CHAPTER (Kilaparthi, 2014). The reduction in the

The idea or concept of health, safety and environment is not a new phenomenon in the enterprising world. Since the last many years, it has evolved and developed. However, recently, this concept has gained outstanding importance, recognition and attention. This resulted from worker’s empowerment, regulatory pressure, obligation to standard regulations and developing a working environment that is sustainable (Lowe, 2008). All business organizations regardless of their nature, scope and size of operations have started assigning high value to safety and health related issues. Before now, HSE was seen as a mere support function to the business. But today, the emphasis on business integration has positioned it in its pride of place as fully in-charge of its processes. As a result, the idea of health and safety is being cultivated in the overall culture and philosophy of business organizations. The health and safety culture is defined as an aggregation of attitudes, beliefs and values that influence environment and hygiene behaviour in an organization (Kilaparthi, 2014). The reduction in the occurrence of near misses, incidents, accidents and illness is evident of a strong and functioning health and safety culture. The effect of this reduction helps a business organization develop a strong health and safety culture (Ariss, 2003).
Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) culture comprises of three different facets and supplies an approach that makes it effortless for organizations to effectively manage challenges that may arise during processes involved in production (Emetumah, 2015). This approach according to Høivik et al. (2009) improves the social responsibility status of a company. The reputation of a company improves when they are perceived to take adequate care of the environment, workers, stakeholders and host communities. The safety element of HSE culture is basically concerned with reducing unsafe acts, unsafe conditions, near misses, incidents and accidents thereby improving safety performance. Health element of HSE concerns mainly with human wellbeing and wellness in the workplace; these occupational issues significantly affect the ability of employees to effectively perform their functions According to Emetumah ; Duru (2015), the impact of the emissions of greenhouse gases on the environment is essential to explain the sustainable development principle; environmental issues like pollution, global warming and temperature change resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels without adequate control measures.
HSE performance depends on psychological, economical, technical, operating, organizational, and environmental challenges in the workplace (Sawacha et al., 1999). HSE performance can be measured by variety of indices, such as near misses, incident rate and accident rate which are negative measures, unlike other performance criteria. The HSE performance therefore depends on internal and external factors (El-Mashaleh et al., 2010). According to Ng et al., (2005), there are two divisions of safety factors which are project and organizational levels. The study explained that the major elements relating to the project level according to their significance includes the management commitment; hazard management; implementation; information, training and promotion; emergency procedures; reporting, recording and investigation and safety review; and key factors of the organizational level according to their significance were declared to be administration and management commitment; health and safety training; legislation, codes and standards; safety review; selection of accident record and the control of subcontractors.
The most important elements associated with site safety as declared by Sawacha et al., (1999) were: the commitment of management to safety, availability of safety booklets, availability of safe equipment, providing safe and hygienic environment, and appointing an expertise on safety related issues on site. Abdelhamid and Everett (2000) showed that unsafe conditions are caused by four factors: Management actions/inactions, unsafe behaviour of an employee, non-human-related event(s), and unsafe conditions. Aksorn and Hadikusumo (2008) identified 16 significant factors of safety and grouped them as employee involvement, safety management system, safe arrangement, and management commitment. Management support was concluded to be the highest valuable factor. Lack of proper training, non availability of safe equipment, lack of proper enforcement of safety, unsafe conditions, unsafe behaviour, inadequate usage of the safety equipment provided, and poor behaviour towards safety as the main causation of accidents as mentioned by Toole (2002).
To improve safety performance, the safety culture is an auxiliary factor for protecting and providing a safer work environment to take place. Hinze et al. (2013) proved that lagging indicators gives information only to what happened in history, so no preventive or corrective actions can be planned for improving the performance based on these indicators. Furthermore, by defining appropriate leading indicators and monitoring their levels during the project’s execution steps, there is the probability of predicting the results in advance, so that prevention or correction are taken when necessary.
Incidents and accidents are measured by the operations of systems and procedures used to prevent and eliminate the hazards and its effects to ascertain they are operating as intended. Records of incidents and accidents in oil and gas industries in Nigeria are necessary for formulating safety policies and regulations in the petroleum industry. Therefore, evaluating the safety status in these industries periodically is important as it forms the bulk of safety management.
The oil and gas industries carry out operations that pose high risk levels. Many of these industries have experienced accidents because of poor safety culture/ safe work operating procedures and poor regulations. The side effects of incidents (injuries, illness and pollution) arising from the petroleum sector on workers’ productivity are so huge that they should be morally, socially and legally compelled to instill safety culture in their workforce.
It is essential to estimate how the HSE culture concept is viewed in the petroleum sector in Nigeria, which is a key element for Nigerian economy. Therefore, estimating the performance of HSE culture is very important in identifying challenges and making corresponding improvements regarding HSE in Nigeria.
The overall aim of this research is to evaluate the performance of HSE in selected oil and gas servicing companies in Rivers State, Nigeria. This evaluation will provide insights towards the challenges to a positive HSE culture perception in these selected oil servicing industries with the view to making breakthroughs.
The specific objectives are:
To determine their awareness level on the Health, Safety and Environment Management Systems (HSE MS).
To determine the performance or practice level of HSE MS.
To identify areas that is deficient in the practice of HSE MS in the chosen oil servicing companies.
To give recommendations on the efficacy of the HSE performance in the selected oil servicing companies.
This study will be focused specifically on the evaluation of HSE performance of selected oil servicing companies in Rivers State, Nigeria. All data and conclusions will relate exclusively to these companies. The study will be significant to the entire management and staff of these selected companies and other servicing companies that carry out similar activities as it will identify the deficient areas in the efficiency of the evaluation system and make it possible for them to take proactive and precautionary measures to limit accident and incident rates hence protect people, assets, environment and reputation of the company.
This research is centered on determining the awareness and performance or practice levels of the HSE management systems, identifying areas that are deficient in the efficacy of health and safety culture in selected oil servicing companies and give recommendations on the methods to improve HSE culture in these companies. Two sources of data were both used in this study and analysis done with simple percentages, Microsoft excel and Kendall’s coefficient of concordance. Presentation of the results were in charts, bars and tables.
This study will be conducted amongst the chosen oil and gas servicing companies in Rivers State, Nigeria. The population for the study will be limited to professionals, management and staff of these companies. Also, due to fear of given out information about their workplace and the negative attitude of Nigerians towards research, there was limitation in the structuring of the questionnaire.

For decades, the idea of a secured and safe workplace has been in existence. The first set of “laws” dealing with safety were recorded approximately 2000 B.C. These laws were set punishment in Babylon for those involved in injuries to workers (Dennis, 1997). According to Bamber (2008), the humanitarian reason for accident prevention revolves on the duty of any person ensuring the general well-being of his peers. This then places a responsibility on an employer to provide a working environment that is safe, secured and healthy for its workforce and the community where the business is conducted. The development of HS&E management became imperative after numerous catastrophes and harm to human life in the work environment and on sites (Channing, 2008).
Na’ankwat (2012) reported that as far back as the 1960s, researchers have alerted the world to the hazards posed by the chemical industry. The 1980s were earmarked by serious environmental and social incidents involving businesses, including the American oil tanker Exxon-Valdez which collided with the Bligh Reef and thus caused a major oil spillage in Alaska’s Prince William Sound, the Piper Alpha explosion, in the North Sea, near Aberdeen, the lethal explosion at the Union carbide chemical plant in Bhopal (Peattie, 2008).
According to Na’ankwat, (2012), global warming, ozone layer depletion and climate change are the factors that combine to create widespread public, media and political concerns relative to the health and safety (H;S) of the products and production technologies that organizations employed and the function of the managers behind them.
Since early 1980s, environmental and social issues have become a segment of the strategic agenda of an extensive range of industries. These were exclusive rights of the automotive, chemical and oil industries, coupled with social responsibilities centered on generating wealth, respecting laws and regulations regarding contracts, employment and H;S (Na’ankwat, 2012).
The general aim of HSE management is to guarantee that risks to workers, assets and the environment are properly controlled. This result in the efficient conduct of HS&E, which is paramount to the well-being of the employee, contributes to enhancing business reputation, and helps in achieving high performance in business and cost benefits. This assertion is supported by Erickson (2011) who suggested that treatment of employees was the most predictive factor of health and safety performance.
The principle of good and effective management provides a sound ground for the improvement of HS&E performance. HS&E management is concerned with organizational structures, the climate for change within an organization and individual roles within the organization.
According to Na’ankwat, (2012), most key elements required for effective HS;E management are very similar to those required for good quality, finances and general business management practices. Successful organizations usually have good HS;E management policy in place. Thus, if people are able to perform their tasks in a benign environment and employees find their work stimulating, this could help improve the health and well-being of an employee and also encourage job satisfaction.
Organizations that manage HS;E effectively know the correlation between the assessment and management of risks, health and the very core of the business itself. Management’s adherence to HS&E may vary either by obeying what the law says, considering the human resources aspects, or economic aspects, since every accident and ill health has a cost. It is the responsibility of management to identify those organizational attributes which influence safety and health behaviour by creating a positive attitude in which HS&E is seen by both management and employees as being fundamental to the organization’s day-to-day operations. This can happen through ensuring that the policies and systems take proper account of human capabilities and fallibilities (Na’ankwat, 2012). It is not enough for senior management to trust but they must also proof that workers are doing the right thing.
2.2.1 Fundamental Components of effective HS&E Management System
HSE Management System defines the elements by which an organization conducts operations to protect people, asset and the environment in which they work and live (HSE, 2000). Effective HS&E management is not just critical to employee well-being, but also plays a crucial role in giving businesses a human face while facilitating the achievement of high-performance in groups. Due to unhealthy environmental management practices in oil servicing companies in Nigeria, it is imperative for these companies to place emphasis on achieving excellence in HS&E management. It is imperative for managers to establish and develop effective HS&E management systems to address challenges faced in existing policies.
A key outcome of successful HS&E management is that HS&E performance meets both organizational and statutory requirements and demonstrates commitment to continual growth (HSE, 2000). An average balance must be reached between the duty of a worker and that of the management to provide good working conditions in the workplace. Figure 2.1 shows the fundamentals of successful HS&E management.

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Figure 2.1 Key elements of successful health and safety management (HSE, 2000).
Organizations must note that even with HS&E being extensively integrated into their business priority like HS&E policies, procedures, and training, HS&E experts, and top managers endorsing HS&E, the manner in which HS&E is approached to employees, will significantly influence their performance. Policy
Strong health and safety policies direct the organization on the best way to follow (HSE, 2006). The H&S policy must be endorsed by the Managing Director (MD) to state the mission and vision of a company. They contribute to every part of business performance as a segment of a demonstrable commitment to continual growth.
It is designed in a manner that roles to people and the environment are met in ways which fulfill the spirit and letter of the law (Hughes and Ferrett, 2007). Stakeholders’ expectations in project activities are achieved and satisfied. It must be simple, concise and the information passed to all relevant parties. Effective policies by the HSE (2000) should indicate a genuine commitment to action. Organizing
A shared common knowledge of the organization’s vision, values and beliefs is in place. A direct and strong health and safety culture is seen by active leadership of top authorities (HSE, 2006). According to the HSE (2006), the successful management of HS&E is a line management responsibility with active participation at all employee levels under line supervision. Therefore, the organization management structure in place should be made to achieve a strong HS&E policy. Planning and Implementing
There is a plan to implementing the health and safety policy through an effective HSE MS (HSE, 2006). The plan is focused on risk assessment methods designed to eliminate hazards and reduce risks. Organizations must therefore conduct risk assessment to ensure control measures are developed (Holt, 2005). If the removal of risk is not feasible, they are lowered by using physical controls or through work systems and personal protective devices. Measuring Performance
The major aim of measuring performance against agreed standards is to reveal when and where improvement is needed (HSE, 2006). It is pertinent to measure the organization against its long-term achievements. Individual monitoring reveals the effectiveness and significance of health and safety management system .If there is failure in the control measures, reactive monitoring will investigate whether accidents, illness or incidents could pose a potential harm or loss.
HSE (2006) asserts that the active and reactive monitoring objectives include evaluation of the immediate causes of sub-standard performance; and determination of the underlying causes and the implications for the significance of HSE MS.
It is imperative to note that managing an organization well does not measure only the presence of the positive (Bamber, 2008). Health and Safety is positive and observable and therefore measurable. According to Bamber (2008), an organization cannot be qualified as doing a good job by just relying on the absence of injuries and costs. Auditing and Reviewing Performance
Lesson is learnt by the management by past and relevant experiences (HSE, 2000). The results of monitoring and independent audits should be systematically reviewed to show that the right results are being achieved by the management.
HSE (2000) posits that overall performance can be evaluated by internal reference to key performance indicators; and external comparison with business competitors and best practice, irrespective of employment sector.
Enforcement of regulations is important to ensuring the effectiveness of regulations. Researchers (like Anderson 2007; Idubor & Osiamoje 2013) explained that regulations without proper enforcement are significant to no laws, in the same vein Idubor & Osiamoje (2013) postulate that lack of strict enforcement of OSH regulations enables non- compliance to OSH regulations.
According to Nwagbaraocha (2011), before late 2000s, African countries did not have legislation/regulations on HS&E laws. However, this practice has changed in recent times as countries on the continent have made improvements in their HS&E regulatory frameworks. Nwagbaraocha (2011) reports that the reason for this move can be attributed to pressure to modernize HS&E regulatory frameworks caused by increased foreign investment in the continent.
Nwagbaraocha (2011) also reported that the combination of public and private investment has given rise to considerable growth in countries such as Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Kenya which have experienced an average gross domestic product (GDP) growth of 6 % to 10 % in the last decade.
The quantum of capital flows into Africa from international corporations and foreign governments is attracting attention to HS&E considerations. Concern for basic human rights, health and safety in the workplace, and potential environmental impacts of increased and expanded industrial operations have given rise to a new desire for operational clarity within Africa. Thus, the pursuit of clarity has also resulted in the need to improve HS&E regulatory frameworks (Nwagbaraocha, 2011).
According to Na’ankwat (2012), all of this legislation is placing pressure and impacting on improved legislation on HS;E in African countries. These attempts to strengthen the clarity about operations located beyond domestic borders may be a continuous factor as African countries strengthen their HS;E regulatory structures.
Non-compliance to OSH regulations is a major contributor to the deplorable state of OSH in Nigeria. According to Diugwu et al. (2012), the non-functionality of OSH regulations and provisions is the contributory factor to the failed OSH management system in Nigeria. There is also an argument that enforcement and complying with OSH guidelines are not the standalone steps for improving OSH, as enhancing organizational culture can also enhance OSH (Umeokafor et al., 2014).
Nigeria signed the 1981 Convention held in Geneva (Adeogun and Okafor 2013), yet 36 years on, implementation of the convention is insignificant. The origin of OSH regulations/bills in Nigeria runs from the beginning of the
Labour Act of 1974 to the enactment of the Labour, Safety, Health and Welfare Bill of 2012 (which has not been signed by the president). With all these developments, Nigeria still has no national agency or authority, policy, established process and procedures, frameworks or guidelines that govern H;S in the country (Na’ankwat, 2012).
In an effort to ensuring a responsible attitude to HS&E issues without clear or comprehensive HS&E regulations, multinationals impose either the laws of their parent company or some type of internal corporate requirements often without considering local conditions and the cultural differences such as risk perceptions and H&S cultures that exist between Nigeria and these countries.
Currently, there is no comprehensive health and safety policy in Nigeria which would provide standards or guidelines to be adhered to by industry. What exist today, are pieces of old and obsolete Factories Acts which appears to be quite inadequate in coverage, empowerment, independence and currency (Umeokafor et al.,2014),(Diugwu et al.,2012).
Several authors and researchers have in their different studies explained the concept of health and safety culture. According to Antonsen (2009), “it is the values, attitudes, motivations and knowledge that affect the extent to which safety is emphasized over competing goals in decisions and behavior”. To some authors like Fishback and Kantor (2007), the concept of health and safety culture is regarded as “a process, belief or ideology” while some others have identified it as system and mechanism of retaining human resource.
According to Stranks (2006), the health and safety culture should be taken as a “framework consisting variety of multi-dimensional elements”. Stranks (2006) identified six main dimensions in the framework of safety culture in the oil and gas industry which include commitment, behaviour, awareness, adaptability, information and justness. It is said that all these six dimensions are interrelated and effective functioning of these dimensions is absolutely needed for the successful enforcement of health and safety culture at the oil and gas environment. The author has detailed the individual dimensions to ascertain the manner through which these six dimensions influence and establish the level of health and safety culture.
2.5.1 Commitment
Commitment is the number one in the six dimensions of safety culture which shows the level at which the top management and other members of the oil and gas industry hold positive vibe and behaviour to ensure and provide safety to its workforce.
Stranks (2006), in his study emphasized that commitment is concerned primarily with top managerial authorities. The management commitment determines and affects of resources made available for implementing safety culture. Inadequate commitment by top management will prevent the effectiveness of health and safety culture. Thus, gaining genuine commitment by top management for effecting safety culture is paramount to ensuring excellent level of safety to employees.
2.5.2 Behaviour
Behaviour as the second dimension reflects worker’s attitude towards implementing, maintaining and improving the health and safety level (Burke ; Clarks, 2012). Positive attitude and behaviour by organization members towards safety culture prove beneficial in minimizing chances of hazards and its risks, danger, threats in the concerned business firms.
To eliminate the chances of legal litigation in the oil and gas industries, it is necessary for the workers and other organization members to show positive behaviour and attitude to health and safety culture (Burke ; Clarks, 2012).
2.5.3 Awareness
According to Walker (2007), awareness reflects the level to which members of oil and gas companies are aware and understand the importance that safety and wellness of us and others is the obligation of every business organization despite the different operations they perform. Awareness applies equally to both higher and lower authorities of oil and gas industries. This is because awareness is conceptualized by higher authorities of the companies while it is executed actually by workers. A study by Walker (2007) explained that maintaining high monitoring level towards safety issues and concerns in oil and gas companies should be top priority for workers and top management.
2.5.4 Adaptability
The willingness and commitment of workers towards learning modern safety strategies and actions is measured by adaptability (Stranks, 2010). The failing to adhere strictly instructions on safety issues often results in various harm and consequences in the oil and gas environment. The extents at which harm and its effects are taken by top management and employees and level of response gained from past experience determine the successful efficiency of safety culture (Stranks, 2010).

2.5.5 Information

Information as the fifth dimension brings attention towards right flow of message to the correct persons from the right source. Right flow of communication is necessary to prevent the occurrence of misinformation and taking right actions at best time. Often times, misinformation leads to hazardous and high risk situations in oil and gas industries. Therefore, authorities handling safety concerns and issues should ensure that members receive information in the right manner to avoid hazardous and high risk situations at the primitive stage (Wien, 2011).
Maintaining a safety culture in the oil and gas environment involves focusing on the manner and approach with which members react to the safety related information. Many at times, it is seen that workers assign little or no significance to the flow and passage of information relating to safety. This in turn makes the performance process in the oil and gas industries incline to high risk and hazardous situations. It is pertinent that workers and other members assign high significance to safety related information and react seriously towards such information (Burke ; Clarks, 2012).
2.5.6 Justness

Justness is purely the duty of top level authorities in oil and gas companies. More precisely, justness indicates the limit at which safe behaviour and adherence with safety standards are encouraged, rewarded and motivated (Collins, 2009). It is a means of measuring the limit at which unsafe acts and unsafe conditions are discouraged at the work environment. Collins (2009) explains that justness determines the future success and influence of safety culture in oil and gas companies.
Rewarding and encouraging workers motivates them towards implementation and adherence of safety issues and concerns. Punishing and discouraging them for an unsafe act also develops fear among workers (Collins, 2009).
2.5.2 Fundamental Elements of Safety Culture
According to Ridley (2012), the health and safety culture concept comprises of eight fundamental elements and this is as shown in the Figure 2.2 below. The figure below shows the eight elements (business priorities, risk perceptions, safety procedure perceptions, competence, leadership, employee communication, worker’s involvement in safety and ownership of safety). These fundamental elements of safety culture are interrelated and effective implementation of any of them influences the success rate of the other. It is seen from the diagram that every element of the safety culture is focused on strategic personnel of oil and gas industries and this is why Speegle (2012) explained these elements in the context of oil and gas environment.

Figure 2.2 Elements of Safety Culture (Ridley, 2012)
The element of business priorities depicts the aim and objectives of strategic authorities of respective business firms regarding safety aspects and health concerns. The risk and threatening issues are pictured by the strategic authorities before considering the decision of effecting a safe and healthy oriented working environment (Speegle 2012).
According to Speegle (2012), risk perceptions vary in every business firm because every business organization has a unique and distinct way of operation and nature and kinds of risk factors depend on the company. For example, risk perceptions are high in cases with high risk operations and hazardous situations like the oil and gas, pharmaceutical, chemical, manufacturing, leather industries compared to business organizations engaged in telecommunication, financial services, and insurance sector with less susceptibility to risk perceptions.
The strategic top management of oil and gas industries visualizes and perceives safety procedures in their minds before the implementation in actual practice. Such visualization and perception is then portrayed in safety operating procedures. The strategic authorities of business firms also consult and discuss such visualization with specialized personnel in risk management before reaching the final result (Iqbal et al., 2004). The prepared safety operating procedures are then performed in real practice with strong leadership skills and competence.
With regards to the last element of the process (ownership of the health and safety culture), this process is owned mutually by all organization members regardless of their level and function (Collins, 2009). This implies that safety is everyone’s concern and must be implemented with mutual efforts by all members. No personnel can implement this process individually or without coordinating with others. Therefore, it would be judicious decision on business firms to acknowledge formally that safety culture is owned by all members of the organization (Collins 2009).
2.5.3 Challenges and Barriers in Implementing Safety Culture
There are various challenges facing the effectiveness of safety culture in the oil and gas work environment. Inadequate support and commitment by high authorities is the main challenge to implementing a safety culture. Its cultivation and values among employees for the past many years is seen as being of little significance to the top management.
The effectiveness of safety culture requires adequate amount of financial, technological, and human resources. But, lack of appreciation of its importance lead oil and gas industries to linger in implementing safety culture (Maslen, 2008).
Infrastructure is another challenge in implementing a healthy safety culture by Michael (2016). Building the right environment for a safety management system is a difficult task and doesn’t happen overnight, so experiencing setbacks is part of it. Ensuring that your system is used to provide support to your teams, and not being scared to grow or scale back as needed (Michael, 2016) will help in overcoming this challenge.
The complexness of the safety operating system is also shown as a barrier to implementing safety (Ariss, 2003). His study has stated that many oil and gas companies have shown appreciation for the significance of safety system and have also implemented it. But, the complexities faced in implementing this safety system in the oil and gas environment prevent the other firms from creating and implementing safety systems.
Training of employees was highlighted by Michael (2016) as another challenge facing safety culture implementation. He stated that properly trained employees can become the best advocates for the new safety culture whether it’s making alterations to an already existing system or introducing a recent one. Michael (2016) suggests that investing money and time in training and retaining team members, and permitting them to use their expert knowledge in leading a successful safety management system would help curb this challenge.
Lack of worker’s involvement is also a challenge to the development and effectiveness of safety culture according to Quartey & Puplampu1 (2012). The situations leading workers to show little or no concern in the effectiveness of safety culture have been detailed by these authors. This is seen by announcement of rewards when the workplace is attributed with less injuries and accidents. The employees are rewarded if the injuries reported are less. According to Kilaparthi (2014), such rewards enable workers to show less concern in using safety systems in reporting harm and its effects.
The behaviour and attitude of an organization, from the top authorities to the least employee, influences the outcome of a safety management system. A lack of trust, or leaders who focus on the past, can frame any change as a negative, so it’s important to work together (Michael, 2016).
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) is a simple way of indicating how organizations are performing against their set objectives as they connect with safety, finance or production. Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs) are known for focusing on the negative workplace activities with indicators such as lost time injuries (LTIs) (HSE, 2006). SPIs fall into two types just like other KPIs – leading and lagging. Lagging indicators (Lost time incidents, minor accidents, days lost, absence data, property damage) are in common use and tend to consider activities that are wrong, while the challenge is to develop meaningful leading indicator which include; safety audits, behaviour, attitude surveys and inspections. The ‘Swiss cheese’ model of accident causation by Prof. James Reason says that major accidents result from failures in risk control systems occurring at the same time – the holes in the Swiss cheese slices line up as shown in Figure 2.3 below. Leading indicators measure the actions used by an organization to lower the probability of an incident occurring. Lagging indicators analyze the probability, consequence, and type of incidents. Leading indicators that show systems are operating as presumed could include:
Inspection records – Are inspections being carried out as needed?
Maintenance Records – records indicate all maintenance ; repairs completed on each machine, vehicle, etc as indicated on the unit registry.
Meeting minutes – Are safety meetings being held in conformity with the schedule?
Investigation reports – Are appropriate causes being identified? Are corrections being made in a manner that is timely and orderly?


Figure 2.3 Swiss Cheese Model of Accident Trajectory (Adapted from Reason, 1997).
The leading indicators are there to identify the failures through routine checking, to plug the holes before an incident or accident occurs. The HSE (2006) describes a six step approach to developing and using SPIs and they include;
Establish the organizational arrangements to prepare and implement SPIs
Define the range of the measuring system
Identify the risk control system in place and set a lagging indicator that indicates failure
Identify fundamental elements of the risk control system-actions or processes which must function correctly and set associated leading indicators
Establish a data collection and reporting system
Review data and take action.
The study was carried out majorly in oil servicing companies in Trans-Amadi industrial layout, Port Harcourt City, Nigeria. It is located 5 km from the heart of Port-Harcourt with latitudinal extent between 4° 47′ N and 4o 48′ N and longitudinal extent between 7o1’E and 7o 2’E as shown in Figure 3.1 below.
It is the major industrial area of Port-Harcourt largely populated with many national and trans-national companies with very few residential areas. There is high in rush of people resulting in a rise in population which has been influenced by urbanization. This in turn is the reason for oil and allied industries expansion which also have attracted other manufacturing industries. The relief is generally lowland which has an average elevation of between 20 m and 30 m above sea level (Wikipedia, 2017).

Figure 3.1: Study area showing Trans-Amadi (Google Maps, 2017).

Three oil servicing companies were used in this study from this study area and these companies carry out dissimilar activities and were labeled X, Y and Z because of ethical reasons. Company X engage in logistics services, company Y carry out mud logging services, and finally, company Z that engage in engineering services. All companies are involved with high risk operations.
Fifty questionnaires were distributed each to three from the many oil servicing companies in Trans-Amadi Port Harcourt, Rivers State and 120 were returned and found suitable for the study. The answer or response rate for the respondents as per the three companies is as shown: company X 42, company Y 40, and company Z 38 respectively.
The questionnaire for this research was arranged into three sections. Five questions which reveals information of the participants on age, gender, education, years of work experience and the employment type is structured in section one. Section two consists of ten questions on the awareness level of HSE MS, and section three has 10 questions on performance level of HSE MS. A self-completion format of questionnaire was used; and thus ‘yes’, ‘no’ and ‘undecided’ were given as the answer options. According to Ogbonna and Nwaogazie (2015), the ‘yes’ option is the correct answer, the ‘no’ and ‘undecided’ are the wrong answers.
The questions were structured depending on the information from the interview with audit team of selected companies; information from personal communication with employees and also from HSE professionals and its approval was made by my research supervisor.
Two sources of data have been employed in this study. The source of the primary data is drawn from using a well structured questionnaire administered to workers in three selected oil servicing companies in Trans-Amadi, Rivers State. Collection was made because research can only be conducted if data collection is feasible.
From the 150 questionnaires shared among respondents of these companies, 120 were retrieved and found suitable for the study which represents 80% response rate. The resulting data collected serves as a standard for estimating the HSE performance of the selected companies. Secondary data were from audit reports on HSE performances of the companies (X, Y and Z).
The questionnaire reviewed the responses by these workers. Simple percentages, Microsoft excel and a statistical tool called Kendall’s coefficient of concordance (showing the concordance level among the raters) were used to analyze the data.
3.5.1 Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance (W)
Kendall’s coefficient of concordance (Kendall’s W) is an example of a non-parametric statistic. It serves as a means of assessing or estimating the agreement or concordance level among raters. Kendall’s W value covers from zero (no agreement) to one (complete agreement), (Nwaogazie, 2011). Intermediate values signify maximum or minimum degree of unison among respondents. The responses are rated with numerical values (known as the Likert series): Yes =3, No =2, Undecided =1.
This is used when results come from different sources (from different opinion or judges) and concerns a few (k?2) objects. It is often used in measuring the inter-judge reliability strength which could be awareness, performance, practice, attitude or opinion. Kendall’s coefficient of concordance is calculated on an ordinal scale (Likert scale) or interval scale. Its value is calculated as follows:
3.5.2 Summation of Ranks
Assume that the object T is allocated the rank rt,j by judge number j, where there are in total n objects and m judges. Then the total rank allocated to object T is given as;
Rt = ?_(j=1)^m?r_(t,j) (3.1)
And the mean value of the total ranks (R?) is shown in equation (3.2) as:
R? = 1/(2 )m (n+1) (3.2)
The sum of the squared deviations (Sd) is shown in equation (3.3) as:
Sd = (3.3)
Kendall’s (W) statistics is defined as (Nwaogazie, 2011) using equation (3.4)
W= (12???(Rt-R?)^2 ?)/(?{m?^2 n(n^2-1)}) (3.4)
Where Ri is shown by Equation (3.1) and it represents the total rank or rating given by respondents; m represents the total number of participants while n represents the total number of objects (in this case, questions); and R? is the mean value of the total rating represented in Equation (3.2) (Nwaogazie, 2011).

This chapter shows the survey results obtained from the questionnaires administered. The analyzed results were organized in the excel sheet where tables, and charts were generated; giving room for comparison of the data obtained. These results were presented alongside the research objectives in line with the methodology.
The questionnaire designed for this study has three sections. Section one comprises of five questions intended for obtaining information on the background of the participants. Sections two and three aimed at obtaining respondent’s opinions with ten questions each on the awareness level of HSE-MS and performance level of HSE-MS respectively in companies X, Y and Z. The questionnaires were administered fifty (50) each to three different oil servicing companies namely: Company X which is engaged with logistics services, Company Y (engaged in mud logging services) and Company Z (that carry out engineering services).
The basic (primary) data were collated via questionnaires administered to one hundred and fifty (150) persons. The total numbers of questionnaires retrieved and found valid for the analysis were 120.The responses were from 42 workers in Company X, 40 from Company Y, and 38 from Company Z. The response rates were 35% Company X, 33.30% Company Y and 31.70% Company Z as displayed in Figure 4.1;

Figure 4.1: Response rate amongst three selected oil servicing companies in Rivers State, Nigeria.
? Information of the Participants/Respondents
Age Distribution Gender Distribution Educational Background Work Experience Employment Type
Age (Years) Frequency Gender Frequency Education Frequency Years Frequency Type Frequency
18-25yrs 20 Male 100 Primary Nil 0-5yrs 18 Permanent 28
26-35yrs 33 Female 17 Secondary 30 6-9yrs 16 Contract 65
36-45yrs 42 No Response 3 Tertiary 84 10-14yrs 38 Labour 27
46-55yrs 20 No Response 6 15yrs and above 45
;55yrs 5 No response 3
Table 4.1: Respondent’s Background data Distribution

Table 4.2: HSE-MS Awareness level parameters
S/No Awareness level of HSE MS Yes No Undecided
LA-1 Are you aware of what HSE MS entails 72 48 0
LA-2 Leadership and commitment is the first element in HSE MS 104 15 1
LA-3 Are you aware of what governs the integrated HSE MS 59 58 3
LA-4 Do you agree that safety is an integral part of an industry 110 9 1
LA-5 The management system uses the management process as a means of controlling risk in the organization 106 13 1
LA-6 HSE MS enables organizations to meet legal requirements thereby remaining compliant 108 12 0
LA-7 The Plan-Do-Check-Act for occupational health & safety management forms the basis of the three OH&S Management Systems 64 53 3
LA-8 Successful organizations usually have good HS&E management policy in place 117 2 1
LA-9 Non-compliance to OSH regulations is a major contributor to the poor state of OSH in Nigeria. 108 11 1
LA-10 The principle of good and effective management provides a sound basis for the improvement of HS&E performance 103 16 1
*Shows the identified gaps; +LA-1 = Level of Awareness for question 1

Figure 4.2: The awareness level of HSE-MS in companies X, Y and Z and only the respondents that answered correctly are presented as measured from Table 4.2.

Table 4.3 shows how the Kendall’s statistic, W was calculated. Rt for LA-1 was drawn from Table 4.2 using Equation (3.1) as follows:
Rt = (72*3) + (48*2) + (0*1) = 312.
R? is evaluated using Equation (3.2), viz:
R? = 0.5 *(120)*(10+1) =660 (same for all LA questions); and
W = 12 * 1067769
1202 * 10(102-1) = 0.90 = 90%
Based on Equations (3.1) – (3.4), the Kendall’s coefficient of concordance, W for the level of HSE-MS awareness data in Table 4.2 is 0.90. This indicates a high degree of agreement amongst the participants.
The level of HSE-MS awareness among companies X, Y and Z is as displayed in Table 4.4 and only the number of respondents that answered correctly is represented and level of HSE-MS awareness among workers in companies X, Y and Z displayed in Figure 4.3 (extracted from Table 4.4).
Table 4.3: Evaluation of Kendall’s W Statistic for respondents on HSE-MS awareness
S/N Level of Awareness Parameters, LA+ m n R R ? (R-R ?)^2
1 LA-1 120 10 312 660 121104
2 LA-2 120 10 343 660 100489
3 LA-3 120 10 296 660 132496
4 LA-4 120 10 349 660 96721
5 LA-5 120 10 345 660 99225
6 LA-6 120 10 348 660 97344
7 LA-7 120 10 301 660 128881
8 LA-8 120 10 356 660 92416
9 LA-9 120 10 347 660 97969
10 LA-10 120 10 342 660 101124
Total ?(R-R ?)^2 = 1067769

Table 4.4: Level of HSE-MS Awareness among companies X, Y and Z.
Parameters Company X (%) Company Y (%) Company Z (%)
LA-1 76 75 26*
LA-2 83 93 84
LA-3 67 58 21*
LA-4 95 88 92
LA-5 90 95 79
LA-6 100 95 74
LA-7 83 53 21*
LA-8 95 98 100
LA-9 90 85 95
LA-10 90 75 92
*the identified gaps; +LA-1 = Level of HSE-MS Awareness for question 1

Figure 4.3: A good level of HSE-MS awareness among workers in companies X, Y and Z (extracted from Table 4.4).

The level of HSE-MS performance parameters among companies X, Y and Z is as displayed in Table 4.5 with only the respondents that answered correctly in Figure 4.4 and a good level of HSE-MS performance among workers in companies X, Y and Z displayed in Figure 4.5 (extracted from Table 4.7).

Table 4.5: HSE-MS level of performance parameters among companies X, Y and Z.
S/No Performance Level of HSE MS Yes No Undecided
LP-1 There is a working HSE policy in the company 99 19 2
LP-2 There is a good system for communicating HSE issues 87 33 0
LP-3 Permit to work (PTW) procedure is made available before carrying out high risk operations 77 43 0
LP-4 HSE induction and training is conducted for employees 76 43 1
LP-5* A hygienic environment where employees can bring their food and eat is provided 45 73 2
LP-6 There is an incident reporting procedure in the company 79 40 1
LP-7 Contingency plans for emergencies are made available 75 43 2
LP-8* Safety equipment and PPE are made available for employees 54 65 1
LP-9 There is a good system in place to manage employee’s health 79 40 1
LP-10 There is a good workplace organization 101 18 1
*shows the identified gaps; +LP-1= Level of HSE-MS Performance for question 1

Figure 4.4: The Performance level of HSE-MS in three selected oil servicing companies in Rivers State and are represented as drawn from Table 4.5.

Table 4.6 shows how the Kendall’s statistic, W was calculated. Ri for LP-1 was calculated from Table 4.5 using Equation (3.1) as follows:
Rt =(99*3) + (19*2) + (2*1) = 337.
R? is evaluated using Equation (3.2), viz:
R? = 0.5 *(120)*(10+1) =660 (same for all LP questions); and
W = 12 * 1185447
1202 * 10(102-1) = 0.99 = 99%
Based on Equations (3.1) – (3.4), the Kendall’s coefficient of concordance, W for the performance level of HSE-MS data in Table 4.5 is 0.99. This indicates that the degree of agreement among the respondents is high.
The Performance level of HSE-MS among the workers in companies X, Y and Z is as displayed in Table 4.7 and only the respondents that answered correctly is represented.
Table 4.6: Evaluation of Kendall’s W Statistic for respondents on performance level of HSE-MS
S/N Level of Performance Parameters, LP+ m n R R ? (R-R ?)^2
1 LP-1 120 10 337 660 104329
2 LP-2 120 10 327 660 110889
3 LP-3 120 10 317 660 117649
4 LP-4 120 10 315 660 119025
5 LP-5 120 10 283 660 142129
6 LP-6 120 10 318 660 116964
7 LP-7 120 10 313 660 120409
8 LP-8 120 10 293 660 134689
9 LP-9 120 10 318 660 116964
10 LP-10 120 10 340 660 102400
Total ?(R-R ?)^2 = 1185447

Table 4.7: Performance Level of HSE-MS among companies X, Y and Z
Parameters Company X (%) Company Y (%) Company Z (%)
LP-1 100 93 53
LP-2 95 93 26*
LP-3 90 98 0*
LP-4 95 70 21*
LP-5 93 10* 5*
LP-6 86 88 21*
LP-7 83 75 26*
LP-8 90 25* 16*
LP-9 83 80 32*
LP-10 71 95 87
*the identified gaps; +LP-1 = Performance Level of HSE-MS for question 1

Figure 4.5: A good performance level of HSE-MS among X, Y and Z oil servicing companies (extracted from Table 4.7).

Result from Table 4.1 shows that 37.5% of the participants have worked for a period more than 15years, followed by those working for 10-14years (31.7%), then those working for 0-5years (15.0%) and those who have worked for 6-9years (13.3%). Finally, no response in the years of experiences was shown by 2.5 % participants.
Also, Table 4.1 shows that most workers in these companies are on contract employment (54.2%), followed by permanent staff (23.3%), and finally by those employed under labour (22.5%).
The results from (Tables 4.2 and 4.3) show that workers in companies (X, Y, Z) have good knowledge of HSE Q-MS, except on what governs the integrated HSE-MS. The results indicated that only 49% of the participants have knowledge of what governs the integrated HSE-MS. Before now, HSE was just seen as a mere support function to the business. But today, the emphasis on business integration has positioned it in its pride of place as fully in-charge of its processes. This concept of integration is governed by the tripod of business integration, quality management and risk management to safeguard people, assets, environment and reputation of the company.
Having good knowledge that safety is an integral part of an industry can reduce accidents that may lead to loss of people and production. Thus, it is imperative to train people adequately and checks and counter checks incorporated.
To maintain that good HSE –MS is practiced and its performance evaluated, the oil servicing companies must be committed to leadership and organization, own an operating HSE policy, have a good system for communicating HSE issues, conduct HSE induction and training, ensure immediate plans for emergencies are made available, provide safety equipment and PPE to workers, provide a working environment that is hygienic and ensure there is a good system available to manage and maintain employee’s health.
Table 4.5 depicts the performance level of HSE-MS among companies X, Y and Z servicing companies in Rivers State. Majority of the workers indicated that they have an operating HSE policy in the company except for only 17%. HSE policy in an organization helps to raise workers awareness on the importance of HSE in achieving hitch free operations. Therefore, an organization must set its HSE policy to evaluate the present and future decisions of the company.
Only 38% of the workers agreed that a hygienic environment where food can be eaten has been provided for them. This implies that hygiene is a lacking activity in these companies. A good hygienic environment can help preserve health and thus, it is imperative for the management to preserve a hygienic environment for its workforce.
Fifty-five percent (55%) of workers claimed that safety equipment and personal protective equipment (PPE) are not made available for them. This low practice of not providing safety equipment and PPE for workers can pose a potential harm to them. Ensuring that workers have their PPE is a safety practice and this can help protect them from an immediate danger.
The good level of awareness on HSE-MS demonstrated by workers of companies X, Y and Z could be attributed to the fact that; Rivers State is characterized with oil and gas industries that carry out high risk operations and which in turn demands a high level of health and safety consciousness. The three selected oil servicing companies showed good level of awareness starting with company X, followed by company Y and finally, Company Z (see Figure 4.3). Also, the ranking of HSE-MS performance level follows similar trend as the awareness level (see Figure 4.5). This is similar with the secondary data from the HSEQ MS audit report of these companies which indicated that the overall assessment of company X on HSEQ MS is 72% which is good in rating. The overall performance of company Y is 64.3%, which is fair in rating. Finally, company Z showed 30% in its overall assessment which is unsatisfactory in rating (see Appendix II).
Company Z is the least in both awareness and performance levels with ratings of 68% and 29% respectively. This shows that company Z has unsatisfactory performance level of HSE MS in providing a good system for communicating HSE issues, providing permit to work (PTW), conducting HSE induction and training for its employees, ensuring a hygienic environment, providing an incident reporting procedure, ensuring that contingency plans are made available, providing safety equipment and PPE for workers and maintaining a good system for managing employee’s health.
Kendall’s analysis showed there were 90% and 99% levels of agreement amongst workers in these companies on HSE MS awareness and HSE MS performance respectively. These indicated a high degree of concordance among the participants.
Stranks (2006), in his study emphasized that management commitment is concerned primarily with top managerial authorities. The management commitment determines and affects the resources made available for implementing HSE. Inadequate commitment by top management will prevent the effectiveness of health and safety culture. Thus, gaining genuine commitment by top management for effecting safety culture is paramount to ensuring excellent level of safety to employees which is demonstrated in the findings of the study.

Based on the results on the level of awareness of HSE MS and the performance level of HSE MS in Companies (X, Y, and Z), the study showed:
There is good level (79%) of awareness on HSE MS among the workers of these selected oil servicing companies in Rivers State, Nigeria.
There is 64% average level of performance of HSE MS in companies X, Y and Z.
The gaps identified in these companies include; lack of awareness on what governs the integrated HSE MS, lack of hygienic environment and non availability of safety equipment and personal protective equipment (PPE). More gaps were identified in company Z which included; providing a good system for communicating HSE issues, providing permit to work (PTW), conducting HSE induction and training for its employees, providing an incident reporting procedure, ensuring that contingency plans are made available, and maintaining a good system for managing employee’s health.
On the statistical analysis, Kendall showed high degree of agreement among participants on the awareness level of HSE MS (0.90) and (0.99) on the performance level of HSE MS respectively.
The following were recommendations underpinning the research study.
Management of the three companies should give more HSE training to employees to create more awareness on integrated HSE MS.
A hygienic environment should be made available for safeguarding workers against diseases and illness in all three companies.
Management the three companies should make provision for safety equipment and PPE to save workers from immediate danger.
The management of company Z should make provision for contingency plans because emergency preparedness is necessary and maintain a good system for managing employee’s health.
Tool box meetings and HSE review meetings in company Z should be carried out to communicate HSE related issues effectively.
The management of company Z should provide a permit to work (PTW) procedure and draw a schedule to audit PTW process.

The findings and recommendations of this research will be a yardstick to these companies in implementing HSE MS as business integration in quality and risk management.
The findings will also maintain that these organizations give health and safety the same emphasis as other business objectives.
The recommendations will be a benchmark to a better practice and performance of HSE MS in oil servicing companies in Rivers State, Nigeria and provide references for further studies.

Chapter street space to move about, but also

Chapter 1

1.1 Introduction
Mehsana city is one of the important city in the north Gujarat. Number of people come to Mehsana for the job aspect and education aspect from the neighbor’s city like patan and palanpur. So that parking is very important factor in Mehsana city. So that One of the problem created by road traffic is parking. Not only do vehicle required street space to move about, but also do they require space to park where to park where the occupants can be loaded and unloaded. Parking system is very important for the transportation system in India. So it can be design by two major method which are on-street parking and off-street parking. In now a day in India vehicle culture are fast growing so that it create a lack of parking spaces in cities. So it can make a one of the biggest problem in the city. The most of parking and traffic problem in city which making a main CBD area like a shopping mall, bazar. Now a day major cities accepted the smart future parking system like a multy story parking, underground parking, roof parking so it could be helpful to control the parking problem.Parking control has become the chief means available to cities all over the world do limit congestion. It is the enforcement of laws and regulations. The size of average parking space is 14m2. This result in a great demand for parking the CBD and other area where the other acitivites are concentrated. Parking should be control by below method which are:-
There are two type of parking system
1 On-street Parking
2 Off street parking
On street parking
On street parking means the vehicles are parked on the sides of the street itself. This will be usually controlled by government agencies itself. Common types of on-street parking are as listed below. This classification is based on the angle in which the vehicles are parked with respect to the road alignment. As per IRC the standard dimensions of a car is taken as 5× 2.5 meters and that for a truck is 3.75× 7.5 meters.
1. Parallel parking: The vehicles are parked along the length of the road. Here there is no backward movement involved while parking or unparking the vehicle. Hence, it is the most safest parking from the accident perspective. However, it consumes the maximum curb length and therefore only a minimum number of vehicles can be parked for a given kerb length. This method of parking produces least obstruction to the on-going traffic on the road since least road width is used. The length available to park N number of vehicles, L = N 5.9
2. 30? parking: In thirty degree parking, the vehicles are parked at 30? with respect to the road alignment. In this case, more vehicles can be parked compared to parallel parking.
3. 45? parking: As the angle of parking increases, more number of vehicles can be parked. Hence compared to parallel parking and thirty degree parking, more number of vehicles can be accommodated in, length of parking space available for parking N number of vehicles in a given kerb is L = 3.54 N+1.77
4. 60? parking: The vehicles are parked at 60? to the direction of road. More number of vehicles can be accommodated, length available for parking N vehicles =2.89N+2.16.
5. Right angle parking: In right angle parking or 90? parking, the vehicles are parked perpendicular to the direction of the road. Although it consumes maximum width kerb length required is very little. In this type of parking, the vehicles need complex maneuvering and this may cause severe accidents. This arrangement causes obstruction to the road traffic particularly if the road width is less. However, it can accommodate maximum number of vehicles for a given kerb length. Length available for parking N number of vehicles is L = 2.5N.
Off street parking
In many urban centers, some areas are exclusively allotted for parking which will be at some distance away from the main stream of traffic. Such a parking is referred to as off-street. Off-street parking means parking your vehicle anywhere but on the streets. These are usually parking facilities like garages and lots. Off-street parking can be both indoors and outdoors. Off-street parking also includes private lots, garages and driveways. The users of on-street parking are casual users who use the space for a short period of time. Off street parking users differ from short to long-term, i.e. monthly tenants and regular users. In many urban centers, some areas are exclusively allotted for parking which will be at some distance away from the mainstream of traffic. Such a parking is referred to as off-street parking. They may be operated by either public agencies or private firms.

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Chapter resorts add to the high-class notoriety

Chapter 1 – Introduction
1.0 Introduction

As indicated by (Sharpley 2002), tourism is one of the biggest and quickest developing enterprises and is a redirecting marvel that is of real significance. In Mauritius tourism can be considered as one among the primary monetary column. Throughout the years, tourism improvement has prompted an ascent in the quantity of business, way of life, preservation of recorded destinations and numerous infrastructural advancements.

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Tourism is getting to be one of the world’s significant ventures. It isn’t just confined to activities in the hospitality segment itself, amusement and also transportation are likewise vital areas included, alongside settlement, attractions and different activities. Tourism is an exchange requiring a level of management and assessment by the nation’s government, which landed it in the economy unit (Simoni and Mihai, 2012). Most nations currently advantage monetarily from this developing area, with a developing readiness from the tourist’s part to fly to various destinations. The effects might be short or long term; immediate or backhanded; nearby, national, or worldwide; and positive or negative (Hunter and Green, 1995).

Tourism ends up being one of the key segments that drives the regions’ budgetary improvement. The guests’ costs on settlement, nourishment, shopping and relaxation, among others. Therefore, the techniques for effectively assembling, dealing with, separating and applying quantifiable data from visitors have been of fundamental noteworthiness to tourism specialists, approach creators and pros. Tourism can meet people’s expanding material and social needs. It can upgrade people’s personal satisfaction, extend their potential outcomes, enhance their knowledge, and cause social change.

For as far back as decades, Mauritius has been known as a marvellous goal, that is, lovely sandy shorelines, turquoise tidal ponds and an assortment of 5 stars resorts add to the high-class notoriety of this heaven goal. Notwithstanding, when you live on a little island, the maxim ‘what comes around goes around’ takes a radical new measurement. An ever increasing number of sightseers are visiting our island hence exhausting our common assets and expanding the rate of land contamination. In this way, as the tourism business is one of the mainstays of the Mauritian economy, it is the obligation of every inbound administrator to secure the ‘best end’ notoriety of tourism in our nation and makes each undertaking to guarantee that guided vacationer bunches are earth cognizant and approach with deference our beach front condition, natural life, sights and landmarks, social legacy and furthermore neighbourhood traditions and sensitivities.”

Tourism has likewise achieved another idea that is sustainable tourism development. In the (Bruntland report 1987), the WCED characterizes sustainable development as the advancement that addresses the issues of the present without trading off the capacity of future ages to address their own issues. Sustainable tourism improvement is likewise about including occupants in tourism growth. Sustainability and sustainable development are challenged terms, as sustainability can refer to pure monetary goals, overlooking parts of intensity, value, investment, assurance and utilization. (Font and Goodwin) comprehend sustainability in RT as a general goal, in light of financial, social and environmental manageability, referred to as the ‘three pillars’ or the ‘triple bottom line’. This definition still perceives economical growth as one key segment for being sustainable, however foresees that exchange offs should be made and that consolidating the three is certainly not a straight forward task (Goodwin, 2011; Font and Goodwin, 2012).

Sustainability with regards to tourism would imply that the vacationer business impacts emphatically on the Mauritian culture by being savvy and also ecological cordial. Sustainable tourism, in a more contemporary manner is introduced to as ecotourism which according to the Oxford online lexicon is by all accounts a term referring to the preservation of environment on a long-term premise with attempt to protect local wild life, and again as indicated by the Oxford word reference, it is by all accounts a term that has first been utilized and investigated by the Associated Press Newswire in the year 1980.

Two fundamental factors that may threaten sustainable tourism are political precariousness and natural issues. The magnificent setting of our nation is the thing that pulls in travellers to Mauritius: enchanting atmosphere, wild life and marine life. Tourism would never again be sustainable on the off chance that it wrecks the environment for which voyagers go to our nation.

The United Nations World Travel Organization, lined up with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), has made it its main goal for 2017 to bring issues to light on the capability of Sustainable Tourism to help create goals. With an excess of a billion worldwide voyagers travelling to the far corners of the planet in 2015, it has turned out to be inevitable for organizations, open division and vacationers to think about the 3 P’s (People, Planet and Profit) while voyaging. The point: to limit tourism’s negative effects on nature and boost the positive commitments it conveys to nearby networks.

There are different locales menaced; La Cambuse is a brook of wild character, connected to the marine stop of Blue Bay, under the risk of a noteworthy lodging venture. The shoreline of Le Bouchon, alongside “La Cambuse” is undermined by urbanization in the wake of the “Mon Trésor Smart city” project. The paleontological site of Mare-aux-Songes is debilitated by both the previously mentioned ventures. In St. Félix 31,4 sections of land (arpents) of shoreline de plage consumed for a lodging venture by “Clear Ocean Hotel and Resort”. Undermined by the “Brilliant City” venture by “Island Summer Palace Ltd”, the locale known as Trou Diable in Roches-Noires is presumably the vastest zone of the island still not manufactured, facilitating such an extraordinary biological community.

As far as tourism, support for the essential hypothesis of attitude can be clarified in that resident’s mentalities cannot just basically mirror the resident’s view about tourism and its effects, however can likewise demonstrate the aftereffect of communication between the latter’s perceptions and elements influencing their states of mind (Lankford et al., 1994). The impact components of occupants’ mentality are assorted; all the effect factors are factors that could change at various phases of tourism advancement and with various encounters. Despite the fact that the attitude research is problematic and needs to stay up with the latest analysis results at normal interims, understanding the occupants’ present points of view on nearby tourism improvement is important. In a sense, occupants’ impression of tourism can reflect how local people more often react towards visitors, their values.

Besides, resident’s cooperation and support assume a huge part in tourism advancement. (Long 2012) expressed that the tourism business depends on the connection amongst social and cultural structures. On the off chance that tourism improvement is spontaneous then it tends to be extremely critical. Thusly, it is vital to determine resident’s discernment toward tourism effects and this investigation goes for evaluating occupant’s state of mind towards Sustainable Tourism Development in Mauritius. In this study, resident’s mentality towards sustainable tourism advancement and impacts of tourism will be evaluated. This is for the most part to see whether the negative effects exceed the positive one. Likewise, it will likewise decide network interest, local’s support for tourism lastly propose a legitimate suggestion to eradicate the negative effects.

1.1 Problem Statement

Mauritius has been a vital tourism goal whereby the quantity of visitor’s entry for the initial nine months of 2014 was expanded by 4.5% to 725,621 tourists (Statistics Mauritius 2014). Throughout the years with the extension of the tourism business, the effects of tourism have drawn the consideration of numerous researchers. These effects as indicated by (Hunter and Green 1995) might be known as short or long term: immediate or roundabout; local national, or worldwide: and positive or negative. That is the reason: the idea of sustainable tourism advancement has been intended to make equity between economic, environmental and sociocultural effects. Thus, the investigation of resident’s attitude is a standout amongst the most valuable intends to have a superior comprehension about the distinctive tourism impacts. (Andriotis 2005) expressed that for long term and outstanding tourism development is merely vulnerable on host’s community perception towards tourism and travellers and along these lines ought to be created by the needs and desires of the host network, as resident’s attitudes is critical for visitor’s satisfaction and repeat visitation. (Sheldon and Abenoja. 2001; Swarbrooke, 1993). In short, it very well may be said that, for fruitful tourism to happen, specialists should consider expanding the positive effects while limiting the negative one.

It has been perceived that tourism development is a twofold edged sword for the host community (Wang et al. 2006). It doesn’t just create cost yet additionally incite costs. With the utilization of the social trade hypothesis, expenses and advantages have a connecting relationship in regards to occupant’s state of mind toward tourism development in Mauritius.

The issue with surveying the nearby community’s tolerance for tourism in a host destination is that reviews have been made just by western analysts, and this speaks to a snag while assessing the financial effects on environmental and social factors in the host destination. Our present investigation will rotate around the effect of tourism on the lives of the resident’s populace of an island destination where the effect of tourism is very noteworthy, given that it’s the principal monetary column and income generator of a developing country.

It is important to address and examine, past the monetary field, the approach in regards to the personal satisfaction of life of residents in a developing host destination, for example, Mauritius, in connection with the presence of tourists.

Along these lines, this study has been led to get a better idea of resident’s attitudes toward the effects of tourism and sustainable tourism advancement in Mauritius.

Chapter 2 – Literature Review

This part will focus around the theoretical aspect of the study. This will be an outline of the different examinations led on the issue, including all the conflicting outcomes. It is an investigation of the distinctive effects that impact the perceptions and attitudes of residents towards the development of sustainable tourism.
A literature review is a secondary source which helps to compare and to understand the many theories and methodologies used for the results of a specific topic.
2.0 Introduction

Set the tourism industry is complex. Tourism is envisaged, interpreted and developed differently depending on the issues of the people because it is an abstraction of a wide range of consumer activities requiring products and services (leisure, commerce, craftsman…). Like what (OECD 1991) observes that “tourism is a concept that can be interpreted differently depending on the context: tourism can cover tourists, or what “the tourists, or workers who care for them, and so on. Similarly, (WTO 1995) defines tourism as “the activities of people travelling. and stay out of their usual environment for a consecutive year to of leisure, business and other purposes”, while the (WTO 1996) says that tourism is a rather general term that can refer to consumption tourists, to the production units providing goods and services including tourists, or even a set of legal units or areas “geographical linked in a way or another to tourists.”
To sum up in more concise terms, tourism can be defined as a set of socio-economic activities carried out by or for tourists. Those made by tourists correspond to what are the tourists, while those made for tourists correspond to what are other socio-economic institutions to meet the needs of the tourists. That deserves to be pointed out, is that so defined tourism is neither a pure phenomenon of the demand or supply (UN and world Organization of tourism, 1993).

2.1 Defining Tourism and Tourism Development

Numerous tourism scholastics have conceded that tourism is a difficult phenomenon to depict as it speaks to an amalgamation of goods and services including hospitality co-made to deliver the last tourism encounter. As indicated by the (UNWTO 2013), tourism is the development that comprises of voyaging and remaining in a place that is very surprising from common environment for not over a year with the end goal of relaxation, diversion business, and some more.

The tourism business is one of the biggest single industries overall which has been censured for its unsustainable practices, for example, the deterioration and misuse of the earth and local populace; little promise to specific destinations: control through vast transnational enterprises: unsustainable arranging of physical components, little activity for awareness raising and usage of sustainable activities just for good exposure and decreasing costs (Swarbrooke. 1999: Mowforth and Mum. 2009). Yet, (Mowforth and Munt 2009) pointed out that apart from unsustainable practices there are substantially more illustrations cases of good ecological practice joined by benefit.

2. 2 Sustainable Tourism and Sustainable Development

The UNWTO characterizes sustainable tourism as – tourism that assesses its present and future monetary, social and environmental effects, tending to the requirements of visitors the business, the earth and host networks”. The term practical tourism is embraced from (Inskeep’s (1991), who characterizes economical tourism as being focused to secure the earth meeting fundamental human needs, advancing current and intergenerational value and enhancing the personal satisfaction surprisingly. (Inskeep 1991: 495).

Sustainable tourism should make utilization of insignificant natural assets regarding socio cultural genuineness of local communities lastly guaranteeing nonstop monetary development. To accomplish sustainable tourism, it ought to be a consistent procedure that controls the effects whereby actualizing distinctive measures.

Sustainable tourism ought to likewise keep up important experience to the traveller and principle an awesome level of satisfaction, and additionally advancing sustainable tourism methods among them. For tourism development to be sustainable, (Butler 1991) recommended that strategies ought to be all around composed, there ought to be exceptional planning, and acknowledgment of impediments on development, and a long-term vision ought to be proficient amid the planning gage.

2.3 Local Resident as stakeholder in the tourism industry

A stakeholder can be classified ‘we any gathering or person who can influence or is influenced by the accomplishment of the association’s points and targets’ (Freeman 1984. p.46). In tourism development, different performing actors are included, for example, governments, host communities, private sectors and so on. In actuality (Theobakl 2005), specify that for tourism advancement to happen in any destination the investment of all partners for the most local resident’s contribution in decision-making of the tourism improvement process is of awesome significance.

As indicated by (Swarbrooke 1999), community cooperation is a focal angle in sustainable tourism improvement and locals ought to adequately be associated with tourism planning and they should be ready to keep up the local tourism industry and its exercises. Moreover, the idea of community participation has been contended in a few researches about for a few reasons (Hall, 2000).

Right off the bat, have contribution being developed procedures is probably going to energize towards taking compelling choices and motivate local residents. Also, host population will probably contribute more in safeguarding nature and their environment. Thirdly as per (Simmons 1994), being a service industry, tourism requires the altruism and co-activity of host networks. Finally, satifaction among visitors is probably going to be uncommon particularly where local people’s help is included and they take pride in their tourism (Hall 1999).
2.4 Worldwide Significance of Sustainable

Tourism Sustainable tourism can assume an essential part to be a powerful instrument for understanding the Millennium Development Objectives. It is turned out to be noteworthy in tending to the principal objective connected to poverty alleviation: giving sustainable improvement chance to secluded, poor societies, even in the most difficult to reach wide open areas. Globally, tourism contributes altogether to the countries’ gross national item (GNP). The sector delivers roughly 4.4% of the aggregate (GDP) and employs around 200 million individuals. That is the reason, the yearly number of visitors to global destinations has expanded continuously from 25 million to 808 million somewhere in the range of 1950 and 2005 accordingly. (WTO, 2006.) Moreover, this segment delivering immense measure of income which is more than US$800 billion (WTO, 2006). It is seen from African mainland that the entry of international tourists has expanded quickly from 28 million to 40 million somewhere between 2000 and 2005 while the yearly normal development is 5.6 % a year, contrasted with worldwide and rate is 3.1 a year – brought about a multiplying of receipts from US$10.5 billion to US$21.3 billion. Tourism can assume the crucial part to enhance the general financial improvement through the facility of streets, phones, piped and treated water supplies, waste disposal and reusing and sewage treatment and that may expand more open doors for further development and make benefits for the division and it might support in the sustainable management of ensured zones and support the insurance of normal assets as local communities can understand the cost of their advantage through benefit sharing. All exports of services which tourism makes that is almost 40% and making it one of the prime gatherings of global exchange, with more potential that may profit poor nations. (WTO, 2006.)
2.5 Benefits of Sustainable Tourism

Tourism isn’t just the world’s quickest developing industry yet in addition a noteworthy wellspring of wage for some nations. Sustainable tourism gives numerous occupations chances to local individuals which enhance the personal satisfaction, diminish poverty and help nearby economies (Tourism Australia, 2013.) It shields and jam biodiversity, save regular assets for future age, hold characteristic cycles in marine waterfront biological community and secure the nature of the earth by ecological system and decline working expenses by taking activities that reduce waste, water and energy consumption. Moreover, it supports to advance development and new reasoning in the advancement of sustainable goods and services and permit to take the change of future chances. (Tourism Australia, 2013.) Moreover, it extends investment opportunities with long term sustainability plans and increment long term productivity by setting designs in a place. It protects the destination allure and achieves efficiency and sparing business makeover in exercises. But every one of these tourists can accumulate an incredible nature of involvement in their life which invigorate their brain and persuade to make the outing frequently. (UNWTO, 2005.)


Sustainability has three crucial pillars which ought to be considered for the improvement of tourism. The idea of the three mainstays of sustainability has been acknowledged everywhere throughout the world. The tourism connected affiliations need to take a gander at the three mainstays of economical tourism. These are social, environment and economic sustainability. These three zones ought to be thought about by communities, organizations, and people. The primary point of sustainable improvement is to guarantee a clear and dependable harmony between these three measurements. Sustainable tourism management must be effective if the between connections between every one of the three measurements are acknowledged (Swarbrooke, 2002. 47.)

2.7 Tourism Impacts
The tourism industry is one of the extensive somas of earning foreign currency and generating revenue. Thus. according to (Huang 1993) tourism impacts are brought about by the process or the influence of tourism development and are the result of net changes within the host communities. Tourism has both negative as well as positive impacts on the local community and the environment. (Mathieson and Wall 1982) argue that tourism impacts results from multiple interdependence among host communities. tourists, and natural environments. This can be explained in through components that is, economic, environmental and socio-cultural impacts.

2.7.1 The Economic aspects
Several studies have shown that in general, the economic aspect is what brings a welcoming community to adopt a positive attitude in respect of the inbound tourism (King et al, 1993). Generally, the economic dimension is the main cause of the positive attitudes of the residents. However, they have also the ability to distinguish between the positive and negative aspects of tourism their community and thus to assess the context in which the industry is developing.
One of the most appreciated aspects by residents of this drop is the creation of employment opportunities (Aguiló, Barros, Garcia and Rosselló, 2004, Andereck and Nyaupane, 2011, Sharma and Carter, 2007, Gursoy et al., 2002, Haralambopoulos and Pizam, 1996.)
(Yoon, Gursoy, ; Chen, 2001) suggests that tourism is a source income for locals.
Residents also benefit from tourism to the extent that their gives more possibilities of negotiation and in this way create a local business environment.
Residents also noted that tourism will be a series of improvements in community infrastructure and public facilities (Andereck and Vogt, 2000; Andereck et al. 2005)On the other hand, the less valued tourist aspect for them is its seasonality (Bujosa ; Rosselló, 2007).
On one hand, tourism creates employment opportunities but, on the other hand, also requires to deal with both irregular on the needs of workforce. The compromise is clear: If there is no activity, not of compensation, tourism workers will have to find another activity or benefit from an allocation of unemployment for the month not seasonal (Cerezo ; Lara of Vicente, 2005).
It is obvious that the tourist activities influences the cost of living (Bujosa and Rosselló, 2007, Liu and Var, 1986, McGehee and Andereck, 2004 and Saveriades 2000), which has increased the prices of goods and services in general, led to a increase in the cost of goods and services the standard of living rises, as inflation (Akis et al., 1996) andtherefore, property value and housing price increase and including the value of the land, which has affected a large part of the population to buy their first house (Anton ; Gonzalez, 2008).
The overall assessment of this impact is generally positive, because the residents acknowledge that the tourism industry enriches the fabric of the Community (Andereck et al., 2005). Studies show that the benefits economic are the hottest and the most wanted by the local people (Akis et al., 1996, Liu et al., 1987, Ritchie, 1988).
As a general rule, the economic benefits have an important influence on the attitudes of locals towards tourism because they are likely to improve it.
Profits or increases in the local economy (Gursoy et al., 2002; Lost and al.,. 1990) for this reason, almost all studies examining between benefits economic gain and attitudes towards tourism have indicated a relationship positive (Allen, Long, lost and Keiselbach, 1988, Davis, Allen and Cosenza, 1988)

2.7.2 The Social aspects
Tourism has an effect on the local sociocultural characteristics, affecting the habits, customs, social life, beliefs and values residents of the tourist destination.
On the sociocultural interaction between local residents and tourists can lead to social and cultural opportunities or, in the otherwise, generate feelings of distress, pressure, congestion, etc. at different times in the life of the inhabitants, threatening their cultural identity and their social reality.
Some studies have shown that the residents positively appreciated the fact thattourism has a positive influence on the services offered by the community (Andereck and Vogt, 2000, Andereck et al, 2005). It creates recreational opportunities (Andereck and Nyaupane, 2011, Andereck and Vogt, 2000). It stimulates the cultural activities, interest for the maintenance and preservation of buildings historical and archaeological sites (Akis et al, 1996, Korça, 1996, Liu et al..,).
From a social point of view, the locals may recognize that tourism is increasing
delinquency and vandalism (Haralambopoulos and Pizam, 1996, Dogan, 1989,)
(quoted in Andereck et al., 2005), serious crimes. It also results in an increase of the drug use as well as alcohol consumption and finally, tourism can lead to prostitution (Liu and Var, 1986, Sheldon and Abenoja, 2001).
The attitudes of residents towards the socio-cultural impacts of tourism have been
widely studied. However, this research has produced results contradictory. Some studies report that residents have also tendency to perceive negative socio-cultural aspects (Andereck and) Al., 2005; Andriotis, 2005), while others argue that tourists consider tourism as offering various benefits to their community (Besculides et al., 2002). A possible direct relationship was observed between the positive assessment of the socio-cultural impacts and support for tourism.
However, other studies suggest that the development of tourism brings probably benefits to the host community, but also social costs (Gursoy et al., 2002, Teye, Sönmez and Sirakaya, 2002, Tosun, 2002). Therefore, there is no consensus on this spin-off and studies suggest that, according to the context and circumstances in which tourism is growing. This will, to a greater or lesser extent, affect the appearance sociocultural.

2.7.3 The Environmental aspects
Tourism can be a reason of protection and preservation of resources but also can damage or even destroy because it is often developed in attractive but fragile environments.
Residents also identify environmental in duality their community: positive and negative (Liu and alii, 1986, Liu et al, 1987, Yoonet al., 2001). Residents appreciate the fact that tourism helps to conserve resources natural.In addition, he embellishes the image of their city and their environment.
However, some studies show, that tourism can be a source of pollution (Johnson et al, 1994, Yoon et al., 2001) and garbage and above all, he recognizes the overcrowding and congestion (Andereck and al., 2005, Brunt and Courtney, 1999, Johnson et al..,) and, therefore, the effort must be the settlement in the facilities and public resources.
Many studies (Bujosa ; Rosselló, 2007) identify the negative aspects or the concerns of the residents for the environment. However, even if this dimension is important for the community, as demonstrated by the study Liu and Var (1986), it is not significant enough to make them loans to lower their standard of living. It seems that residents prefer support
Tourism, and highlight the benefits rather than damage environmental.

2.8 Conclusion
(Akis, et al 1996, Easterling 2004 and Harill 2004) suggest that tourism has become one of the world’s rapid growing sectors pursued by many destinations for its economic benefits. As a concluding note it can be said that residents seem to be are concerned about tourism development whether it is positive or negative impacts. If all the stakeholders work together then surely the wonky will be able to achieve sustainable tourism development. (Ap 1992) suggested that residents’ attitudes towards tourism depended on the exchange between a resident and a tourist.

Chapter 3 – Research Methodology
3.0 Introduction

This chapter gives an overview of what type of techniques was used in this study and how the data was compiled to get the intuited information to meet the objectives. The research method chosen is very important to determine the answers you will need at the end of survey. Choosing the right type of method for your study will help you to get the right answers and the right information needed.
Research methodology ‘is a method to solve the research problem systematically and it is a science of learning how research is carried out scientifically’.
Concerning this research paper, the research method used is a mixed method which leads to both quantitative (which emphasises on the collection of numerical data) and qualitative answers (This is based on words, feelings, emotions and other non-numerical and unquantifiable elements. Qualitative data cannot be analysed by mathematical techniques). Data was collected through a set questionnaire containing close ended (which can be answered by only a set number of answers).Open ended questions were asked separately during the interviews to get more in depth answers and to have a better understanding of what Mauritians resident’s thoughts about sustainable tourism and this way it is will be easier to determine their attitudes towards it.
A face to face interview has been conducted with hotel’s employees, people in the tourism industry and hospitality’s students to know about the resident’s perception of sustainable tourism development, that is whether they are fully aware or not of what is happening on the island. The population size for the interview is 10 interviewees (Hotel’s employees, hospitality’s students and other sectors). The advantages of face to face interview are; more and in-depth information can be obtained There is greater flexibility as the opportunity to rearrange questions is always there, in case of unstructured interviews.
However, the drawbacks for face to face interview are: it is a very costly, especially when the sample is large and wide. It is time consuming when the sample is large and needs to recall upon the respondents arc necessary’.


There have been several studies mostly conducted in developed destinations around the world analysing residents’ perceptions and attitudes towards tourism impacts, in the United Stated of America (Long, Perdue ; Allen, 1990; McCool ; Martin, 1994; Sharma ; Dyer, 2009) and Australia (Raymond ; Brown, 2007). But fewer have been carried out in fragile and developing destinations. Recently, there is more and more attention focused on these evolving destinations, such as in Korea (Ko ; Stewart, 2002), in Turkey (Kuvan ; Akan, 2005), in Ghana (Amuquandoh, 2010), in Iran (Zamani-Farahan ; Musa, 2012) and in Mauritius (Nunkoo ; Gursoy, 2012).
This research is going to be focused on Mauritius Island’s residents. Mauritius Island is a very touristic destination with an increase of 3.6 % in tourist arrivals during the first quarter of 2017 and with 339 682 visitors against 327 836 for the same period in 2016. In addition to being a very safe country, this island regroups several high end luxury hotels and resorts, all surrounded by “heavenly” scenery and service. This is what makes Mauritius so appealing tourists coming from all over the world. Mauritius is home to 1,221,975 residents (population forecast for July 2017), in comparison to 1,345,000 tourists who visited Mauritius in 2017 (and a forecast for tourist arrivals of 1,425,000). The government was expecting 2 million tourists annually since 2015. For the government to anticipate such a big number, the tourism industry in Mauritius could only be developing very fast. As a conclusion, the tourism industry occupies a crucial role within the Mauritian community; tourists are very present and are becoming even more numerous compared to the local population. This shows just how important the tourism industry for the Island, if not one of the most important industries and economic pillars of the country. Mauritius went from being highly dependent on the agricultural industry and being a low income country to being a middle income country with the help of the growing tourism sector (Lasansky D, Medina, 2004). With tourism having such an important role in the economy, it is bound to have impacts on the local community, given that they’re the ones either working for the industry, involved in the community, not working in the industry and being affected by its impacts, or both working in it and being affected.

3.2 WHY?

Several questions have been raised lately about the impacts of tourism development on the island and residents began to act and to take the floor. A recent movement titled “Aret kokin nu laplaz” was launched by local people who don’t agree with the use of local beaches tourist constructions.
This type of study in Mauritius is very important because the evaluation of the perception of residents on the impacts of tourism will contribute to the development of tourism in the long term. Ignoring the perceptions of these residents, won’t lead to the expansion of these last, or worse, lead to more negative incidents. Research on the subject will also avoid other conflicts, that may occur between locals and tourists, and no one wants such a consequence in a country dependent on tourism, and whose economy is dependent on the industry.

Work in a spirit of openness environmental long-term will feature a harmonious space both for tourists and for residents.
Aim for a sustainable tourism sector will also participate in the awareness populations, and education on how to preserve the product contributing to the economic growth of their countries, and which concern the tourists, strongly draw their attention to respect for the destination that they visit.

3.3 Research Design
According to (Churchill and lacobucci 2002), a research design is a process that involves having important decisions about the main concern being given to a series of dimensions of the research process, the purpose what and who will be stud ‘ h to be used for practical data collection and analysis. For this secondary data have been used.
The primary data can result from collecting questionnaires observation techniques, and online surveys. For this study, questionnaires and interviews were mainly used to collect the required data. On the other hand, the secondary data were collected via internet, online journal articles from Science Direct, Sage publication, Emerald, Ebsco magazines and books. Thus for this study, a mixed method has been used to better evaluate the answers of the respondents.

3.4 Questionnaire Design
(Dillman to Whiten 2000), questionnaires are considered to be a well-established collecting data within social science research. Questionnaire is a set of questions that has been prepared to ask questions and collect answers from respondents relating to research area. A questionnaire ‘is consisted of a set of questions typed or printed in a definite order on a form’ Questionnaires therefore tend to be used for descriptive or explanatory research.
For a survey to be successful, it should be well designed, simple and clearly shown why this study is being taking place. The goal of the questionnaire is mainly to know the awareness of residents towards Sustainable Tourism at in Mauritius. The questions set were mainly to know whether residents knowledge on sustainable tourism development, whether local government is develop the tourism industry in a sustainable way, whether they are active in participation and whether they support the tourism industry, the opinion of residents towards the positive and negative impacts of tourism, to know about community participation in decision making process. And finally a very important section that is the demographic part such as gender, age, group, level of education, occupation, dependency of tourism and length of tourism. All the above sections in the questionnaire will help to assess the resident’s attitude towards sustainable tourism development. The copy of the questionnaire is attached in the appendices.

3.5 Sample Size
A sample can be defined as a small group chosen from the survey population and a way to make general statement about the whole survey population based on the responses of only a small percentage of the total survey population. (Ken Brown. p.420). Currently Mauritius has a population of 1,268,315 inhabitants. Thus, for this study the targeted survey population was mainly Mauritians and the sample size was 150 residents.
The targeted population was from different parts of the island, mainly from coastal areas such as Flic-en- Flac, Blue Bay, Riambel, Grand Baie, Flacq, Chamarel Le Morne and so on. These areas were chosen because there are many sites of attraction and local residents have the opportunity to get in contact with them as well as they can see the impacts from a broader perspective. There they will be able to answer in a proper manner with their daily experiences of life.
For this study, simple random sampling method was use where everybody has an equal chance of participating. Everyone can answer the questionnaire provided they are willing to. Thus, questionnaires were distributed among different age group, gender, communities and so on. Regarding the qualitative method, it was more in depth in the view of understanding why these residents gave the answers they did, and what is the depth of the issue with tourism’ impacts on the community. This will be done through a maximum of 10 interviews within the sample of people interviewed for the survey.

3.6 Pilot testing

The questionnaire was tested through a pilot survey before going to the respondents. Fifteen employees were selected for the pilot test of the questionnaire. It was done to gain appropriate answers that were in line with the objectives of the study and also to test the comprehensiveness of the questionnaire by the respondents and the structure of the questions.
3.7 Time Frame

The surveys as well as the interviews were made as from July to August The surveys were done through and were shared on social platforms and sent through email. The interviews were done face to face with the candidates in the street, at school, in a hotel and a few through Skype. The surveys were posted at the same time during the day, however, the interviews were made at different times, some during the morning, others during the afternoon, etc. Some people weren’t available at the time of the interviews, which is why they took place at different hours and during different days of the week. It took approximately three weeks to collect all the answers for the surveys and two weeks to collect those of the interviews

3.8 Data collection
Questionnaires used for this study was mainly distributed face to face whereby a small informal conversation can be done to give the respondent an encouragement to fill them. Most of the respondents were youngsters that are 18 years old and above as they have a broader perspective of what is going on in the country. There were 150 questionnaires that were distributed and out of this 100 questionnaires were completed successfully. The survey began on 1st July and ended on the 1st August. These questionnaires were distributed among students, relatives and colleagues of my internships for about three weeks. Then, the rest where distributed among professionals, unemployed, entrepreneurs and so on in different corner of the island. Those respondents were people passing by the street, beaches, the airport, supermarkets and shopping malls like Bagatelle. Shoprite and Jumbo. This was mainly to avoid bias and to obtain good result regarding the demographic factors. Therefore, the response rate was not reached and the remaining questionnaires were either incorrectly filled up or were left unanswered. Regarding the qualitative method, it was more in depth in the view of understanding why these residents gave the answers they did, and what is the depth of the issue with tourism’ impacts on the community. This will be done through a maximum of 10 interviews within the sample of people interviewed for the survey.

3. 9 Why the Mixed Method?

Picking both methods for such research is wise in a sense that this is a social issue. Quantitative research requires numbers and statistics. It is a fixed responses-based method of research enabling the researcher to gather structured facts. It is not an in-depth method as it leaves out some important information, which cannot be “measured” in some cases. Qualitative research methods allow more in-depth data collection; they’re exploratory and enable the researcher to assess the reasons why, opinions and other matters, which cannot be measured by statistics because it is not enough. While surveys in quantitative research are limited, with structured answers not allowing people to explain their views and opinions, interviews in qualitative research allow for more insight, they’re more subjective and focus on people’s experience of things. Choosing both methods is crucial because economic matters are involved as well as social matters. The mixed research method originated in social sciences and helps gather important information, which results in a more complete analysis of data. The qualitative research method can be used in this case to analyse and explain the quantitative data collected. Statistics and numbers collected will be interpreted through the qualitative method in order to analyse the residents’ personal experiences and why their answers from the quantitative surveys lead to the statistics given. Also mixing both methods enables a comparison between both and an understanding their differences and limitations, the latter proving how much using them both for a social research is important. Conclusion: this mixed research method enables a level of validation of the matter at hand. Both methods will validate each other and allow for a solid and relevant foundation. Why research on the issue? Multiple studies were conducted in the aim to assess what the residents’ perceptions are, without really looking into “why” these residents perceive sustainable tourism development the way they do. And this is primarily due to the choice of research methods used in the studies conducted.

3 .10 Limitations of the Study

Every study has its own limitations as the aims of the study may vary from societies to societies. For instance, regarding the study of resident’s attitude toward sustainable development in Mauritius, many inhabitants were unaware of the sustainable tourism development concept. Thus, while administrating the questionnaires some wording had to be explained to them to make it easier for them to understand. Using a mixed method was difficult because it wasn’t a qualitative questionnaire with open ended questions, but rather a questionnaire with close ended questions AND interviews reviewing past results with in-depth questions. Distributing the surveys got limited to 100 answers which could be analysed, and the rest was blocked by the website, unless it was paid for. The questionnaires had to be sent in two times because it generally did not accept more than 10 to 12 questions. This was definitely going to be very costly. In addition, working people took relatively more time to return the questionnaire due to lack of time. During the survey some respondents were also not willing to answer the questionnaire as they did not find it important and they did not want to lose their time. Finally it can also be noted that certain respondents were not so sure about their answers and they had to consult their friends or relative nearby to ask for advice especially where all the tourism impacts arc found. This shows that they did not reveal their true feelings and as such this may affect the actual remits. The realization of a study on the perceptions of residents as to the impacts of tourism on their quality of life, was quite difficult. First of all, this kind of topic is social, so people when questioned, there is necessarily the difficulties in communication, because each has person his or her own psychology to express an opinion or an idea.

Chapter 4 – Analysis and Interpretation

4.0 Introduction
The purpose of this chapter is to treat and analyze the data collected from both the quantitative and qualitative methods. We interpreted the results and concluded findings according to each research method used. As mentioned in the methodology chapter, data from each method was analyzed individually first, in order to compare both, make a correlation between them (if there was any) and come up with a general conclusion. Analysing the results was also done in order to examine the current situation of residents faced with sustainable tourism development and research if there are any new theories appearing through their attitudes and perceptions.


1) Candidates’ profiles

A general overview of the candidates’ profiles features that among 100 people who have answered the questionnaire, 50% were males and 50% were females. 81% are between 18 and 25 years old, 15% are between 25 and 35 years old, 2% are between 35-45 years old and 2% is between 45-50 years old and older. This displays a quite young population of participants. Regarding level of education, the lowest response rate was from primary level 3 % only, 28% secondary school, 10 % enrolled in technical schools, the highest response of 55% of those studying a bachelor degree and finally 10% holding a masters or doctorate.
In addition, for occupation, mostly students responded to the questionnaire with a percentage of 48% followed by other occupations; professionals with 34%, both managers and unemployed people with an outcome of 7%, retired 0% and last but not least 6% for other.
2) Economic benefits

In regards of the residents’ answers to tourism being economically beneficial to them, 70% among 100 people answered yes and the rest (30%) claimed that tourism wasn’t in any way economically beneficial to them.

3) Sustainable Development Investigation

People had different definitions of sustainable tourism and the opinions diversified though the 4 answers are quite similar. The majority 50% opted for protecting the resources for future generations followed by eco-tourism development 45%, 31% for protecting and preserving the environment and lastly 25% for Green Tourism. They had the choice to tick all the boxes as they could pick one, two or three as well to come up with the best definition of sustainable tourism. Among the 100 people, there is no doubt that Mauritians are aware that not much has been done yet to fulfil the needs of tourism, the environment and host communities. 66% poorly feel, 10 % very poorly feel it meaning that there is still a long way to go sustainable on the island. Only 4% vert strongly feels it followed by 22% who strongly feels that sustainable is not suffering. Opinions are mixed for the local government question is he/she willing to develop tourism in a sustainable way in Mauritius? 40% replied yes whereas 63% replied no.
Mauritians, still feel that the government should take more initiatives and be more engaged in the process of becoming eco-friendly.
4) Tourism Development

This question’s purpose was to know if residents think tourism is growing too rapidly. Also, saying that tourism is developing TOO fast in Mauritius shows that it’s a negative thing. 39% of 100 participants agreed that it was developing too fast, 44% answered no and the remaining 17% didn’t have an opinion on the matter. Those who didn’t have an opinion on the matter either didn’t care about tourism’s development because they weren’t working in the industry or simply didn’t have an opinion.

5) Community Participation

99% responded yes to any tourism development occurring in their community, only 1% answered no. It is very important to inform local resident about any development that is taking place. if the government want sustainable practices as local are consider as major stakeholder in the tourism industry. (Brown 2006) suggests that there is a sense of community pride when residents are informed.
The above figure shows that most of the respondents were not very active in community participation with a percentage of 66%. This is mainly because of their hectic life or simply because a lack of interest. In addition, 22% were active in community participation, 4% were very active and 10% were not active at all. Community evolution is all about gathering a group of people to work together by addressing their main interests in the local society (Maser, 1997). Community participation is very important to have successful development and thus resident should actively participate.
6) Tourism Impacts

This question’s aim was to analyse the resident’s point of view regarding a movement launched indirectly against tourism’s negative impacts. This movement exists because the government decided upon privatizing public beaches in detriment of resorts, which of course contribute to the tourism industry. The majority answered that they were with the movement (44%), 38% do not agree with the movement and 18% do not know the movement exists.
40 % of the people interviewed said that they were, 60% answered that they weren’t in favour for further tourism development in Mauritius. It gives a better idea that locals manifest against tourist invasion on the island.

7) Rate of participation of private sectors and local entrepreneurs

The above bar chart tells about the main bottlenecks promoting tourism activities
in Mauritius. The majority of the respondents agreed on the careless behaviour of the government policy and implementation with a percentage of 50%. Second position with 45% the careless behaviour of local people and tourism organisations. 31% stated the lack of government apprehension. 25% mentioned all of the above.

8) Ecological awareness

The above bar chart illustrates the ecological awareness in order to preserve the environment and natural issues. So that, the tourism related organizations can use them in a sensible way rather than being wasted. From the above mentioned chart it can be seen, 66 percent of respondents think that they have limited (satisfactory) knowledge about ecological awareness and 10% think they have no knowledge about the subject which is terrible., whereas 4 percent of respondents think that they are excellent in ecological issues. Similarly, 22 percent of respondents think that they are good on ecological awareness.


After assessing the answers to the quantitative research, all we can conclude is presented through numbers and statistics, therefore several theories appear. It was deemed necessary to go through with the qualitative research, interviewing some of these residents who had already answered the survey, and asking them to develop their answers and explain them in-depth, in order to understand who answered positively to which questions and to check if the theories were rational enough. The interviews’ questions were made with the intention of exploring furthermore some of the surveys’ answers.
The questions:
1. With what words or expressions can you describe the concept of sustainability?
2. How much sustainability is important in the tourism industry in Mauritius? What is your point of view on the issue?
3. Why is tourism beneficial to you? If not give examples
4. Are you in favour or not of sustainable tourism development?
5. Would you like to work in the service industry in the near future? Why or not? Explain your line of reasoning.

Profiles varied between people working in the tourism industry, students in tourism and hospitality management schools and people working in other sectors. 1) Among the nine residents interviewed, the majority are in favour of further sustainable tourism development. 1) They all came up with different definitions and concepts of sustainability but they are all linked in one way. 2) Some residents answered that sustainability on the island was important while other were sceptic stating that we need to make the changes now, or else what’s the point. 3) All the 9 interviewees had diverse opinions how tourism is beneficial to them; by awareness, for the local economy, creation of direct and indirect jobs, training for youngsters 4) All residents interviewed were not in favour of Tourism development. Some explained that it’s a major economic sector in Mauritius, if not the most important one. However, they would have preferred if it didn’t come at a social cost. 5) Most of the residents interviewed answered that they were already in the industry, some answered it depends on the salary, promotions, family-time while others showed no particular interest.


After analysing the several answers from the different profiles, we noted that the theory concluded earlier was confirmed. A Mauritian resident can have any job ranging from the hospitality and tourism sector to the medical field, they see tourism as economically beneficial to the country, but not necessarily to them, and therefore they are in favour to its development, even though it might not be personally beneficial to them as a person. They particularly mentioned that sustainable tourism development is a must in Mauritius, before it’s too late, the government must take necessary actions and if measures are not taken what’s the point of going green?

Here are two different profiles working in different industries, showing two different perceptions in regards to Tourism impacts.
Profile 6:
1. To be able to maintain something at the same rate. Some words that I can think of are to protect the environment and conserve energy.
2. I think it is important because being sustainable in the tourism industry means making sure that with all the developments the environment is still looked after. This also means that being sustainable you can provide jobs for more people.
3. It is because I work in the tourism environment and it is the tourism industry that is providing a lot of jobs lately and hence beneficial to me and many others.
4. I am because this means more jobs for more people although I think the government should ensure that they keep the idea of sustainable intact in the sense of keeping the environment protected and ensure it is a pleasurable development for locals and tourists.
5. I am already in the service industry and as I enjoy it I would love to remain in the industry. I think it is a chance to make a change and show people what Mauritius is all about and at the same time working with customers is a pleasant experience because I guess it is another satisfaction that people who work in it will understand!

Profile 3:

1. Sustainable development is based on a long-term approach which takes into account the inextricable nature of the environmental, social and economic dimensions of development activities.”

2. If Mauritius wants to maintain its competitive edge, I firmly believe that sustainable tourism – tourism that provides fresh, engaging experiences with a minimal ecological footprint – is the way to go. Because our environment deserves it. But also because, increasingly, travellers demand it.

3. Tourism does not benefit me personally, I am not in this sector. Tourism is expanding in Mauritius, though they need to rebrand and give a new image to Mauritius with distinct wow factors apart from the 3S. (sun, sea, sand)

4. Yes, as mentioned earlier, I am in favor of tourism development because it helps the country’s economy and is tourism is the main focus and most important sector. I do think tourism brings along many negative aspects such as pollution, congestion and parking problems, relatively the cost of living goes up and over-populated. The locals life are disrupted when visitors become a burden in their daily lives.

5. No, I have no intention joining the tourism industry. I am in the manufacturing industry. And I do believe if prompt actions are not taken quickly, the tourism industry will go down and this is already the case in terms of service, where Mauritius is no more recognised as the leader and main market for the Indian Ocean.

The perception that the residents have on sustainable tourism development can and will depend on the level of the impacts and their influence of the resident’s quality of life. Throughout the analysis of the findings, we realized that the residents’ perception of sustainable tourism development is influenced by the country’s economic dependence on the sector, which was not so apparent at the beginning. Their perception can change depending on the country’s economic dependence on the tourism industry as well as their own professional involvement in the sector. This lead to another hypothesis, in a country that is not economically dependent on the tourism industry, not many people would care about the development of the sector, but they would still care about the negative impacts it brings along.
The government involvement in the privatization of beaches also plays a crucial role in the impacts Tourism has on the country. If the government decides to expand the accessibility of the facilities to tourism’s interest, without taking the residents’ protests into consideration, there will be a backlash against Tourism (similarly to what’s happening in Barcelona with the anti-tourism marches and protests).

Chapter 5 – Conclusion
5.0 Introduction

As a concluding note, it can be said that the main objectives of this research was to assess residents’ perception towards sustainable tourism development in Mauritius. All the chapters are dedicated to the aim of the research in this study. The main objectives of this study was to assess the level of consciousness of residents toward the concept of sustainable tourism development in Mauritius, to find out if positive impacts surpass the negative impacts, to assess community participation in the decision making process concerning tourism development and finally to propose a valid recommendation and solutions to remedy the issues.
To know more about residents’ perception toward the impacts and sustainable concept, a survey was carried out to better understand their attitude. Thus a questionnaire was designed where only 100 respondents could answer the questions due to some limitations, where not even a half of the population voiced out their opinions. In addition, time constrains also it was impossible to gather a much larger sample but this would have helped in a broader view of the perceptions of the residents. However, despite those challenges, the research was eventually done and it helped in the study process. The questionnaire’s purpose was to test the awareness of resident towards the concept of sustainable development, and finally what they perceived as positive and negative impacts.
Mauritius is a multi-racial island. Therefore, it is obvious that resident will have different impacts from tourism. From this study, it can be deduced that negative impacts outweigh positive impact. This shows that the host population perceive more negative impacts of tourism. This study gave an overview of how residents attitude differ from each other.

5.1 Summary of Literature Review

Prior to launching the research process, opposing different theories with one another and the multiple findings from the past studies allowed for a broader view of the subject and an understanding of the core of the issue with the subject at hand. It has been said through several studies that unless the residents benefit economically from the Tourism industry, they will have a negative perception of its impacts. Other studies showed that residents, even though involved in the industry, will still criticize the negative impacts it has on their quality of life. Some others demonstrated that residents not working in the industry do not really have an opinion on the matter, while others still do. The literature review helped immensely with the presentation of the subject and the different perspectives encircling it. The research in itself was quite challenging seeing as the subject is of a social nature and is subject to ongoing changes. However, the procedure went on smoothly, despite the numerous challenging situations and was deemed useful and efficient for the research paper.

5.2 Finding’s theory

Following the study results, the findings consisted of some quite contradictory answers. Residents’ perception of tourism impacts was highly influenced by the severity of the impacts on their quality of life, as well as some economic factors. All in all, Mauritian residents perceive tourism as economically beneficial to the country, but they still protest against the fact that it brings along several negative impacts nowadays, including the privatization of beaches. Their attitude is highly linked to the future government decisions in regards to tourism regulations.

5.3 Recommendations

As mentioned above residents perceive more negative impacts than positive one, it can be said that from the economic impacts it can be said that local entrepreneur should maintain price to the level where local resident can afford the product as well. If prices of product keep on increasing then this may give rise to more negative impacts. On the environment side, it can be said that pollution is inevitable in the tourism industry, yet it can be reduced by adopting more sustainable measures such as in some hotels they are already engage in recycling their waste. Rut it is equally important for the host to protect their environment by minimising any action that would contribute to pollution.
Tourism is a revolutionary phenomenon and it is bound to have both positive and negative impacts. Resident should he educated more about tourism and the sustainable tourism development concept. Sometimes resident have the tendency to misinterpret action and thus they should learn more about behaviours of tourism. Very often, they have the tendency to view tourism behaviours as negative influences. Thus, by organising campaigns, workshop or open days in tourism related place local can get the chance to mingle with them.
In addition, in Mauritius after the sugarcane. the tourism industry is considered as one of the most significant pillar for the economy. From the above study it can be noted that many residents agreed to the fact that tourism is a major source of generating income. Thus. the government should try to bring out innovative activity where the beauty of Mauritius cane be explored in an efficient manner. It is also the duty of the who population to protect their environment and also maintain a good relationship with tourist. Residents’ attitude towards impact vary from individual to individual.
There must be a mutual understanding between local residents and tourists and they should maintain cultural ethics.
Since various visitors have distinct views and ethnic belongings, it is primordial to obtain their views and perceptions and get them engaged in the drive to preserve the native environment.
Green tourism sensitisation campaigns ought to be set up to raise visitor awareness on the environment.
Tourism organisers need to ensure economic development does not harm the environment; as such a careful balance should be maintained.
The government should also consider the establishment of an advisory panel for proper management of sustainable tourism.
An effective framework should be designed and set up to boost sustainable tourism in Mauritius.
Further research can be carried out with additional sustainability indicators, for instance institutional as stated in (Cottrell, Vaske, & Roemer, 2013) and research can further be extended to other islands in the Indian Ocean to evaluate their perception towards sustainable tourism
Conducting newer studies is a long-term necessity; it could even assist the government in making decisions in regards to regulating the Tourism industry, because these studies are made of concrete statistics.
Political decisions can be taken to keep the environment healthy whereby there is no social crises, as this may prevent tourism to flourish. “A stable political environment would therefore be economically viable to the tourist industry in Mauritius
More and more tourists are visiting our island thus depleting our natural resources and increasing the rate of land pollution. Therefore, as the tourism industry is one of the pillars of the Mauritian economy, it is the duty of all inbound operators to protect the ‘top-end’ reputation of tourism in our country and makes every endeavour to ensure that guided tourist groups are environmentally conscious and treat with respect our coastal environment, wildlife, sights and monuments, cultural heritage and also local customs and sensitivities.”

CHAPTER quantities of polysaccharides such as fucoidan,



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Macroalgae are members of the huge group of aquatic plants that known as algae. The algae are primitive photosynthetic plants that include the single celled phytoplankton of the multi-celled macroalgae, or seaweeds, that can range in size from microscopic to the giant kelps (Macrocystis) (Millar, 2011).
Red, green, and brown seaweed produce large quantities of polysaccharides such as fucoidan, alginic acid, fucoidan, agar, cellulose, laminarin and carrageenan. Alginate is one of the main organic components in seaweed, and is as high as 50% in brown algal species such as wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) (Skriptsova et al. 2004). These polysaccharides have a variety of applications including antioxidants (de Souza et al. 2007), antitumor agents (Fukahori et al. 2008), anticoagulants (Li et al. 2008), anti-inflammatory agents, cosmetics, food ingredients, industrial products (Dhargalkar and Pereira 2005), and production of biofuel (Hom et al. 2000). In 2016, the global production of aquatic plants, mostly seaweeds, reached 31.2 million tonnes, 96.5 % (30.1 million tonnes) of which was harvested from aquaculture (FAO 2018). Regarding increasing seaweed products, there has been an increase in the quantities of seaweed wastes that are produced by industries (Fei et al. 1999); for example, in Japan more than 200,000 tonnes of Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) is produced every year (Fujii and Korenage 2000). Another reasons in recent increased of seaweed waste is the eutrophication of coastal seawater resulting in a rapid increased in seaweeds growth and increased in drifting seaweeds (Tang et al., 2008). Furthermore, because most of this seaweed waste is confined in landfills or incinerated, the ability to either use or reduce the quantities of this harvested seaweed waste is receiving increased attention around the globe.
For preservation of the marine environment and recycling of organic substances, the utilization and the disposal are very important. However due to its complicated molecular structure, it is not easy for the general microorganisms to degrade the alginate contents in the seaweed. Thus it is important to find the effective way for disposal of seaweed wastes by seaweed polysaccharide like alginate degrading bacteria. The aim of this research is to isolate and characterize the seaweed degrading bacteria from marine herbivore animal gut and brown algae. In this research, isolation of the bacterium with seaweed degradability will be utilized for the future references for seaweed wastes disposal.


In the recent years, the increasing amount of the seaweed wastes were due to two main reasons; one is the increasing amount of industries that culturing the seaweeds as the industrials resources and another is the eutrophication of seawater which plays role in resulting in rapid growth of the seaweeds (Skriptsova et al. 2004).
In addition, while the increasing amount of seaweed wastes is continuously arising, the utilization of the seaweed wastes is still insufficient. There is only few ways for seaweed waste utilization that has been recognized globally though the research such as tumour inhibitor, anticoagulants, therapeutic agents and biofuel (Nayar and Bott, 2014).
Also the data that accounts for the seaweed degrading bacteria from the sample such as Holothuria atra and Padina australis still insufficient till the dates. However, there’s still lot of other research has been done for the seaweed degrading bacteria from the various samples. For example, the bacteria samples from the sea cucumber, sea urchin, rabbit fish and surfaces of the seaweeds. Thus, the aim of this study is to……………..


The finding of this study will provide the database on seaweed degrading bacteria from the bacterial isolates from the black sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) and brown seaweed (Padina australis) and their degradability characteristics. The finding from this study also can be used as a reference in utilization of the seaweed wastes for better use. With the better and sufficient choices of seaweed wastes utilization, it will also contribute to minimize the increasing of seaweed waste every year.


The aim of this study is to embark the following objectives:

1. Isolation of degrading bacteria from the gut of Holothuria atra and surface of Padina australis.

2. Observing the degradability of seaweeds polysaccharides by each bacterial isolate.


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