Back ground of the study:
Education is the key to success. The educational system has ancestry from prehistoric times – about 3500 BC – as evidenced by the first known pictograph. Since then, the government has maintained a pilot responsibility in the construction of the unrestricted instruction system we now have. A large number of factors determine the worth of education, such as the nature of the student, the environment in which student lives, teacher’s performance and academic environment. All of these factors are value able. In human society a family (family Latin: familia) is a group of blood related people associated either by documented birth or co-residence (Harper, 2014).
Achievements in education are possible due to deep understanding and efforts. Efforts in the field of education are made by teachers, school, students, the people around students such as family members and most importantly parents. Family is considered to be the most important factor in Eastern countries. Family is considered to be important in general term while the roles of parents are specific (Shafa, 2014). Learning of a child starts from his home. That’s why the academic achievement of a child is considered to be the motivation from his/her home. School is a place where students are motivated and encouraged to achieve something by their teachers (Yunus, 2014).
Achievements are not possible due the efforts of a single person because intelligence doesn’t matter if there is no moral support for students and it can be observed by student behavior. But an average student surely performs better when he or she have strong moral support by his family or guardian and her teachers. Here we can also say that some parents are highly concerned about the academics of their child they make
Sure the learning of child by different activities, they fully courage their child in academic as well as in social life by maintaining the environment. The impact of parent’s education on the intellectual presentation of children is noticeable in all states. Pamela and Kean (2010) states that the learner whose parents have a tertiary rank of schooling accomplish, notably better in assessment of discipline, appraisal and numerical skill as compare to the learner whose parents have only fundamental schooling. Thus, diagonally in these restraints the normal scores obtained by learners through highly educated parents ranged 7% high than those accomplished by learners with inadequately knowledgeable parents in evolving states to 45% higher in most developed states. Even the greater part of the text on parents’ schooling has through and constructive control on student’s attainment (Ryan and Deci, 2000).
And this all is possible when parents are educated because they know the worth of education and they want that their children also realize this. Parents are also considered as roll model in Pakistani society. Literature shares that the parent’s level of education can affect the child’s growth as educated parents have the skill to introduce knowledge acquired by them to their children. Educated and uneducated parents differ in the sense of being able to interpret and inscribe and the buildup of skills and understanding of certain fields of study. As stated by Khan, child education desires multidimensional hard work. Students, teachers, organization and parents all have their consequence in the progression of wisdom.
Parents’ education is a crucial factor for a child future. It has been shown that the children of educated parents are more positive, creative and skilled than the children whose parents are uneducated (Khan , 2015). While other people think that the living
area or surrounding of the child affect the child’s academic performance. While other people think that the living area or surrounding of the family affect the child’s academic performance. According to Anene, (2005) surroundings is the collection of all inner and outer circumstances affecting the survival, development and benefit of individual. If a student lives among educated personalities than there will be a positive effect on the student academics. Thus we can say that Not only the education of a parents but the environment around a student also guide the child about his future path. Some people also have the perception that the teachers and school authorities are the reason behind the student failure or success in schools (Pappattu, 2017).
There is an important association among parents’ occupation and learner scholastic performance. Students whose fathers have superior occupation perform well in education than those students whose fathers have a less prominent occupation. Fathers with the impressive occupation are in a better condition to guide and support their children on the way to educational skills. They can make available whatever is desired to prop up and give confidence their children honorably, academically, religiously and expressively. But parents with less prominent occupation due to insecurity and economic problems cannot supply sufficient, up to date facilities to improve their children education (Memo, 2005).
1.1 Statement of the problem
Family play major role morally, ethically and financially by supporting their child to improve the academic performance. That’s why this study was conducted to investigate the connection linking family involvement and educational achievement of learner.
1.2 Research objectives
The basic purposes of the study were:
To investigate the association among parental education level and academic achievement of students.
To analyze the relationship of parents occupation on students academic achievement.
1.3 Research Questions
The subsequent were the main questions of the study:
Whether any connection exists among parents’ education level and academic achievement of students?
Whether any relationship exists between parents occupation and student achievement?
1.4 Significance of research
The present study helps the educationist to find the reason behind the success and failure of policies. In this way educationist will be able solve or overcome the problem by counseling of parents or any possible steps may be taken by policy makers to solve the problem.
1.5 Limitations of the Study
The following points were the major limitations of this study:
This study was limited to students of district Haripur.
Students of 8th class were the participants of the study.
1.6 Research methodology
1.6.1 Type of research
The study was a survey by method. Following procedure was used to conduct the research.
High and middle schools of district Haripur were the population of this study. Total number of middle schools in district Haripur is 135 and the functional schools are 129 and the number of high schools is 119 and the number of higher secondary schools is 20. Total number of students reading in class 8 is 6306.
The students of 8th class were the participants of this study. Total of 200 samples were taken for study (Number of student from each school depends on students strength) For this purpose 14 schools from district Haripur were visited to collect the required data from which students were selected randomly according to the strength of students from each school..
1.6.4 Data collection
1 visits the sample schools personally and distributes the questionnaire. Some questions in the questionnaire were open ended while the main questions were close ended.
1.6.5 Data analysis
All of the research data was analyzed by appropriate statistical tools.
1.7 Definition of Terms
The method of instruction and wisdom in school. It include interpretation, studying and examination.
1.7.2 Educational level
The status of a person’s proper schooling accomplishment.
A cluster of blood connected citizens as well as those personalized to the crowd refers to situation and precedent actions that help to clarify how an adolescent develops.
1.7.4 Family size
It is the sum digit of individual in the child’s family unit in adding together to the adolescent himself.
1.7.5 Family financial Status
This is the wealth that someone gets at a specified occasion and position. It can be in type of income or salary per month as well as income obtained through a industry.
Refer to extent of success of the compulsory ranking in schools.
Review of literature
2. Review of literature:
2.1 Socialization theory:
Socialization is the progression by which an infant get hold of the skill needed to bring out as a working constituent of their culture, and is the mainly important wisdom practice one can put into practice. This process can only take place after an individual has been socialized by his or her pears and community networks. This spontaneous process of both wisdom and coaching is how civilizing and accomplish community distinctiveness constantly (Chao, 2000). Socialization speculation was projected by Charles Cooley in 1929 and it refers that the parenting strategies can manipulate child’s maturity.
Socialization is a lifetime progression that occupies succeeds to and disseminating ethics, civilization and philosophies thus provided that a person with the abilities and behavior that are obligatory for participating inside society. Socialization therefore is the way during which a person attains abilities that are essential to execute as purposeful member of their civilization and is the most significant wisdom practice. Even though civilizing inconsistency manifests in the trial, way of life and the behaviors of the entire communal clusters, the most essential appearance of society is frequently originate at the entity point, and this appearance is habitually socialized by parents, complete family unit and complete communal system (Harkness, 1996).
2.2 Academic Performance:
Schooling is the basic requirement in the culture nowadays, and as a result scholastic presentation is situated fairly elevated at the nationwide list of items, with professors and strategy creators who are putting endeavor in examining, responsibility and additionally on correlated concerns (Mark 2003). In Kenya, schooling is assessment tilting and therefore the only valuation for presentation is by means of assessment (Maiyo, 2009).
2.3 Family Background and Students’ academic performance
A study was conducted by Obeta on home or environmental factors distressing the scholastic routine of the students. A quantity of home environmental factors can boost the scholastic performances of students. Such factors like necessities of enough instruction to the students, coaching, and regulation of the students by parents, the scholastic level of parents and positive approach towards education, all contributes tremendously to the students’ intellectual performances. This indicates that home atmosphere is acting a crucial role in the children scholarly performance. Ajila, Olutola in 2000 declared that the home affects the person as the parents are the foremost socializing factor in an individual’s life. Even though, the school is answerable for the experiences that make up the individual’s life at some stage in school, however parents and the person’s experiences at home participate unbelievably in the construction of youngster manners and making what he is. Ichado stated that the learner environment can greatly manipulate his schedule in school.
2.4 parents’ occupation
Saifullahi, (2011) explained that parents’ occupation significantly influence students’ success. There is evidence that describes that learner whose parents be in the right place, at the high position occupational category obtain improved score than their class fellows whose parents belong to the squat grade occupational status. This is for the reason that parents with elevated position occupational status may have adequate income which can be used to supply the desirable resources and maintain for their children in array to provoke their curiosity (Akinsanya , 2014).
A research leaded by Becker (2001) discovered that family unit earnings too affects child’s learning aspiration, their position amid their take in, their locality value, the constancy of their life, and uncertainty inside their relatives, any or all may manipulate youngster results. Moreover, the failures to utilize the work or home specialization manage to pay by two-parent families’ indicates that child care operating cost is enough for mothers so they are in the company of a companion.
2.5: parents’ education:
The control of parental education on the scholastic routine of their children is apparent in all countries. The literature also recommends that parental education also influences the way of life and manners of the parent, directing to constructive consequences for offspring and adolescents (Heiss, 2006). For example, Alston and Williams (2002) create that parents of modest to elevated income and instructive backdrop detained attitude and potential that were quicker than those of less-income family unit to the authentic routine of their children; Less-income family units as an alternative had elevated hope and recital thinking that did not show a relationship healthy with their children’s definite instruct routine.
Investigation on parent’s shows that parent schooling is linked to a warm, communal environment in the residence. Gottfried (2004) established that mutually mothers’ schooling level and family unit financial status were imperative analyst of the corporal atmosphere and knowledge practice in the home but that mothers’ schooling single-handedly was analyst of parental affection. Likewise, Smith(2007)states that the relationship of family unit financial status and parents’ schooling with that of children’s educational attainment was intervene by the habitat atmosphere. The intervention consequence was tough for gentle education than for family unit financial status. Thus authors suggested that schooling may be associated to precise accomplishment values at house. Murray and Fairchild (2009) also concluded that affectionate education had most reliable and undeviating power on children’s mental and manners consequences with some roundabout authority through an emotional motivation at home atmosphere.
Conversely, they inspect only two, relatively extensive characteristic of family intermediaries: wisdom inspiration and parental responsively. conciliation may come out if further parent conduct and mind-set were scan. On the identical procession, Iverson ; Walberg (2002) had rework 18 researches of 5,831 school- elderly students on a organized instructive, psychosomatic, and sociological literature. At the end they stated that learners capability and successes are closely associated to the socio-psychological atmosphere and logical inspiration at home than parental financial status marker such as employment and schooling.
2.6: family size:
Family size is described as the whole figure of kids in the child’s family unit in adding together to the child himself. The category of family unit either single unit family system or joint family system frequently has collision on the child intellectual presentation. Moreover, any of the family unit category indicates the family extent. Polygamous or joint family system is specific at Africa and in Kenya is common. According to Gottfried (2004), joint family system is common along with well knowledgeable families as well as among poorly-knowledgeable families. He further stated that it is evenly widespread amid proficient and executive fathers at the peak of financial pecking order though inside untrained workers joint family system is well-known.
Children from superior families are found to carry out not well as compare children from less significant families (Lacovou, 2001). He described that those children who lower down the confinement array perform of poorer quality than those who higher up the birth array. According to Adler (2009), first child is typically honored by a good deal of consideration and attention during the early stage of life, which he entertained only. Studies have revealed that first child usually get more love and attention more attention (Seigal, 2007). Lacovou reported that parental consideration decreases as the digit of sibling’s boosts and remaining children give average performance as compare to the first child and the reason is parent’s attention and parents love.
2.7 Conceptual Framework
The intangible structure clarifies the association among the autonomous and reliant unpredictable’s. It describes about the association among family size, family economic status, parental schooling and scholastic presentation of students in high and middle schools of District Haripur .
CHAPTER NO 3
This section explains the whole plan of the study, the targeted population and sampling methodology, data collection tools and process of data examination, validity and reliability of research tools and lastly techniques that are used for data analysis.
3.1 Research Design
The study was a survey by method to answer the research questions. The design was selected because survey research have advantage in that it may be take on to accumulate information that can be comprehensive to all residents and it provide simple and direct approach to the study of principles, mind-set, values and purpose.
3.2 Target Population
The targeted resident of this research was 15 Middle and High school of District Haripur. The study also focused on parents.
3.3 Sampling technique and Sample Size
This research selects the unsystematic sampling to pick a sample of 200 contestants. Students were randomly selected from the 15 schools of District haripur.
3.4 Data Collection Instruments and Procedure
A questionnaire involves theme not to reveal the individuality of the contestent was used to gather data from students. The feedback form contained both open ended and close ended query. The investigator also used feedback form to maintain the privacy of the contestants and also to save time.
The course of action for data gathering was as follow:
Researcher gets the permission from the relevant schools viewing that the study is for academic purposes. Written feedback forms were handed over to the students. The learners were asked not to expose their individuality and were confident that the given update was only for research intention and would not influence their individuality.
3.5 Reliability of the Instruments
Reliability of the tool was approved to discover that either the research tool have the identical results on different circumstance (Mugenda, 2008) To make sure the reliability, this research used triangulation, in which there was more conformity of diverse data foundation on the research objectives, thus ensuring simple and consistent elucidation of the data. Orodho (2003) suggested that the thought at the back of triangulation was that the more conformity of diverse data foundations on a challenging subject, the more consistent the elucidation of the data.
3.6 Validity of the Instruments
Validity is the degree to which the device measures what it is invented to calculate according to the investigator’s biased appraisal (Nachmias, 2007). Validity deals with the sufficiency of the tools for instance, the investigator required to have enough querries in the questionnaire to gather the necessary data for investigation that will be used to illustrate conclusion. To find the validity of the tool used, the feedback form of this study was handed over to the research supervisor to find their appropriateness. The questions were changed according to the supervisor advice prior to field work.
3.7 Data collection:
Researcher personally visit the schools for permission and for the filling of research questionnaire.
3.8 Data analysis:
Following tools were used for statistical analysis:
3.8.1 Test of normality:
By means of normality test we analyze the distribution of samples and find that whether the data is normal or not . if the data is normal then parametric statistics is applied while if the data is not normally distributed the non-parametric statistic is used. Normality is measured by two ways. One is Shapiro Wilk test and the other is Kolmorove_smirnov test. Mostly Shapiro Wilk test is used because of sample size which is less than 2000.
3.8.2 Biveriate correlation:
Biveriate correlation is finding between two categorical variables. If the data is normal then the Pearson correlation is mostly used while if the data is non-normal then the spearman correlation is mostly find in statistics. The correlation may be zero, positive or negative. In case of Positive correlation if one variable increases the other or second variable also increases while in case of negative correlation increase in one variable cause decrease in other value. Correlation was made between species and positive isolates.
3.8.3 Chi-square test of independence:
Cross tabulation mostly summarized the relation between two variables. A cross tab was made to find the value of chi-square between marks and education and occupation and marks. According to the research hypothesis there was a difference between these variables.
Null hypothesis=Hº=variable 1 and variable 2 are dependent
Alternate hypothesis=H= variable 1 and variable 2 are independent
And in this case the data in insignificant mean these variables are independent to each other.
Descriptive analysis is used to describe the mean.
3.8.5 Frequency table:
In frequency we determine the number of specific observation in particular area or time. Frequency table of marks and parents education were made.
3.8.6 Pie chart:
A pie chart describe that how much data element exist. The pie chart is showing the Percentage of marks that were obtained by students.
3.8.7 Bar chart:
A bar chart is helpful to analyze data graphically. Bar chart simply describes the frequency of given values. A bar chart was drawn to indicate the impact of facilities on marks and a chart showing the parents occupation according to the education of parents.
4.1 Results of statistical analysis:
Family plays a major role in the academic achievement of students because a family not only supports a child financially but also morally and ethically. The present study was aimed to find the impact of family on student’s academic performance. For this purpose various schools of district Haripur was visited to collect the data from students. Total 200 students were taken as a sample from schools and at least 15 students were selected from each class. The students were randomly selected from each class. The results of the research were analyzed statistically on SPSS. The results are described as under.
Following table is showing the distribution and coding of variables:
Table 4.1: Interpretation of variables:
s.no Variables Coding
1 Siblings Numerical
2 Family system 1=single family system 2=joint family system
3 Study duration 1=2 hours 2=3 hours 3=4 hours
4 Home tutor 1=mother 2=father 3= tuition center
5 Education 1=below matric 2=matric 3=F.A 4=B.A 5=M.A
6 Occupation 1=jobless 2=labor 3=business 4=private job 5=government job
7 Facilities 1=yes 2=no
8 Grades 1=D 2=C 3=B 4=A 5=A*
4.2 Test of normality:
Test of normality describe the normality of data. If the data is normal than the data is analyzed by parametric analysis while if the data is non normal than the data is analyzed by non parametric tools. The data is normal if the value is grater then 0.05. but in our case the data is non normal so instead of parametric analysis we analyze our data by non parametric tools and test. Two type of test are used in test of normality, Shapiro-wilk test and colomorove-simronov test. Shapiro-wilk test is used in our analysis because our data size is less than 2000. The values in following table indicate the non normality of data.
Table 4.2: Test of normality
Tests of Normality
Statistic Df Sig. Statistic Df Sig.
Family .426 200 .000 .596 200 .000
education .260 200 .000 .878 200 .000
occupation .197 200 .000 .860 200 .000
Marks .209 200 .000 .873 200 .000
4.3Descriptive:descriptive is used to find the median or mode. The following table is describing the mean of family, education, occupation and marks. The mean value in family is 1.34, in education this value is 2.80 , in occupation it is 3.43 while in marks this value is3.23.
Table 4.3: Mean of variables
Family 200 1.34
Education 200 2.80
Occupation 200 3.43
Marks 200 3.23
Valid N (listwise) 200 4.4 Nonparametric Correlations:
As our data is non normal so we use non parametric analysis.
4.4.1 Biveriate correlation:
As the name is indicating the relationship between two variables. The relationship may be zero, positive and negative. A positive correlation was found between parent’s education and students marks percentage or grades, parents occupation and study duration. If the parents will be highly educated so they can better guide their children about their education. . the reason may be that parents who are highly educated they satisfy their children about any educational activity or task so these students did not feel requirement of internet. The second correlation that was significantly found positive was parental education and study duration of students and the occupation of parents Children of highly educated parents prefer to spend their time in education as compare to other activities. And the parents who have better job opportunity will surely e able to fulfill the needs of their students and will be able to obtain better grades.
Table 4.4: Correlation between education, marks, study and facilities
education occupation marks study
Spearman’s rho Education Correlation Coefficient 1.000 .305 .234 .068
Sig. (2-tailed) . .000 .001 .341
N 200 200 200 200
Occupation Correlation Coefficient .305 1.000 .243 -.041
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 . .001 .561
N 200 200 200 200
Marks Correlation Coefficient .234 .243 1.000 -.049
Sig. (2-tailed) .001 .001 . .492
N 200 200 200 200
Study Correlation Coefficient .068 -.041 -.049 1.000
Sig. (2-tailed) .341 .561 .492 .
N 200 200 200 200
We use Spearman’s correlation due to non normality of our data . Table is showing that the correlation is positive and insignificant.
The correlation may be described as:
Hº==0 (if this happen within data then the correlation is significant)
H1=?0 (if this happen within data then the correlation is insignificant)
Although our data is insignificant but it is showing positive correlation between parents education, parents occupation, marks and study duration.
Frequency determine the number of specific observation in particular area or time. Frequency table of marks was made. The table is indicating that according to our data 38 students having D grades, 20 students have C grades, 42 students have B grades, 58 students have A grades while 42 students have A* grades.
Table 4.5: frequency table of students marks
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid D 38 19.0 19.0 19.0
C 20 10.0 10.0 29.0
B 42 21.0 21.0 50.0
A 58 29.0 29.0 79.0
a* 42 21.0 21.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0 The second frequency was thought to be found about parent’s educational level. This frequency table shows that 24 parents have the educational status below matric, 80 parents having education till matric, 34 parents have intermediate degree, 36 parents have bachelor’s degree while 26 parents have master degree.
Table 4.6: frequency table of parents education
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid below matric 24 12.0 12.0 12.0
Matric 80 40.0 40.0 52.0
f.sc 34 17.0 17.0 69.0
B.A 36 18.0 18.0 87.0
M.A 26 13.0 13.0 100.0
Total 200 100.0 100.0 4.6 Pie chart:
A pie chart describe that how much data element exist. The following pie chart showing the marks percentage of students.. The following pie chart indicating the low frequency of A* grades and much higher frequency of students having C grades in previous exam.
Figure 4.1: pie chart of marks
4.7 Bar chart:
A bar chart is helpful to analyze data graphically. following bar chart simply describing the impact of use of internet facilities on students marks. The following bar chart simply describes that students who use internet for educational purposes shows excellent grades than those who don’t use internet for education.
Figure 4.2: bar chart showing the impact of facilities on marks
Here is another bar chart which is showing the relationship of parents education and occupation.
Figure 4.3: bar chart of parent’s education and occupation
This bar chart is showing that the ratio of parents with the education of below matric is less while the ratio of parents with the education of matric is high and the people in the matric category are mostly labor. While the number of government job is also high in this category the reason may be that they are working in low scale or they were experienced in their fields so they qualified for these jobs. No one person in intermediate category is jobless and most of them having private jobs. In bachelors category jobless peoples exist while the ratio of government jobs is high. In master category their number is less but jobless peoples also exist .
4.8 Test of independence:
Test of independence is also known as chi-square test of independence. It is used to find relationship between two categorical variables. In this case the frequencies of both variables are compared with one another
Table 4.7: cross tab of parents occupation and their marks
occupation * marks Cross tabulation
d C B A a* occupation Jobless 3 0 2 0 0 5
Labour 13 11 12 19 4 59
Business 9 3 7 7 8 34
pvt job 4 3 8 18 15 48
govt job 9 3 13 14 15 54
Total 38 20 42 58 42 200
This table describes the marks of students and their occupations. 5 parents who are jobless none of their child have grade A or A*. While two of them have grade B and 3 have D grade. Total 59 parents are working as labor and 4 of them having A* grades while 19 of them having A grades. It described that children of these families are highly motivated for their better future. 34 parents have their own business and the highest number is 9 that is indicating that 9 students has D grade. That is much poor.
48 parents having their private jobs and 18 of them have A grades as father are at home so they pay proper attention to their students and they get excellent marks the last one is showing the category of government job and 15 of them have A* grade while 9 also have D grade. These results are not consistent in district Haripur so according to chi square value.
Table 4.8: chi-square value
Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 31.259a 16 .012
Likelihood Ratio 34.155 16 .005
Linear-by-Linear Association 12.159 1 .000
N of Valid Cases 200 a. 7 cells (28.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .50.
The chi-square test is showing that the data is insignificant and Hº is not rejected. Another cross tab was made between parent’s education and marks percentage or grades of students.
Table 4.9: cross tab between parents education and grades of students
d C B A a* Education below matric 4 3 7 7 3 24
Matric 22 10 17 21 10 80
f.sc 5 4 7 10 8 34
B.A 1 1 8 15 11 36
M.A 6 2 3 5 10 26
Total 38 20 42 58 42 200
The table is indicating that 24 parents having education of below matric and their educational condition is good because 16 of them having percentages till70% to above 80%. These results show that children of such families are self motivated for better future and their families are also supporting them in their education.80 parents have education till matric and it is showing worse results that 22 of them having marks in the range of 50%(with D grade) and 10 of them having C grade. The reason of these results may be the less attention of their parents. Their parents cannot pay proper attention to their children due to some busy schedule. 34 parents having intermediate degree and the marks of nine students are in C and D grades while remaining are in better educational position. 36 parents having bachelors degree and the results are excellent because only 2 students are in C and D grades.26 parents have master degree and according to the results 8 students having C and D grades. And 15 of them having grades of A and A* while only 3 of them having B grades.
Table 4.10: chi square value
Value df Asymptotic Significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 25.408a 16 .063
Likelihood Ratio 28.299 16 .029
Linear-by-Linear Association 9.182 1 .002
N of Valid Cases 200 According to the chi-square value the Hº is rejected. And these variables are independent to each other. The following table is showing the overall results of test of independence.
Table 4.11: test of independence
occupation Chi-square test value Significant or insignificant
education 25.408 Insignificant
CHAPTER NO 5
SUMMARY, FINDING, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The research was simply a survey study in which various schools of District Haripur were visited to collect data to find the collision of family unit on student’s scholastic attainment. For this purpose a questionnaire was built and it was distributed among the students of class 8th. All of the results were analyzed by SPSS. So far the results are mentioned in statistical data according to which there is no dependence of parent’s education and parent’s financial status on student’s marks.
The aim of the study was to find that is there any relationship exist between parents education and their marks percentage and is there any relationship exist between parents occupation (financial status) and marks (grades) of students. It is generally considered that these two factors strongly depends on each other but the results were different and shows that there was no dependence between these two factors because the another factor was also studied that was time duration of students and it was found that most of the students study duration was 4 hours that was good means the students are interested in their study. while it was also fund that the children of low class of middle class families have better grades but it was presumed that that it was students own effort while the same was recorded when the parents education and there marks were compared. The children who belongs to the well settled families and their parents are ranked as better in society (due to their occupation) have low grades ( only few) which indicate the less attention of parents to their children and non serious attitude of students to their study. But still these factors are linked to the parents.
Family is key feature that mainly contributes in the academic attainment of students. The factors that are mostly considered as key element in students performance are parents education level, parents occupation, family environment and it type and the facilities that can only be possible for parents when they are financially strong so that they can fulfill the needs of their children. These factors are discussed one by one.
5.3.1 Parental Education Level
There is deep association among the parental schooling and students academic performance .Further a view was establish that the parental education has a through and constructive impact on the scholastic attainment of the children (Ryan and Deci 2000). Because if the parents are self educated they can properly guide their students and can clear their concepts and any confusion regarding any topic. According to Murray and Fairchil (2009) the parental education had a reliable and undeviating affiliation with the children behavior and its mentality. Iverson and Walberg (2002) stated that schools guides the learner toward the psychological and sociological aspect and all the achievements of students are possible when they are fully supported by their families. The another important variable of this research was the home tutor means who teaches you at home. And it was found that out of 200 students 115 students take help of their mothers. This number shows the impact and importance of family.
5.3.2 Family Financial Status
The research stated that with the admiration to children’s instructive attainment parents’ financial status play important role because if the parents are financially strong, they can fulfill the needs and requirements of their children.
Kim (2002) stated that there is a through association between parental occupation, the victorious wisdom skill of their children and the scholastic achievement. It is because of parents who have high position financial condition may have adequate income which can be used to make available the desirable resources and sustain for their children to provoke their curiosity in education than that of parents with low status occupation whose most important responsibility is to make available protection and foodstuff for the family and education is the least priority in these families. These results were supported by many researchers.
In the light of above discussion the major conclusion of research are described as under regarding variables.
5.4.1 Family type:
The results of the research show that 133 students are living in single unit family system while 67 students are living in joint family system. These results show the better financial status of the people of District Haripur. And these parents can support their families singly. And the number of siblings in these families varies from least number 3 to highest number 7.
5.4.2 Home tutor:
The results of the research shows that115 mothers are self tutors of their children while 19 fathers are tutors for their children. This data shows the interest of parents in the education of their children another important finding was that that total 24 parents were educated below matric. This shows the high educational status of District Haripur while 66 children are educated by tuition center. It may be due to the lack of interest of parents or less attention of parents toward education. While some parents join the tuition center to the children to give them the better education.
5.4.3 Parent’s education level:
The results shows 24 parents are educated below matric. 80 parents are those who have education till matric. While remaining 96 parents having the degree of intermediate, bachelors and master. But the results of statistical analysis show the independence of the collision of parent’s education on learner scholastic performance. Because some parents who are less educated their children are getting better grades while some parents who are highly educated their children are getting down in their educational performance. The reason is that parents with less education are supporting their child morally and ethically these children are self motivated for education and for better future. While other parents who are fully supporting their children financially but not morally. They are only providing the facilities to their children but not giving them proper attention which is needed for a child at this stage. So these sort of problem should be share with parents and parents teachers meeting should be held regularly to discuss these sort of issues.
5.4.4 Parent’s occupation:
The results of this study show that 5 parents are jobless mean they have no source of income. While 59 are working as labor. While 34 are doing self business, 48 having private jobs and 58 are working in government sector. These results are satisfactory about the financial status of District Haripur peoples. But the educational results are not according to the financial status which means that students of today are self motivated but are going to be careless and they need parents attention to get better academic performance.
According to the findings and discussion of this study, the following points were recommended.
1. The investigator recommends that to achieve the highest academic performance the family should have strong financial status.
2. The investigator recommends that parents should also be strong rationally if they want to enhance their children intellectual performance.
3. The investigator also recommends that parents should pay proper attention for the betterment of the academic performance.
5.6 Future theme:
1. The investigator advice that a correlated study should be conducted on the affiliation among the school backdrop and scholastic presentation of the learners, to total the circle of scholastic presentation determinants.
2. Additionally, this research was carried amongst high school students, therefore the investigator advice a comparable research on primary school and higher schools students to discover whether the consequences of this study can be pretend among primary school and secondary schools students.
A) List of selected schools from District haripur:
s.no Name of schools Number of selected students
1 Government girls high school Haripur 15
2 RITE school haripur 15
3 Government girls higher secondary school KTS 30
4 Government girls high school sector 3 15
5 Government girls high school sector 4 15
6 Government girls high school Meelum 15
7 Al-Rehbar public school Haripur 10
8 Kenhall School haripur 15
9 Spirit schools Haripur 15
10 Dar-e-Arqam schools Haripur 10
11 Syed islamia school haripur 15
12 NRTC school TIP 15
13 Sir Syed public school and college Haripur 15
14 Pakistan public school 15
“The impact of family involvement on academic achievement of students”
Name of school class Name Sibling Type of family Single family system Joint family system
Who teaches you at home? mother father Tuition center
Do you use electronic media (internet) for education? yes No
Duration of study 2 hours 3 hours 4 hours
Education of your parents M.A/M.Sc B.A/B.Sc F.A/F.Sc Matric Below matric
Occupation of your parents(father) Marks percentage in your last exam