2018). English Oxford Living Dictionaries. Retrieved from Oxford Dictionaries: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/leadership
Executive, H. a. (2018). ALARP ‘at a glance’ . Retrieved from Health and Safety Executive : http://www.hse.gov.uk/risk/theory/alarpglance.htm
Hogg, A. A. (2007). Willis’s Practice and Procedure for the Quantity Surveyor: Twelfth Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Institution, B. S. (2010). Project Management: Principles and Guidelines for the Management of Projects BS6079-1:2010. London: BSI Standards Publication.
Institution, B. S. (2013). Managing Sustainable Development of Organisations: BS8900-1:2013. London: British Standards Institution.
Institution, B. S. (2015). Environmental Management Systems: BS EN ISO 14001:2015. London: British Standards Institution.
Institution, B. S. (2017). Building and Civil Engineering Works – Vocabulary: BS ISO 6707-3:2017. London: British Standards Institution.
Institution, B. S. (2018). Risk Management – Guidelines: BS ISO 31000:2018. London: BSI.
March, C. (2017). Construction Management: Theory and Practice. Oxon: Routledge.
Northouse, P. G. (2012). Leadership, Theory and Practice: Sixth Edition. SAGE: London.
Statham, M. H. (2016). Procurement, Tendering and Contract Administration: Second Edition. Chichester: John Wiley ; Sons Ltd.
Watson, A. G. (2004). Construction Management: . Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Yukl, G. A. (2006). Leadership in Organisations. London: Pearson.