Chapter 1IntroductionBackground of the StudyOne of the most important problem encountered by the educational systems worldwide, is administering inclusive education that includes nurturing unbiased education for all pupils that covers students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), as express by the United National Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO (1994, 2008) and students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are still set aside from education in many places in the world as determined by The Inclusive International Organization (2009). Yet Performance mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act of 2004 have required ever-greater access to the general curriculum for all students, including those with disabilities. The national curriculum framework for school education (NCFSE)(2000), supported by the NCERT, recommended inclusive school for all without exact reference to pupil with special education needs as a way of offering a quality education to all learners.
It refers to an education system that helps all children regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional, linguistic or other conditions. In addition to that Subgroups of pupils distinguish in terms of their disability, socioeconomic status, vocabularies, race and ethnicity involving in adapt condition for all students according to No Child Left Behind Act (2002). Millions of students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) through the country were acknowledge into regular classrooms for either a part of a day or entire school day as set forth by Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (1990) In addition to that students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) accomplish better when they embrace in regular education exercises with non-disabled peers articulated by Bakers, Wang, & Walberg (1994); King & Young, (2003). Public schools can extend education for all students by reconstructing education opportunities for individuals with disabilities as a result of that conclusion exist Johnson (1999). Over the years, the concept of inclusive education has replaced the term integrated and Special education. Inclusion is not apprehended to the disabled. It also means non exclusion (NCF-2005). It refers to an education system that accommodates all children regardless of their physical, intellectual, social emotional, linguistic or other conditions.
Inclusive education is about accepting all (NCF-2005). An inclusive class may have amongst others, differently abled children or gifted children, street or working children, children from remote or nomadic populations, children associated to ethnic, linguistic or cultural minorities or children from other deprive or disregarded groups. Elementary teachers are well advised for the foremost achievement of inclusive education. To determine the required result and to react applicable and effectively to any challenges affiliated to the student’s distinctive needs they are look forward to hand over equal education according to Memisevic and Hodzic, (2011). General education teachers with an uplifted sense of self efface and an idea in their capability to persuade their students, even those with Special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) have been establishing to have straightforward impact on their student’s accomplishments and their passionate welfare. According to Willms et al, (2002) inclusive education results from the leadership of teachers in the classroom.
Child development research also confirms the significance of the teacher’s role and of environments that are full of opportunities to learn. Teacher with the support of the principal of schools, colleagues, special, educators and parents should develop effective ways of overcoming hindrances to learning and supporting effective teaching through observing the quality of teaching and standards of pupils’ accomplishment and by setting goal for enhancement. When teachers have knowledge, classroom supports, leadership and support from their school administrators and the broader education system, an inclusive approach to quality education for all learners can take foundation in regular classrooms and schools. Teachers work as a substance between the principal of the school and children with special needs and their parents. Sincere and approachable teachers who are devoted to the inclusion of learners in invigorating learning environments are keys to securing not only access to the classroom, but a quality of education that results in positive progressive outcomes. It is the teacher who understands new and advance ways in order to achieve the educational, social and emotional need of child with special needs. Whatever may be the type of resource room, the teacher with her obligations, skills and knowledge can restructure it into useful, creative and interesting. One of the main roles is to support the teacher in meeting the needs of children with special need.
The role of a teacher is to impart education and nurture learning. Teachers also serve as coaches, advisors and role models for students. Teachers are devoted professional who have a lasting effect on students.
Becoming a teacher will permit somebody to influence your strengths and passion as leader in the education field. If we are looking to make a positive change in the lives of young people, we may want to deliberate some rewarding profession. Each day we may exercise our creativity, patience and communication skills as our present engaging lessons. As a mentor and role model, students will be motivated by the teachers’ commitment by helping them improve their unique talents and understanding.
The duties of a teacher for inclusive education are: Supervising the day to day operation of the inclusive education in general; Coordinating the provision of support services for children with special needs; Regular Liaisoning and looking for advice from fellow special educators in regard to the education of child with special needs; Liaisoning with other special educators’ of other schools for modernizing the information and knowledge. Keep constant liaisoning with different Non-Government organization working in this field for aiding support services for child with special needs; to keep the database of child with special needs; to improve the assessment portfolio of child with special needs; to prepare a list of required materials and equipment before the beginning of the session; to organize continuous, periodic and regular parent meeting; to guaranteeing that a child with special needs joins in the activities of the school together with other pupils. According to Kochhar and West (1996) laid stress that, in inclusive education classrooms regular school teachers are mandatory to teach ‘content’ differently. It must be integrative, flexible and interdisciplinary. In contrast to traditional, teacher centered instructional methodologies in which the teacher stands in front of the classroom and provides lectures to the entire class; in the inclusive classroom the focus alterations from teaching to learning. Teachers are now obligatory to create conditions in which student’s learning is maximized.
The regular classroom teacher is now viewed mostly as a “thoughtful professional”, one who is able to appreciate the relationship between teaching and learning as well as develop the cognitive operational of the differently abled students. He states that a regular school teacher needs to be a professional diagnostician, a decision maker and an instructional manager in order to deal effectively with the challenges posed by exceptional/gifted learners. He further says that this professional should be in the best position to help these students in working with the group, to follow routines and to follow the accepted standards of group behavior. It can be seen that the roles and responsibilities of regular school teachers has now been broad after the overview of inclusive education programs. It now includes the obligation of meeting the needs of the differently abled students in addition to meeting the needs of their normal peers.
It is therefore vital that regular school teachers have the proper knowledge, skills and attitudes to fulfill their new roles and responsibilities. These teachers are now expected to integrate the adaptive aspect in all their efforts for children with special needs. As Hargreaves and Fullan (1992) state, deeper knowledge of and greater confidence in teaching their subject(s); emerging better expertise in classroom management so that more time can be provided to instruction; knowing how to teach mixed-ability classes; increasing awareness and becoming proficient in new teaching strategies like co-operative learning or ‘whole language’ approaches to learning; and becoming knowledgeable about and able to respond to the different learning styles of their pupils – attention to all these things can certainly help teachers increase their pupils opportunities to learn. According to Mastropieri ; Scruggs (2010) regular school teachers need to be educated about the learning styles and the motivational patterns of differently abled children. The teachers must have a clear understanding of the resources and support systems which are presented to help them for working with students with disabilities. They should present information to the students in a manner which allows them to integrate the information easily.
Vaughn ; Bos (2012) suggested a number of approaches that regular school teachers would require in order to accommodate students with disabilities in the classroom environment. These contain peer tutoring, mastery learning, cooperative learning, and practical behavior analysis. The literature also points out that classroom teachers are obligatory to use instructional strategies such as separated instruction, activity-based learning (Krishnaswamy ; Shankar, 2003), adaptive and individualized instruction (Jangira, Singh ; Yadav, 1995) and culturally receptive teaching and culture specific pedagogy (Valmiki, 2003) to facilitate differently abled students’ learning outcomes in regular classroom environment. The state obliged to secure and improve the appropriate of all resident to quality education at all levels and must proceeds trace to build corresponding to education attainable to all this is the act that authenticate with Article XIV Section 1 of the Philippines Constitution.
The Department of Education (DepEd) remain to give the mandatory instruction interventions for learner with unspecified uniqueness over its Special Education Program exceedingly in-line with the Department’s drive in providing superior and inclusive basic education for everybody discussed by Briones (2017). The Special Education program and Department of Education give a holistic approach in catering the needs of the learners with different exceptionalities. This program guarantees the learners with exceptionalities to have access in quality education by giving them their individual and unique needs. The initiative provision the learners with visual impairments, hearing impairments, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, communication disorder, physical disability, emotional and behavioral disorder, and multiple disability. Yet, most research examining teachers’ perceptions and attitudes regarding IE showed that teachers experiencing frustration, fear, anger and lack of confidence concerning their ability to meet the needs of all other pupils.The Council for Exceptional Children (2010) established and authorized a common principal of minimum essential knowledge and skills necessary for entry into professional practice in special education.
“It includes — philosophical, historical and legal foundations of special education; characteristics of learners; assessment, diagnosis and evaluation; instructional content and practice; planning and managing the learning environment; managing student behaviour and social interaction skills; communication and collaborative partnerships and; professionalism and ethical practices.” The school teachers are needed to be skilled in skills like effective instruction distribution and proper management of a classroom that is categorized by diversity. There are some competencies that are field verified and reinforced as probable methods for providing effective instruction to students with various learning needs. Some of them, that are extensively used, include: class-wide peer tutoring, cooperative learning, self-management skills, differentiated instruction and use of assistive technology. Furthermore, the research expose a considerable gap between the declared desire of general teachers to give IE and their actual behavior Huang and Dimond (2009); Shani (2015). De Boer, Pijl, and Minnaert (2011) found that general teachers have neutral or negative opinion regarding inclusion of pupils with Special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) in their classroom.
They reported a lack of required knowledge and sense of insecurity toward their ability to cope with IE. In addition, the general teachers commonly insist that they had not sufficient training for inclusive education. For the most part, learning about and training for inclusion are sheltered from actual practice, while preserving the traditional separation between tracks preparing students for “general” teaching and those for “special” teaching (Shani, 2010). According to McIntyre (2003), new teachers at risk of parting the profession express strong melancholy with their teaching assignments, frustration with the politics of their profession, the lack of adequate resources, and insufficient mentoring support. This findings echo those in other Northern American studies, which report the neophyte teachers’ early optimism can turn to pessimism as the year developments and the reality of teaching sets in (Brock ; Grady, 2001; Darling-Hammond, 1997; Hargraves ; Fullan, 2000).
According to McIntyre (2003), new teachers at risk of parting the profession express strong melancholy with their teaching assignments, frustration with the politics of their profession, the lack of adequate resources, and insufficient mentoring support. This findings echo those in other Northern American studies, which report the neophyte teachers’ early optimism can turn to pessimism as the year developments and the reality of teaching sets in (Brock & Grady, 2001; Darling-Hammond, 1997; Hargraves & Fullan, 2000). However, as teachers are the role models of values and capabilities for their students, they should be instilled with resilient traits that we hope to improve in our students. According to Gibson and Dembo (1984), resilient teachers have high self-efficacy and are determined in the face of hindrances.
Other studies have also shown that they are more open to new thoughts and methodologies to better meet their student’s needs ( Cousin ; Walker, 2000; Guskey, 1998), work longer with pugnacious students (Gibson and Dembo, 1984) , exhibit greater eagerness and levels of preparation and organization ( Allinder, 1994) resulting in higher students accomplishment and greater student resilience ( Ross, 1998, Hoy ; Spero, 2005). Mr. Tharman Shanmugaratnam, the former Minister for Education, emphasized the significance of fostering resilience during a Ministry of Educational Work plan Seminar in 2004 when he called upon Singapore top educationalist to develop our young’s adversity quotient ‘ and be better prepared to face up to ‘life’s demands and unavoidable setbacks’. ” What are our goals in education? We want to nurture young Singaporeans with minds that keep enquiring , and a desire to use their energies to create a better society. We want to help every child find his own talents, and grow and emerge from school confident of his abilities. And we want our young to have the toughness, the ‘adversity quotient, to face up to life’s demands and inevitable seatbacks, and be willing to work hard to achieve their dreams.”(P.4, Speech by Mr.
Tharman Shanmugaratnam, Minister for Education, At the Ministry of Education Workplan Seminar, 29 September 2004, Ngee Ann Polytechnic Convention Centre) The World Health Association (WHO) considers involvement in age-appropriate accomplishments to be important for understanding operational of children with disabilities (WHO, 2007). It also progresses children’s social relationships, academic performance, mental health, physical health, and skills and capabilities (Forsyth ; Jarvis, 2002; Janssen ; Leblanc,2010; Mâsse, Miller, Shen, Schiariti, ; Roxborough, 2013). Persuing the resilience literature, it seems to us that most academic research is shown from a psychological or medical view of disability (e.
g., Lee et al., 2009; Storch etal., 2012), instead of a social model of disability (e.g., Evans ; Plumridge, 2007; RunswickCole ; Goodley, 2013). Some have even criticized the concept of resilience itself, for making indirectly ableist assumptions and being conflated with normative outlooks on health (Hutcheon ; Wolbring, 2013).
This is clearly a questioned area, hence a significant question to contemplate is what is meant by disability, and how it will be defined and measured relative to this review, in order to answer the question: whether and how children and young people with disabilities are included in academic studies of clear resilience-building approaches. Some have even criticized the concept of resilience itself, for making indirectly ableist assumptions and being conflated with normative perspectives on health (Hutcheon ; Wolbring, 2013).It has implications for those who do or do not fit a specific definition, and agrees to a vast and growing disability studies literature from a diversity of theoretical viewpoints (e.g., Salvador-Carulla ; Gasca, 2010; Schalock ; Luckasson, 2013). The authors had involved with the resilience evidence base and tried to bond their program, or components of their program, with specific resilience-enhancing capacities (see, for example, Mental Health Foundation of Australia, 2005); articles involved a definition or explanation of resilience that specified the authors’ orientation with respect to the locus and nature of resilience (e.g.
, individual asset, dynamic transaction between individual/environment). Interventions included psychoeducation, information, and advice on helping the children and young people/families to manage with their precise condition or disability (e.g., Buckner et al., 2005; Evans & Plumridge, 2007; Ferreyra, 2001; Firth et al. 2013; Mu & Chang, 2010; Shapiro, 2002; Storch et al., 2012).
Several interventions worked with the wider family system rather than just the individual child (Alvord & Grados, 2005; Burka, 2007; Evans & Plumridge, 2007; Ferreyra, 2001; Gauvin-Lepage & Lefebvre, 2012; Lee et al., 2009; Morison et al., 2003; Mu & Chang, 2010; Shapiro, 2002), and in some cases included significant others involved with the child, such as teachers (Ferreyra, 2001; Mears & Stevenson, 2006) and health-care practitioners (Lee et al., 2009; Gauvin-Lepage & Lefebvre, 2012).
Resilience is the capacity to take risks and adapt even one faces hardship or negative life circumstances such as poverty or life threatening situation. Resilient people are lively and socially responsive to their environmental framework. Schools struggle with teacher absentees, exhaustion and high-teacher turn-over. As teachers are models of ethics and capabilities for their students, they need to be instilled with resilient traits so that they can face the challenges of tomorrow as well as be better at meeting their student’s needs. There is an enormous academic literature on resilience-building with children and young people, and the benefits and products of interventions or programs aimed to develop specific or general aspects of their resilience. These contains concrete progress, such as developed confidence, coping and self-esteem, and less measureable outcomes, such as doing better than expected, or simply keeping the status quo (Hart et al., 2007). These benefits are of specific significance to children and young people with disabilities, who face additional hardship, disadvantage, and challenges to their development.
The frequency and intensity of students’ emotional and behavioral disorders have increased in the past several decades (Bartollas & Miller, 1998; Knitzer, 1993; Lerner, 1995; Long, Morse, & Newman, 1996). Teachers revealed that disruptive student behavior and classroom discipline are their primary educational concerns. Teachers who work with students with emotional and behavioral disorders can enhance their effectiveness and job satisfaction, minimize power struggles, and build more positive relationships with children with disabilities by taking proactive steps to increase their own self-awareness.
Gold and Roth (1993) identified teacher selfawareness as a key component for managing stress. Gold and Roth (1993) defined selfawareness as “a process of getting in touch with your feelings and behaviors” (p. 141).
Increased self-awareness involves a more accurate understanding of how students affect our own emotional processes and behaviors and how we affect students, as well. Self-aware ness is particularly important for teachers who work with students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Often, these students reflect the best and worst in ourselves (Richardson, 2001). Our development as teachers depends on our willingness to take risks and regularly ask ourselves which of our own behaviors are helping or hindering our personal and professional growth. “If we could allow ourselves to become students of our own extraordinary self-education, we would be very well placed to facilitate the self-education of others” (Underhill, 1991, p. 79). This article identifies questions and strategies to help teachers become more self-aware regarding their interactions with students with behavioral and emotional disorders.
teacher education does not always highlight the connection between a teacher’s selfawareness and his or her ability to build and maintain meaningful relationships with youth with emotional and behavioral disabilities. Although teachers need to learn how to recognize signs of emotional distress in their students, it is equally important to acknowledge that teachers’ own personalities, learned prejudices, and individual psychological histories have helped shape their attitudes and responses to certain behaviors (Long et al., 1996). Fritz Redl, a pioneer in working with students with emotional disturbances, emphasized that self-awareness is a key ingredient for succeeding with this population: As teachers we have a room, a group, equipment, materials, a curriculum, instructional methods, and grades, but most of all, we have ourselves.
What happens to us emotionally in the process of teaching emotionally disturbed kids is the critical factor in determining our effectiveness. (cited in Long, 1996a, p. 44) Helping youth with emotional and behavioral disabilities begins with understanding ourselves, particularly our own emotional processes that occur in the midst of conflict.
Although psychological soundness and effective interpersonal skills are essential characteristics for teachers who work with this population (Kaufman, 1997; Webber, Anderson, & Otey, 1991), certain students can provoke even the most concerned, reasonable, and dedicated teachers to act in impulsive, acrimonious, and rejecting ways (Long, 1996a). Students experiencing stress have the capacity to locate and activate unresolved issues in our own personal lives. Helping youth with emotional and behavioral disabilities begins with understanding ourselves, particularly our own emotional processes that occur in the midst of conflict. Theoretical FrameworkHaving students with challenging behavior in the classroom is an age-old phenomenon, but it is no secret that students in today’s classrooms are exhibiting emotional and behavioral difficulties that are far more numerous and intensive than in previous years (Walker, Zeller, Close, Webber, ; Gresham, 1999). In addition to that examples of these paradigms include (a) the psychoanalytic model (Freud, 1946), which proposes that pathological development is primarily due to unresolved psychological conflicts; (b) behaviorism/social learning theory, which suggests that behavioral difficulties are primarily due to the effects of the environment (Watson, 1913; Skinner, 1953); and (c) the biological model, which proposes that emotional and behavioral disorders are primarily due to constitutional factors.Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality; According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, personality develops through a series of stages, each characterized by a certain internal psychological conflict.
Sigmund Freud ‘s psychoanalytic theory of personality argues that human behavior is the result of the interactions among three component parts of the mind: the id, ego, and superego. During each stage, a child is presented with a conflict between biological drives and social expectations; successful navigation of these internal conflicts will lead to mastery of each developmental stage, and ultimately to a fully mature personality. Emotional disturbance is defined as a condition exhibiting an inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health problems. These students are unable to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.Behaviorism refers to a psychological approach which emphasizes scientific and objective methods of investigation. The approach is only concerned with observable stimulus-response behaviors, and states all behaviors are learned through interaction with the environment.
All behavior is learned from the environment: Behaviorism emphasizes the role of environmental factors in influencing behavior, to the near exclusion of innate or inherited factors. This amounts essentially to a focus on learning. We learn new behavior through classical or operant conditioning (collectively known as ‘learning theory’). Therefore, when born our mind is ‘tabula rasa’ (a blank slate). All behavior, no matter how complex, can be reduced to a simple stimulus-response association). Watson described the purpose of psychology as: To predict, given the stimulus, what reaction will take place; or, given the reaction, state what the situation or stimulus is that has caused the reaction.’ (1930, p.
11). Research shows that powerful social and emotional factors affect students’ learning and overall well-being (Becker ; Luthar, 2002; Cambourne, 2002). Some of these factors include: the students’ relationships with adults and peers, students’ motivation, sense of self, ability to succeed, and mental and physical wellness (Osher, Sidana, ; Kelly, 2008). The next theory is the biological model this term “biological model” is used in many different ways. The meaning of the term is generally clear or inferred based on the context it is used in. Logically, a biological model is a mathematical model of a biological system, whereas term also refers to a specific organism which may be deliberated extensively with the aim of creating data which can be applied to other organisms.
This term may also be used in reference to a meticulous theory about the genesis of mental illness and psychological distress which originated in the 19th century as perceptive of the brain advanced considerably.Conceptual Framework In this research, the conceptual framework is established to give direction in formulating the problem and procedures to be employed to accomplish the objectives of the study. As shown in Figure 1, the researchers conceptualized that the profile of the respondents as to personal profile like age, sex, civil status, religion and professional traits like highest educational attainment, length of service, teaching position, division of school attended, number of regular pupils, number of pupils with emotional behavioral disorder, training skilled on handling inclusive education and self-efficacy are considered as the independent variables while the dependent variables are the techniques and strategies in meeting children with Emotional Behavioral Disorder, motivational techniques to the regular pupils to embrace inclusive education, the types of problems or students behavior and biggest strength in working with children with Emotional Behavioral Disorder situated in inclusive education setting.Paradigm of the Study INDEPENDENT VARIABLE DEPENDENT VARTIABLE1. Profile of the Respondents regarding:A. Personal Traitsage;sex; civil status;religionB. Professional traitsa. highest educational attainment;b.
length of servicec. teaching positiond. district;e. Number of regular pupils;f. Numbers of pupils with EBD;g. training skilled on handling inclusive education;h.
self-efficacy;i. self- awareness;j. emotional quotient-571502241187 BUILDING RESILIENCE IN HANDLING CHILDREN WITHEMOTIONAL BEHAVIORAL DISORDER;THE ROLE OFINCLUSIVE TEACHERSFigure 1. Conceptual Paradigm of the study showing the relationship between independent and dependent variables.
Statement of the ProblemThis study determined the ability of the inclusive teachers who handle emotional behavioral disorder in inclusive classroom setting. Specifically, it sought to determine the following questions:What is the profile of the respondents regarding:A. Personal Profile a. age;b.
sex; c. civil status;d. religion?B. Professional traitsa.
highest educational attainment;b. length of service;c. teaching position;d. district;e.
Number of regular pupils;f. Numbers of pupils with emotional and behavioural disorder (EBD);g. trainings skilled in handling inclusive education;h. self- efficacy;i. self- awareness;j. Emotional quotient?What are the motivational strategies employed in handling the emotional behavioural disorder of the children?What are the problems encountered in handling emotional and behavioural disorder?What are the motivation techniques in handling emotional and behavioural disorder?Assumptions of the StudyThe possible quality and motivational strategies of the general teachers who are handling pupils with Emotional Behavioral Disorder in an inclusive setting:Characteristics:The inclusive teachers have a sense of humor when teaching pupils with Emotional Behavioral DisorderThe inclusive teachers have a high sense of social and emotional competency, self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship skills and responsible decision making in handling pupils with Emotional Behavioral Disorder.Motivational Strategies and Techniques in meeting pupils with EBDThe inclusive teachers are undergoing seminars in handling emotional behavioral Disorder.The inclusive teachers creating a good relationship to the pupils with emotional behavioural disorder.
The inclusive teachers understand themselves, particularly our own emotional processes that occur in the midst of conflictMotivating them to learn.Scope and Delimitation of the StudyThis study primarily concerns in finding out the ways of general education teachers build the resilience of the pupils with emotional behavioural disorder and what are their roles in inclusive classroom setting during the last quarter of the academic year and it was conducted at selective elementary schools in Pangasinan. The profiles of the teacher-respondents were categorized in terms of personal attributes which include age, sex, civil status and religion. The professional traits were determined by including high educational attainment, length of service, teaching position, division of school attended, number of regular pupils, number of pupils with emotional behavioral disorder, training skilled on handling inclusive education and self-efficacy.Significance of the StudyThis study seems to be significant as it will serve several important purposes to the following group of individuals involved in the teaching-learning process:School Administration, this study can be of great help to the school administrators in determining and providing better and appropriate programs that will help them to ensure high-quality education for the learners, with or without emotional and behavioral disorder, in order for them to acquire the knowledge and skills that will enable them to be productive citizens of our society.
Inclusive Education Teachers, the result of this study will be of great benefit to the inclusive teachers as it will give them additional knowledge on how to inculcate resilience to the pupils with emotional and behavioral disorders and how to improve the way they handle these pupils in order to provide education to them in a better and more appropriate way.Parents, the result of the study can provide them information to enhance and develop the learning skills of their children in inclusive education.College of Teacher Education,Pupils, they are the primary benefactors of the study, as this will help them to improve their performance in inclusive education and enhance their behavior through motivational strategies and technique in meeting the needs of the learners with emotional behavioral disorder in inclusive education classroom setting.Future Researchers, the results can give additional information and would help them in conducting research related to this study.Definition of Terms Inclusive Education – all students attend and are welcomed by their neighborhood schools in age-appropriate, regular classes and are supported to learn, contribute and participate in all aspects of the life of the school.Motivation – a force or influence that causes someone to do something or the condition of being motivated, eager to act or work.Resilience – Resilience is the capacity to take risks and adapt even one faces hardship or negative life circumstances such as poverty or life threatening situation.Problem encountered – Motivational Technique –Building Resilience – Strategies – A method or plan chosen to bring about a desired future, such as achievement of a goal or solution to a problem.
Emotional and Behavioral disturbance – (IDEA) an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.Chapter 2RESEARCH METHODOLOGYResearch DesignThe descriptive method and case study were used in this study. According to Manuel and Medel (1998) descriptive research relay to the connection of the definition, recording, study and explanation of the present nature, structure of methods of phenomena; In addition to that Researcher Robert K. Yin describes the case study research system as an experiential analysis that explores a current phenomenon within its actual setting; once the limitations among phenomenon and situation are not obviously manifest; and in which various causes of evidence are used (Yin, 1984, p. 23). The focus is on prevailing conditions, or how a person, group, or thing behaves or functions in the present, this method of research is the most appropriate to use since it looked on how general education elementary teacher build the resilience of the pupils in handling pupils with Emotional Behavioral Disorder and what are their roles in inclusive classroom setting.Respondents and Sample SchemeThe respondents of the study were special/inclusive teachers in selected in Pangasinan during the school year 2017-2018. Before we identified who will be our respondents, we first went to the District Office I and asked about the schools that are implementing inclusive education.
. Data Gathering InstrumentMassey states that the “Instrument development requires a high degree of research expertise, as the instrument must be reliable and valid.” A questionnaire checklist and Interview Question Guide was validated by our instructor in Research in Sped, our research adviser, our mentor and. A checklist for the content validity of the data gathering instrument by (Meimban Leila V.,1997) was employed. We want to gather the motivational techniques, strategies in meeting the exceptionalities of the children, what are the ways of the inclusive education teachers to boost the self-confidence of the pupils with special educational needs and disabilities and their profile regarding age, civil status, sex, monthly income, teaching position and number of years in teaching.Procedure and Validation The adapted questionnaire checklist from the research of Brent Richardson and Margery J. Shupe (2003) revised by the researchers with the guidance of the adviser, research instructor and College of Teacher Education research coordinator.
The researchers complied with the needed information of the data gathering instrument before as validation. The questionnaire-checklist was validated by special education teachers who implement inclusive education.Collection of Data Before the collection of data, the researchers requested permission from the Dean of the College of Education and on District Supervisor to conduct the study. As soon as the permission was granted to the researchers.
The researchers went to the respondents and started to administer the questionnaire and conducted an interview to the respondents. The researchers stayed with the respondents during the entire gathering process so that if there were questions raised by the respondents, the researchers will be available to answer the respondents’ clarifications and to make sure that the desirable data will be obtained. Upon retrieval of the research instruments, the data from the questionnaire were collected and tabulated and the data from the conducted interview were narrated by the researchers.Tools for Data AnalysisAppropriate statistical tools were used to come up with valid and credible interpretation of data.
1. To answer problem number one on the profile of the teacher – respondents in terms of age, civil status, sex, monthly income and number of years in teaching; frequency counts and percentages were used. Presented below is the formula:%=fnx 1002.
To answer problem number two what are the motivational strategies in handling emotional behavioral disorder of the children. The following formula was used.3. To answer problem number three on the motivational techniques used for regular student in handling emotional behavioral disorder. The following formula was used.
What are the types of problems or students behavior do you find most difficult?Ethical Considerations Before administering the survey-questionnaire checklist, the researchers sought help and advice from their Research Adviser in Research in Special Education and their validators who are general education teachers who implement inclusive education in classroom setting in selective schools in Pangasinan, they revised and evaluated the survey-questionnaire checklist for all the selected respondents in PangasinanThe researchers sought permission from the School’s Division Superintendent of selective District in Pangasinan and from the principals of selected schools in Pangasinan to gather the needed data of the study. A draft of the interview-questionnaire checklist was presented to the researchers’ adviser for her to give comments and suggestions, which were incorporated before to its validation. The interview-questionnaire checklist was declared valid for administration after revising. Furthermore, the researchers encountered minor problems upon distributing and retrieving the tool from the respondents. It was because of the teachers who are very busy with their paperworks due to the upcoming 2018 graduation and it is because we don’t know where to get the list of schools that implement inclusive education in Pangasinan but afterwards through the help of advisers we found solution to this minor problem. The researchers spent a whole day to complete administering the survey-questionnaire checklist.
Upon retrieval of the research tool, the data gathered were tabulated through the interview-questionnaire checklist.4905375-24849300-14605-34934100Urdaneta City UniversityCOLLEGE OF TEACHER EDUCATION01 San Vicente West, Urdaneta City, Pangasinan 2428 “Building Resilience in Handling Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorder; The Role of Inclusive Teachers”Part I. Personal TraitsDirection: Fill in or put a check ( ) mark on the space provided that corresponds to your honest answer regarding the queries shown below.Name (Optional): ____________________ Age: _____Religion: _________High educational attainment: ___________ District: ____________3968115635032956508255257816144452024540635015138408255 Teaching position: T1 T2 T3 MT1 MT2 431990518415362258417871172910518415913130-3175Civil Status: Single MarriedSex: Male Female9945552965451621155292100244475029591031546802921003867349296545Number of years in Teaching? 1 2 3 4 5 or more 2. 29259892501001522730250190How many pupils do you have in your class?408051017145 10 – 2030 – 40 60 or more292517331751522730317520 – 30 40 -5010153653594102027555359410286702536068039135053581403. How many children with emotional behavioral disorder you have in your class? 1 2 3 44. In which grade is this students enrolled?61023520955Grade 160198027305Grade 2157670520955-12001528575Grade 4Grade 315799797092-12746811797Grade 5Grade 65. Have you reviewed these student’s Records related to Special Education services Provided before this school year?24472903810061023539370YesNo, I don’t have access to the recordINTERVIEW GUIDEHow long have you been here in this institution?Are you a special education teacher?What training/seminars have you attended?How long have you been handling inclusive education?How many pupils do you have in your class?How many pupils with emotional behavioral disorder do you have?What are the motivational strategies in building resilience of the students with EBD?What are the challenges you encountered while educating your pupils with emotional behavioral disorder?What are the techniques and strategies you are using in meeting the needs of pupils with emotional behavioral disorder?How is the academic performance of pupils with emotional behavioral disorder?What types of problem or pupils’ behavior do you find difficult?How is the interaction between the regular pupils and those with special needs?What are your ways of boosting the self-confidence of the child with special needs?What are your roles as a teacher in imparting knowledge to the students?What are the different barriers you encountered in developing the social skills of the pupils?What are your ways of promoting a friendly environment between the regular pupils and those with children with emotional and behavioral disorder?What are your ways in making your pupils with emotional and behavioral disorder feel safe and secured in your class?What are your ways in making the pupils with emotional and behavioral disorder believe in themselves, that they could pursue excellence despite their disabilities?What are your ways to prevent the regular pupils from ridiculing pupils with special needs?Are you using appropriate sense of humor to build resilience? To diffuse conflict situations? Engage learners?Are you using effective strategies to reduce burnout and nurturing your own mutual respect (ability to develop effective strategies to regulate, monitor and manage stress)?How does inclusive education affect you as a teacher?NOTE: Questions were adapted from from the research of Brent Richardson and Margery J.
Shupe (2003) revised by the researchers with the guidance of the adviser, research instructor and College of Teacher Education research coordinator. II. Professional TraitsLegend:5- Always 4- Often 3- Sometimes 2- Seldom 1- NeverINDICATORS:As an inclusive education teacher handling emotional and behavioral disorder pupils: 1. I enjoy working with the pupils with emotional behavioral disorder. 2. I use sense of humor as a technique to neutralize difficult strategies in handling pupils with emotional behavioral disorder.3. I use humor in the classroom to organize pupils with emotional behavioral disorder closer together.
4. I regularly acknowledge significant ways that can make a difference in the lives of students with EBD.5. I motivate my pupils with emotional behavioral disorder to learn. 6.
I used different techniques in handling my pupils with emotional behavioral disorder. 7. I feel that laughing is one of the major keys to get closer to my pupils with emotional behavioral disorder.8.
It is important that my pupils with emotional behavioral disorder enjoy learning in the classroom.9. I am taking proactive steps to identify & defuse my “emotional triggers”. 10. I am paying attention to what I need to pay attention to? (ability to recognize and build on students posture behavior strategies)12. I use an appropriate sense of humor to build resilience, diffuse conflict situations, engage learners, and manage own strength.13. I find teaching pupils with Emotional Behavioral Disorder as one of the most difficult behavior.
14. I regularly engage the pupils with Emotional Behavioral Disorder and involve them in our discussion.15.
I can keep my pupils with emotional behavioral disorder focused in our discussion. 16. I use evidence-based teaching strategy in handling EBD pupils. 17. I use rules and routines in handling EBD pupils.
18. I use a classroom behavior chart to monitor my EBD pupil’s behavior. 19. I use a positive peer review to check on the EBD pupil’s behavior. 20. I can see that one problem in dealing with my EBD pupil’s is on keeping class rules’ activities simple and clear.
QUESTIONNAIRE ON ESTABLISHING CONTENT VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT(Meimban Leila V.,1997)Direction: Please read all the direction and items in the questionnaire then read each statement in the evaluation sheet and rate each item using the rating scale below by marking a check mark ( ? ) on t0he appropriate column evaluation sheet.5 Highly Valid (HV)- No flaws observed or anything more to be desired to make it better.4 Valid (V)- Very little flaws observed; minor rewording of few items needed.3 Moderately Valid (MV)- Some flaws are observed; the overall usefulness is diminished only slightly.2 Fairly Valid (FV)- Several flaws are observed; overall usefulness is greatly diminished.
1 Not Valid (NV)- Major revision is needed to make it useful.Statement About the Instrument Rating5 4 3 2 1The directions given are clear in subsections of the instrument Each item is clearly stated. Each of item is readable; l.e.
, The items are easily read. Each of the items is attractive to read; Enough spaces are provided to avoid crowning items. The instrument is comprehensive i.e.
, It covered all areas that are important in the study. Each item is focused in one The items are objective; i.e.
, the responses to be elicited are neither biased or reactive The items are formulated in accordance in the explicit/ implicit objectives of the study. The items are systematically arranged according to the desirable sequence. The items do not overlap with each other; No duplication is observed. Evaluated by: ______________________________ Signature over printed nameDesignation: __________________________Date: ________________________________Remarks: _____________________________ _____________________________BIBLIOGRAPHYhttp://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/strategy.htmlINTERVIEW GUIDE1. How long have you been here in this institution?_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2.
Are you a special education teacher?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. What training/seminars have you attended?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________4. How long have you been handling inclusive education?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________5. How many pupils do you have in your class?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________6. How many pupils with emotional behavioral disorder do you have?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________7. What are the motivational strategies in building resilience of the students with EBD?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________8.
What are the challenges you encountered while educating your pupils with emotional behavioral disorder?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________9. What are the techniques and strategies you are using in meeting the needs of pupils with emotional behavioral disorder?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________10. How is the academic performance of pupils with emotional behavioral disorder?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________11. What types of problem or pupils’ behavior do you find difficult?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________12. How is the interaction between the regular pupils and those with special needs?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________13. What are your ways of boosting the self-confidence of the child with special needs?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________14. What are your roles as a teacher in imparting knowledge to the students?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________15. What are the different barriers you encountered in developing the social skills of the pupils?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________16.
What are your ways of promoting a friendly environment between the regular pupils and those with children with emotional and behavioral disorder?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________17. What are the ways in making your pupils with emotional and behavioral disorder feel safe and secured in your class?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________18. What are the ways in making the pupils with emotional and behavioral disorder believe in themselves, that they could pursue excellence despite their disabilities?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________19.
What are the ways to prevent the regular pupils from ridiculing pupils with special needs?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________20. What appropriate sense of humor you employ to build resilience? To diffuse conflict situations? Engage learners?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________22. What strategies do you employ to reduce your burnout and nurturing your own mutual respect? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________23.
How does inclusive education affect you as a teacher?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________NOTE: Questions were adapted from from the research of Brent Richardson and Margery J. Shupe (2003) revised by the researchers with the guidance of the adviser, research instructor and College of Teacher Education research coordinator.