CHAPTER also been outlined in this chapter

CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter provides a literature review on the impact of NGOs in socio-economic development of rural communities.

Firstly it provides literature on the concepts regarding NGOs including its definitions, types and activities. The conception of rural community is also described in this chapter to suit the intent of the study. Challenges facing NGOs have also been outlined in this chapter and politics and state-civil society relations in Zimbabwe. The researcher also took cognisance of reviewing literature on the role of NGOs in promoting socio-economic development in rural communities across the sphere.

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Also reviewed were the strategies that the NGOs use in planning and development of projects for the rural communities and lastly this chapter discusses theoretical framework. 2.1 DEFINING NGOs Ramakrishna (2013) states that NGOs are difficult to define and classify, as the term ‘NGO’ is used consistently. As a result, there are many different definitions in use”. NGOs are defined as not for profit organization which intend to transform or improve the lives of people. Ventakatanath (2009) defines Non-Governmental Organisation as a non-profit, social service voluntary organisation of community, persons, volunteers, civilians and citizens. Non-governmental organizations have a history dating back from 1839 and it have been estimated that by 1914, there were 1083 NGOs in the world (Ramakrishna, 2013). Ramakrishna further argue that the phrase “non-governmental organization” became widely used during the establishment of the United Nations Organization (UN) in 1945.

Martens and Seitz, (2015) acknowledge that the roots of modern humanity can be traced back from the beginning of the 20th century in the United States when business tycoons like John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie set up the first large American foundations, primarily as a way to shield some of their income from taxation but also as a way to garner prestige and influence in the United States of America (USA) and world affairs.Martens and Seitz (2015) further posits that a lot of NGOs’ funds emanate from the American foundations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Ford Foundation. Martens and Seitz, (2015) indicates that these foundations have been influential actors in global development, not only through their grant-making but also by shaping development concepts and policies, particularly in the areas of socio-economic development. Shivji (2007) substantiate that NGOs are led by and largely composed by the educated elite and they are usually located in urban areas.

Rural areas are only the operational grounds for accessing funding and acquiring information needed in drafting reports and concepts to be used in the search for donor’s activities. 2.2 TYPES OF NGOs The fall of the Soviet led to the rise and increase of NGOs in the civil society making it a vogue around 1980.

Shivji (2007), identified three types of NGOs which have led to the continued domination of the colonial mode in a different form called globalisation. However, the Career Services Centre (2011) have categorised NGOs into three broad range depending on each organisation activities. Firstly there is; radical elite NGO which is concerned with change and transformation of political issues but it is not necessarily involved in the partisan politics but take opportunity to express themselves and advocates for change. An example of such NGO is of the Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace (CCJP). Secondly is charity organisations which are normally driven by passion and altruistic motive of transforming the lives of other fellow citizen. These kind of NGOs are morally driven and an expertise example is that of World Vision.

A third category is the careerist driven one, this type of NGO is mainly composed of the former government employees who have observed that funding is being directed into the civil society. Shivji (2007) cited that this type of NGO is driven by material gains and personally motivated. These types of NGOs are formed after discovering that jobs in the government or public sector are difficult to come by. 2.

3 RURAL COMMUNITY The concept of a rural community has been one complicated issue in the human development aspect and even for policy makers as they embark on designing policies meant for such places. However, for this research a rural community can be defined as a place with limited access to opportunities, essential services and administration. Mondal (2015) explains that rural communities are derived privileges to access socio-economic amenities such as social services and fail to enjoy the rights of being citizens due to negligence by the administrations panels of the government.Picketty (2014) quoted by Scoones (2015) explains that poverty remains rife in rural communities, its effects have accumulated and continues to obstruct such communities which have further increased the gap differences between the rural and urban. Zimbabwe have been in riddle of economic instability since the beginning of the second millennium. The constitution of Zimbabwe of 2013 which is the first constitution to be drafted by Zimbabweans since 1980 stipulates the need to serve citizens with basic services, including educational and health facilities, water, roads, social amenities and electricity to marginalised areas (GoZ, 2013) which is a pre-requisite in the development area. Oxfam (2009) posits that Zimbabwe have experienced under investment and experienced loss of skilled labour due to economic decline in the past decade mainly due to an economic downturn.

The health and education sectors were adversely affected with people succumbing to cholera and other epidemic diseases, while the quality of education was compromised, which was justified by the growing numbers of school dropouts and low pass rates in primary and secondary schools (GoZ, 2013). Such conditions have been prevalent and orchestrated in rural communities due to the low or zero income status. Section 30 of the Zimbabwean constitution states that the government is obliged to take practical measures, within the resources available to it, to ensure provision of social security and social care to those in need of it. In unification with this section, Section 19 affirms the state needs to adopt congruent and consistent policies as well as measures to ensure shelter and health care is offered to people.

While the second knot of the Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-Economic Transformation (Zim Asset) grants permission for NGOs to intervene in assisting the government to enable the rural communities, access basic social services, particularly education, health, water and sanitation, and civic protection sectors that this research has considered as socio-economic development. 2.4 THE ROLE OF NGOS IN PROMOTING SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL COMMUNITY A community is said to be socio-economically developed when they are able to rise above the constraints and hindrances within their household and community at large (Golla, Malhotra, Nanda & Mehra 2011:4). The economic aspect entails access and control of family resources, employment, ability to earn an income, access to markets and it also strengthens negotiating power, decision-making and it increases social status. Eyben et al (2008:8) posits that social development enables the individual to develop capacity for agency, this capacity for agency can be achieved as an individual or as a collective and it leads to one having a sense of self-worth and it helps to improve social relations. In the course of this study, it was observed that a number of NGOs are on ground carrying out different types of socio-economic developmental projects and programmes. Cerulli (2006) cites that NGOs are geared towards the socio-economic development of the people in rural communities and they have embroiled in a longstanding vision of changing the world into a better place for human habitation especially for the poor and marginalised. A number of NGOs have played a vital role in socio-economic development in one way or another (Ramakrishna, 2013).

NGOs have embarked on the process of socio-economic development programmes after observing the inability of the governments to enormously serve the marginal rural communities thereby making their role so critical in development process. People in rural areas have not enjoyed the quality of life as is by people living in urban areas of Zimbabwe. Ramakrishna (2013) noted that NGOs are engaged in multifarious activities ranging from social, economic, environment and political sphere.

NGOs continue to engage in socio-economic development activities such as to help with employment opportunities for rural youth through the provision of capital to formulate income generation projects, providing vocational skills such as carpentry, building, welding and sewing. Batti (2014) cite that the economy in Zimbabwe is undergoing through some challenges which include, among others, externalisations of money, liquidity crunch, decline in businesses and a very tight fiscal space. The tight fiscal space have serious negative spill over effects in socio-economic development particularly on public service delivery and its consequences on people’s health, education support and overall poverty.

This has promoted a bipartisan approach to development by NGOs. Rural populace have pinned their hopes on NGOs as an alternate solution to the failure of the government’s efforts to develop their communities. Scholars like Chatiza (2010), argues that NGOs have been important since they are seen providing socio-economic activities such as health services to the poor during times of economic and socio-political recession which frequently hit governments in developing countries.

Despite their flaws, this makes NGOs priceless in the socio-economic development aspect of a nation especially when it comes to rural communities which are marginalised by governments. Nelson (2007) viewed NGOs to be entities operating individually and collectively at all levels of society and have impact on many aspects of people’s lives, ranging from their political to socio-economic opportunities. This has marked a shift from humanitarian orientation to more of developmental in diverse. Suharko (2007) wrote that, NGOs engage in policy advocacy to influence public policies concerning the poor people and develop various strategies to influence the process of public policy making and to control the implementation of development programs or projects.The other role which has been played by NGOs in socio-economic development is the issue of promoting gender equity which implies that men and women have an equal representation and participation in the community level decision-making and control (Suharko, 2007). Gender equity has helped both sides to articulate their concerns and interests to take responsibility, and actively participating in the development processes of their communities. In this regard, NGOs have created more room for engagement through their surveys and findings.

Bassey (2008) argues that in the pursuit of solutions to developmental problems besetting the African continent, the donor community is increasingly taking perception of NGOs to be the reliable agencies for leading an effective and sustainable development than the governments.2.5 NGO, COMMUNITY PROJECT PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT According to the DOCHAS Report of 2008 there are a few NGOs that have developed structures to respond to grassroots demands despite the participatory approaches that are theoretically perceived to be the mechanisms for involving communities in decision making participation. Critics have been scooped on NGOs for their failure to involve the grassroots in decision making concerning the planning of projects. Moyo (2009), cite that the issue of community involvement and participation in decision making has broiled an academic debate which has called for this inquiry to be put on book. Although NGOs have helped in fostering socio-economic development in rural areas, the planning of development programmes and projects is often centralised and planning proceedings discourage local involvement (Oakley 1999). Most NGOs use previous information and office information to design solutions for the communities which are sometimes intangible and fail to meet the demands of the people.

Muponde (2014) pointed out that NGOs descend on communities to make money without even doing ground work to determine what the people need. The NGOs usually operate in the bounds of the interests of the funding partner who prescribes to them the rules, regulations and conditions of the use of aid funds although they have limited knowledge of what the people in the communities want. The tendency of universalising development strategies has somehow influenced the operations of most NGOs and simultaneously fighting poverty continues since the projects fail to achieve what is expected of them. According to Oakley (1999), projects for rural communities are externally driven which leads to a recurrent failure to sustain themselves once the initial level of project support ends. This backs the importance to consider the local ideas as it can ensure the projects dynamics or sustainability. 2.

6 NGOS AND POLITICS IN ZIMBABWE Chatiza (2010) posits that NGOs in Zimbabwe undergoes polarisation and traumatic phases which are usually characterised by disruptions and banning of their activities. The interferences of the government into the operations of NGOs through the provision of memorandums of understanding (MoUs) and alignment to the developmental plans drafted by local governments deposit limit on their potency in developing rural communities. Hence NGOs are forced to divert their attention to the demands of those controlling them when it comes to development aspects and this has been integrated into this inquiry. Humanities, social-service activities and charities have become the political weapons of the first order, if those who control them are minded to use them for political purposes. Josephson (2012) explains that NGOs have the popular appeal of appearing to give the public something for nothing whereas none of them are willing to develop as they are lobby for the outside to fulfil the agendas of the donor community. Not even the Government itself can exert as great influence, because in politics the purchase of influence carries the limitation of the stigma of corruption, as it does in the world of business and commerce; but in the field of philanthropy and social work it is “accepted practice” to bribe public officials with retainers, jobs and favours, because of the false inference that their lobbying is done in the public interest (Josephson, 2012). Zimbabwe lack cohesion and social trust with non-state actors and there has been an unclear definition of the relationship between NGOs and the state in the development of rural areas Masakhaneni Projects Trust (2010). Politicians like former President of Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe view NGOs as the backbone of the opposition parties due to the sources of funding they have (Ncube, 2015).

The loss of elections by Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front (Zanupf) in most parts of Matebeleland region has been alleged to be caused by NGOs who have been feeding the empty and neglected stomachs of the people by the party. This has polarised the relationship of the state and the civil society in the region. According to Mashingaidze (2013) some NGOs in areas such as Matobo have been banned to operate basing on the assumption that they influenced people to vote for the opposition parties. This incompatible affair between the civil society and the state leads to the failure of the civil society as they work in fear and ends up diverging their objectives to suit the political elite’s interest and deprive the needs of the vulnerable communities who are in dire need of the interventions. 2.7 CHALLENGES FACED BY NGOS NGO innovations are diminishing, and their performance is now being measured in terms of compliance with donor priorities with little attention paid on to their partners and the benefiting communities (DOCHAS, 2008). In this regard, the donor community set conditions and priorities on the kind of programmes to be funded, hence a prime factor that requires to be investigated to get a deeper understanding. Financial constraint is the major factor that is contributing to the failure of NGOs in executing their duties for the benefit of people.

Most NGOs don’t have their own income generation projects to sustain themselves in times of financial strain and depend largely on foreign aid as a source of funding Chakawarika (2011). Financial constraints have come as result of growing numbers of NGOs, an increased competition for funding and clients in the developing countries like Zimbabwe. Most states face liquidity crunch which impinges them in attempting to rescue NGOs and states usually depends on the civil society for compliments under such circumstances. Chakawarika (2011) cites that legal matters have always compromised the activities of NGOs in spite of the available of funding since they are made to divert their objectives to suit the current state policies of a country in order to minimise antagonism. NGOs in rural areas have faced passive support from the community members. Usually women are the most involved and willing to participate in the projects being run by NGOs as man regards such things as a worst of time due to the failure for the project goals and objectives to address the expected demands at hand.

Lack of participation can be attributed to what Jones (1977) as quoted in Mwansa (1995) described as uncoordinated and self-seeking missions which makes their activities unclear. In the same clause, Mwansa (1995) goes on to say that some states are preoccupied to observe and analyse the works of NGOs and such scenarios increase resistance from the communities who have no one to encourage them to cooperate. 2.8Tittle Author Major Finding Lessons learnt Contribution by the NGOs: A major group sector on Africa and Sustainable Development’ Bassey N. Role of NGOs in socio-economic development NGOs are perceived by the rural community as the reliable agencies for leading socio-economic development than the governments.

Role of NGOs in Socio EconomicDevelopment of Rural India Shinde A and Patil R A. (2010) History of NGOs, Types of NGOs and Role of NGO is socio-economic development Major roles had been played by NGOs in rural socio-economic development. Evolution of NGOs dates as far from the late 19th century. ‘Challenges Facing Local NGOs in Resource Mobilization’. Humanities and Social Science, 2 (3) pp. 57-64. Batti, C.R.

(2014) Challenges of NGOs Need for NGOs to have alternative ways to source funding for sustainability of their projects in the event of end of international fundingNon-Governmental Organizations. University of Colorado Boulder. Colorado. Career Service Centre for Community (2011).

Types of NGOs Classification of NGOs with their activities ‘Challenges faced by NGOs in the Political harsh climate of Zimbabwe: Analysing the effects on sustainability and promotion of human rights,’ Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfilment for the Degree: Masters in Human Rights Practice, University of Gothenburg. Chakawarika, B. (2011) State and Civil society organisation relations NGOs ends up shifting their objectives to suits the needs of the current state political situation ‘Can NGOs contribute to Socio-Economic Transformation in Zimbabwe?’ Analysing Historical Trends and Gazing into the Future, in de Visser, J, Steytler, N. and Naison Machingauta, N.

(eds.) (2010) NGOs reform in Zimbabwe: A Policy Dialogue, University of the Western Cape, Community Law Centre. Chatiza, K. (2010) Role of NGOs in transformation of socio-economic development Lack of proper funding and conditions of the donors have made it difficult for NGOs to transform the rural communities. ‘Rural Community: Top 10 Characteristics of the Rural Community– Explained’. Mondal, P Characteristics of rural community Rural community are still deprived of their rights such as accessibility of socio-economic amenities because of their geographical location. The Emerging Role of NGOs IN Rural development of India: An Assessment Ramakrishna H Engagement of NGOs in multifarious activitiesParticipation of rural communities in NGOs project planning and implementation NGOs are important institutional actors in mobilizing community assets, motivating people and implementing socio-economic programs effectively at the grassroots 2.

9 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK In an attempt to answer the research question, this study has adopted a Systems theory propounded by Ludwig von Bertalanffy in 1945. Von Bertalanffy’s ideas were based on the Leibnitzian, rather than Lockean concept of man (Weckowicz, 2000) of which the Leibnitzian concept envisaged man as a creative, striving agent rather than as passive one, only reacting to and reflecting the environment. This concept is cemented by the concept of endogenous or self-centred development (Dembele, 2013). Tamus, Yukon and Ontario (2000) alluded that the General System Theory, which was developed by Ludwig von Bertalanffy, provides an analytical framework which can be used to describe some of the many factors involved in community development and key concerns in community development, such as assessing power and influence, understanding the dynamics of inter-group relationships, and considering the changes involved in planning development activities, can be understood and described using System Theory. Hence only those who dwell in a given community has the capacity to determine what they need as Professor Joseph Ki-Zerbo quoted by Dembele (2013) for said that; ‘If we develop ourselves, it is by drawing from the elements of our own development, and we do not develop- we develop ourselves.’ According to von Betalanffy’s theory, developmental processes are controlled by certain very general laws which can be summed up by the three principles of the endogenous which are; The necessity of relying on one’s own strength Mass participation in politics with the goal of changing one’s condition in life The emancipation of women and their inclusion in the processes of development The use of the State as an instrument for economic and social transformation Hence it has been informed that the endogenous approach can help to come up with the most relevant measures to solve the problem of poverty in the communities.

Shivji (2007) wrote that, because many NGOs do provide much needed services, because their motives are often honourable, because they employ capable and often progressive staff, there has been a reluctance amongst many to discuss critically the objective impact of their work as distinct from the subjective motives behind their work. Shivji (2007) says the African people, who were once supposed to be the authors and drivers of development and liberators of their nations, are reduced to the category of ‘the chronically poor’ and hence the ‘poor’, the diseased, the disabled, the Aids-infected, the ignorant, the marginalised, in short the ‘people’ – are not part of the development equation, since development is assigned to the private capital that constitutes the ‘engine of growth’ Shivji (2007). The Systems theory advocates for community members as owners of a society, to be the finest ones in understanding their problems and inputting their strength, resources and spirit in the fight against poverty can become a reality. Foreign aid is needed but if it has an irrelevant agenda hidden behind the orbits of the donors, then the people have a voice to say no and refuse to be a “Mr and Mrs Yes” community, subjugated in the expense of poverty to diminish their dignity. The concept of homeostasis which includes the passage of time can only be understood by elements of system which are the community members in this case (Tamus, Yukon and Ontario, 2000). Therefore this justifies the use of the systems theory which embrace inclusion in planning and designing of development projects and discourage the top-down approach to decision making by NGOs.3.0 CHAPTER SUMMARY This chapter attempted to define an NGO although the definitions may vary depending on the purpose served by the organisation and the area of operation.

NGOs are usually located in urban centres which act as administration zones and most of them are funded by foreign donors to dispense the aid funds to the communities which makes their activities to stand guided by the donor community. This chapter has given a critical analysis of the roles, challenges, demands of the communities and a theoretical framework. The next chapter outlines how the study was conducted so as to measure the concept of socio-economic development of rural communities.References Action Centre La Faim International Framework (2006) Zimbabwe: Insight into the Humanitarian Crisis and Food Politics, Study Report. Bassey, N.

(2008) ‘Contribution by the NGOs major group sector on Africa and Sustainable Development’. United Nations, New York Working Paper Series Number 3. Batti, C.R. (2014) ‘Challenges Facing Local NGOs in Resource Mobilization’.

Humanities and Social Science, 2 (3) pp. 57-64. Cerulli, G. (2006). The Redistributive Role of Non-profit Organizations. Munich Personal RePEc ArchiveMPRA Paper No. 28.

Chatiza, K. (2010) ‘Can NGOs Steer Socio-Economic Transformation in Zimbabwe?’ Analysing Historical Trends and Gazing into the Future, in de Visser, J, Steytler, N. and Naison Machingauta, N. (eds.) (2010) Local government reform in Zimbabwe: A Policy Dialogue, University of the Western Cape, Community Law Centre. DOCHAS (2008) ‘A Wave of Change: How Irish NGOs Will Sink or Swim’, A Discussion Paper on the Future roles and relevance of Ireland’s Development NGOs. Government of Zimbabwe (2013) ‘Constitution Amendment (No.

20) Act.’ Harare, Government Printer Government of Zimbabwe (2013) ‘Zimbabwe Agenda for Sustainable Socio-economic Transformation (ZimAsset): Towards an Empowered Economy.’ Harare, Government Printer. Makoba, J. W. (2002).

‘Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOS) and Third World Development: An Alternative Approach to Development.’ Journal of Third World Studies; Spring2002, Vol. 19 Issue 1, p53. Masakhaneni Projects Trust (2010) Annual Progress Report, January-December 2010. Martens, J. and Seitz, K.

(2015). Philanthropic Power and Development: Who shapes the Agenda? Bischöfliches Hilfswerk Misereor. Germany.

Moyo, D. (2009). Dead Aid: Why Aid Makes Things worse and how there is Another Way for Africa. Penguin Books. New York.

USA.Moyo, S, Makumbe, J, ; Raftopolous, B. 2000. NGOs in Rural Poverty Alleviation: Zimbabwe Case Study. Overseas Development Institute.

London Oxfam. (2009). Enhancing Food and Livelihoods Security in Zimbabwe, Nutrition Network, London.Ramakrishna, H. (2013).

‘The Emerging Role of NGOs IN Rural development of India: An Assessment.’ International Journal of Social Science ; Interdisciplinary Research, Vol. 2 (4), APRIL (2013).

Suharko (2007). ‘The Roles of NGOs in Rural Poverty Reduction: The Case of Indonesia and India.’ Nagoya University. Japan. Discussion paper No.160.

CHAPTER to the public through documentation and

CHAPTER 2LITERATURE REVIEW2.1IntroductionLiterature review is the way to describe theoretical ideas which related with the topics of study. Its information includes the general understanding, idea, data, formula, and other theoretical study that have already been studied and publish to the public through documentation and so on.

This information is needed as it can provide an overview about the overall study. Besides that, this chapter also help in guiding the scope to be used in designing the questionnaire. In this chapter, several aspects of theoretical related to the topics of study will be discussed which explain about the existing scenario of urban growth and its relevance with urban sprawl. Besides that, this chapter will also discuss upon its impact towards community quality of life, as well as some example from existing cases. 2.2Terms and Definition2.

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2.1Development and GrowthIn general terms, development means an event constituting a new stage in a changing situation. If not qualified, development is implicitly intended as something positive or desirable. When referring to a society or to a socio-economic system, development usually means improvement, either in the general situation of the system, or in some of its constituent elements.

Development is a broad concept that entails social, economic, political and human development. Human development constitutes the foundation on which the first three concepts are based. According to Burkey (1993), economic and political development must translate into social development. As a broad concept, development has been extensively explored with a view to realise economic growth and social development. However, the emphasis shifted from industrial and economic development as the determining factors in societal transformation. Economic growth may bring material gain to the people, but development is much about enrichment of the lives of all the people in the society (Edwards 1993). The shift moved from holistic theorisation of development towards local ‘participation’ and ’empowerment’ (Mohan & Stokke 2000).

The underlying principle of such a phenomenon is the people’s control of the processes. Todaro and Smith (2006) also agree with Edwards that if a development strategy results in robust economic growth and political stability without a significant change in the quality of life of the masses of people, something is wrong. High growth performance without people participation is clearly economic growth without development. 2.2.

2Urban GrowthUrbanization refers to the process of growth and decline of economic agglomerations. The pattern of concentration of economic activity and its evolution have been found to be an important determinant, and in some cases the result, of urbanization and the structure of cities. Urban growth as an economic phenomenon is closely linked with the process of urbanization. Urbanization itself has punctuated economic development.

The spatial distribution of economic activity, measured in terms of population, output and income, is concentrated. The patterns of such concentrations and their relationship to measured economic and demographic variables constitute some of the most intriguing phenomena in urban economics. They have important implications for the economic role and size distribution of cities, the efficiency of production in an economy, and overall economic growth. As Paul Bairoch’s magisterial work (1988) has established, increasingly concentrated population densities have been closely linked since the dawn of history with the development of agriculture and transportation. Yet, as economies move from those of traditional societies to their modern stage, the role of the urban sector changes from merely providing services to leading in innovation and serving as engines of growth. Measurement of urban growth rests on the definition of ‘urban area’, which is not standard throughout the world and differs even within the same country depending upon the nature of local jurisdictions and how they might have changed over time.According to Hoddy Linda (1974), urban growth may occur in three ways that is:when population increases without physical expansion of the urban area (density is increasing)when the urbanized area expands physically (density is increasing)when both population and area of urbanized land are increasing2.2.

3Connection Between Urbanization and Urban SprawlUrbanization is a dynamic process. Urbanization means shift of rural people to urban areas. Urbanization is the increasing number of people that lives in urban areas. It predominantly results in the physical growth of urban areas, be it horizontal and vertical. Urban settlement development process goes through the various stages.

Huts, village, urban village, town and finally converts into city. International Herald Tribune (2008), stated that the United Nations (UN) projected that half of the world’s population would live in urban areas at the end of 2025. According to The Economist (2012), by the year 2050 it is predicted that 64.1% and 85.9% of the developing and developed world respectively will be urbanized. Besides that, urbanization is closely linked to modernization, industrialization, and the sociological process of rationalization (Neelmani Jaysawal ; Sudeshna Saha, 2014).

Urbanization can describe a specific condition at a set time, such as the proportion of total population, areas in cities and the term can describe the increase of this proportion over time. Thus, the term of urbanization can represent the level of urban development relative to overall population. It also represents the rate at which the urban proportion is increasing. Urbanization is a set of process of natural, geographical, social, cultural, and economic. The growth and development of city depends upon the socio-economic conditions. The changes in people’s social, economic and behavioural conditions produce the urban way of life called Urbanism. It affects spread of urbanism outer part of city.

It will come again in the form of urban sprawl. Urbanization is a complex process. It effects on society to lead industrial, technological empowerment and overall development. Urbanization effects on the land use and land cover change of the city. It results the reduction of forest area, agricultural area, vacant land and so on. The unplanned, haphazard, uncontrolled, unmanaged low-density settlement produces urban Sprawl.The explanation behind urban sprawl are wide and varies. However, according to Brueckner (2000), urban sprawl is a spatial development of urban sprawl that exists excessively in urban areas.

Although, city have expanded to accommodates a growing population, but not resulting in a congested urban area. If cities take up too much space, agricultural land and open space will be lost to the wake of new development. Urban sprawl also can be defined as the pattern and rate of development where lands for urban uses beyond the existing conditions for accommodate the increase in population and the city.

Definition of urban sprawl can be seen in terms of impact and vary according to the definition of either making economists, environmentalists or urban planners (Ahris Yaakup, 2008). 2.2.

4Suburbanization ConceptUrban Sprawl and suburbanization are actually two different kind of things. However, these two different terms are related to each other. Suburbanization can be defined as a process of becoming suburban. Geographers understand suburbanization as transformation of the spatial structures, while sociologists see it as a change in the lifestyle. The suburbanization process can be thus perceived as a continuous transformation of the social and physical environments which refer to the change or upgrade from a rural to suburban environment (Ou?ední?ek 2002). Suburbanization also refer to the process of rapid development which take place in the outer space or part of the city. Resulting people to shift from living in urban area into suburban area.

In short, suburbanization is the result from urban sprawl in which the urban sprawl itself is the process. Suburbanization process practically affect all big and medium sized cities. The nature of suburbanization is not exclusively residential. It also involves a transfer of other functions (industry, commercial activities) into the city surroundings.

The targets of suburbanization streams are usually rural municipalities or even unoccupied landscapes. Suburbanization on rural area often has a positive effect on the locals. This is because suburbanization can lead to a good and quality provision of infrastructure and facilities such as roads and so on. However, sometimes that suburbanization did not fully meet the expectations of people migrating into the surroundings of cities.

People spend most of their time looking for suitable places of living. Perhaps, they have little time or strength to make use of the benefits from living on the edges of countryside which offer a closeness nature of environment and rural lifestyle values. Occasionally, for example gated communities (either with an actual fence or a psychological barrier) become established which strictly separate the original inhabitants from the incomers who are often members of other social groups. In addition, the suburbs often dispose of rather limited services and commuting to the city becomes necessary not only because of work but also for commercial and social services and to do all the shopping.

Such suburbs mostly do not have any public spaces and lack identity, symbols and dominants. 2.2.5Community and Social GroupsAs cited by Phil Bartle (2011), community is defined as the people that does notnecessarily sharing their physical location but being mark for having the same interestamong the people. Meaning that one is considered a community if it is sharing thesame interest with others although that person lived outside of their range.

If the peoplewithin a specific boundary do not share the same interest, they will still be consideredas a community if they live in the same area unless they move out from the places thenthey will not be a part of that community.The words of ‘society’, ‘social’ and ‘community’ does give the same meaning andoften used to describe anything related to it. As a basic and general understanding,society can be defined as a group of people that related to one another by a consistentof communication and relation that happen among them. According to Anderson(2008), society is a large social group that shares the same location and is subject withthe same political authority and usually is dominant in cultural.As to provide a clear understanding between the relations of a society andindividuals, a social group is described as the common characteristics of a group suchas its tradition, religion belief and so on while the personal profile such as occupation,income and interest is considered as individuals and does not represent the society.

As for the community group, it is the shared interests, networks and relationships that we have with each other within society.Anderson (2008), state that a person finds it difficult to move from one society to another compare to a move from one community to another. People can move easily from a different community to seek new opportunities in order to satisfy their needs within a period of time. As a result, we can see a lot of different social group that are a part of the same community.417791544140Figure 2.1: Individual, Society and Community2.

2.6Social ImpactCentre for Social Impact (CSI) defines social impact as the net effect of an activity on a community, family and individuals. This means that any such effect that occur within the relations among the community. These activities will affect the overall relations of the society in terms of cultural, economic and environment. The effect is being measure by classifying them into positive and negative impact. Positive impact will allow a society to improve themselves, while negative impact will limit the relations between them.Vanclay (2010) describes social impacts as the effect towards human populations,whether from public or private actions that change the ways of life of someone in which effecting their live, work and play. This change is related to one another and isimportant as it helps in satisfying their needs and supporting other members of society.

This matter also includes cultural impacts that involve the changes of norms, values, and beliefs that will guide and streamline their perception of themselves and theirsociety. As for the conclusion, social impact can be considered as the distraction thatoccur in the surrounding life of someone in terms of cultural, belief and others.United Nation Public Administration Network (2006), define social impacts as theimpacts of interventions by human towards environment development wherebyimpacts of development interventions is differed.

Although a different developmentproposed give a significant benefit towards country, the negative externalitiesassociated with them also need to be identify and evaluate. Therefore, the impacts isthen not only need to be identify and measure but also need to be manage in such away that the positive outcomes is maximized and the negative outcome is minimized.Vanclay (2010), state that social impacts include the changes that happen in someoneway of life, cultures, community, political systems, environment, health and welfare,their personal and property rights and also their feelings.

As to provide a betterunderstanding towards social impact, Vanclay (2010), has provided a clear exampleon type of social impact that occurs in our daily life.Lifestyle impactsEffect the behaviour of the people towards their family, friends and allies ineveryday activity.Cultural impactsCauses a social group to be differed by the effect towards the shared ontradition, responsibilities, values, language, religious belief and other relatedelements.Community impactsEffect the infrastructure, services, organisations and institution as well as theactivity networks and unity.Quality of life impactsEffect the sense of place, its aesthetics and heritage value, individualperception, security and responsibility, and the goal for the future.2.2.7Quality of Life and Well-BeingThe concept of quality of life broadly encompasses how an individual measured the ‘goodness’ of multiple aspects of their life.

These evaluations include one’s emotional reactions to life occurrences, disposition, sense of life fulfilment and satisfaction, and satisfaction with work and personal relationships (Diener, Suh, Lucas, ; Smith, 1999). While according to World Health Organization (WHO, 1995) quality of life is an individuals’ perceptions of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live, and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns. It is a broad ranging concept affected in a complex way by the persons’ physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships and their relationship to salient features of their environment.The term ‘quality of life’ is also often referred to as ‘well-being’. However, there are a number of challenges to developing a meaningful understanding of the quality of life and/or well-being literature. The first is to ascertain what, exactly, the terms mean (Clarke, Marshall, Ryff, ; Rosenthal, 2000; Farquhar, 1995).

Almost 30 years ago, in one of the seminal geographical studies in this field, Smith (1973) proposed that well-being be used to refer to objective life conditions that apply to a population generally, while quality of life should more properly be limited to individuals’ subjective assessments of their lives because of what Smith felt to be the evaluative nature of the term. Today, this distinction has been lost. The terms are often undefined or used inconsistently or interchangeably within studies. In some instances, one term is even used to define the other (De Leo et al.

, 1998).center50362Personal Satisfaction (Quality of Life)Quality of life is defined in terms of satisfaction with lifeLife ConditionsPersonal SatisfactionQuality of life is defined in terms of life conditionsLife Conditions (Quality of Life)Quality of LifeQuality of life is defined as a combination of Life conditions and SatisfactionLife ConditionsPersonal SatisfactionQuality of LifeQuality of life is defined as a combination of Life conditions and Satisfaction weight by Scale of ImportanceLife ConditionsPersonal SatisfactionPERSONAL VALUES00Personal Satisfaction (Quality of Life)Quality of life is defined in terms of satisfaction with lifeLife ConditionsPersonal SatisfactionQuality of life is defined in terms of life conditionsLife Conditions (Quality of Life)Quality of LifeQuality of life is defined as a combination of Life conditions and SatisfactionLife ConditionsPersonal SatisfactionQuality of LifeQuality of life is defined as a combination of Life conditions and Satisfaction weight by Scale of ImportanceLife ConditionsPersonal SatisfactionPERSONAL VALUESFigure 2.2: Conceptualisation of Quality of Life2.3Scenario of Urban ExpansionOriginally, development of suburbs was a solution for families to begin new communities free from the characteristics of overcrowded and congested cities. Unfortunately, the result in decades of increased population growth and unplanned development has severely affected the nation. Urban sprawl has thus become a matter for concern, not only because of the intensity of the process but also because of its great environmental, social and economic impact. An increase in commuting due to the more scattered nature of urban areas also exacerbates traffic congestion and, in turn, air pollution (Sierra Club, 1998; Brueckner 2001; Glaeser and Khan, 2003). Excessive land conversion to urban use diminishes the extent of farmland and forests, which represents a loss of the amenity benefits from open space (Sierra Club, 1998).

The claim is also made that urban sprawl reduces social interaction and contributes to socioeconomic segregation between the rich of the suburbs and the poor of the inner cities (Downs, 1999; Brueckner, 2000, 2001; Glaeser and Khan, 2003). However, several benefits have been attributed to urban sprawl in terms of the fulfilment of residents’ preferences for larger, single-family detached housing, greater proximity to open spaces, and segregation from some of the problems suffered by the inner city such as pollution, crime and congestion. Nonetheless, these benefits can be offset by a wide variety of social costs, including traffic congestion, air pollution and social segregation. In addition to these negative consequences, there is one economic impact which is of particular concern that is the impact of urban sprawl on the cost-effective provision of local public services. When a city expands and grow, its infrastructure together with certain public goods and services need to be increased to maintain a given level of public services for all its residents. Consequently, suburbanization leads to a marked increase in the provision costs of local public services, such as trash collection, police and fire protection, public transport and road cleaning services. In such cases, the lower density of individual consumers undermines economies of scale in the provision of public services, resulting in inefficient cost increases (Elis-Williams, 1987; McGuire and Sjoquist, 2002; Carruthers and Ulfarsson, 2003).

Consider for instance two municipalities with the same characteristics (in terms of both size and population) but different densities. In the less dense of the two, there will be a need for more garbage trucks or, alternatively, the trucks available will have to cover longer routes in order to provide the same quality of trash collection to all its residents. Trash collection costs, as well as road cleaning or police protection costs, vary directly with distance. Therefore, the provision of such services is more expensive in less dense municipalities. Spatially expansive development patterns also lead to greater costs because of the larger investments required in extending basic infrastructure (roadways, sewerage, electricity) over greater distances to reach relatively fewer numbers of residents (Carruthers, 2002). 2.

3.1Cause of Urban GrowthAs cited by Bhatta (2010), the causes of urban sprawl are always associated with the causes of urban growth. This is because the causes bring by the two development phenomena are actually quite similar.

In most of the instances they cannot be discriminated since urban growth and sprawl are highly interlinked. However, it is important to realise that urban growth may be observed without the occurrence of sprawl, but sprawl must induce growth in urban area. Some of the causes, for example population growth, may result in coordinated compact growth or uncoordinated sprawled growth. Whether the growth is good or bad depends on its pattern, process, and consequences. There are also some of the causes that are especially responsible for sprawl. For example, those who possess the spirit of country-living desire tend to prefer to live in the rural countryside, which is more related with sprawl.Table 2.1: Tendency of causes by urban growth towards compact and sprawl growth Causes of urban growth Compact growth Sprawl growthPopulation growth Independence of decision Economic growth Industrialisation Speculation Expectations of land appreciation Land hunger and legal disputes Development and Property Tax Living and property cost Lack of Affordable Housing Demand of more living space Public Regulation Country-living desire Source: Improvised from Bhatta, 2010Population GrowthThe first and foremost reason of urban growth is increase in urban population.

Rapid growth of urban areas came from two type of population growth which is natural increase of population and migration of people to urban area. This huge growth in urban population may force to cause an uncontrolled urban growth resulting in sprawl. The rapid growth of cities strains their capacity to provide services for people who needs.Independence of decisionThe competitors which include government and private sector hold a variety of expectations about the future and a variety of development demands.

Often these competitors can take decisions at their own to meet their future expectations and development demands. This is especially true if the city lacks a master plan as a whole. This independence ultimately results in uncoordinated, uncontrolled and unplanned development (Harvey and Clark 1965).Economic growthExpansion of economic base such as higher per capita income, increase in number of working persons can creates demand for new housing or more housing space for individuals (Boyce 1963). Thus, encourage developers to perform a rapid construction of new housing. Rapid development of housing and other urban infrastructure often causes a variety of discontinuous uncorrelated developments.

IndustrialisationEstablishment of many new industrial development had influence the grow and demand of housing area. Those who works at the industry tend to stay away from their place of working. They are looking for a cheaper option to live thus influence them to stay at the edges of urban area. Resulting in urbanization of rural area.

SpeculationSpeculation about the future growth, future government policies and facilities such as planning on transportation may cause premature growth without proper planning (Clawson 1962; Harvey and Clark 1965). Speculation is sometimes blamed for sprawl in that speculation produces withholding of land for development which is one reason of discontinuous development.Expectations of land appreciationExpectations of land appreciation at the urban fringe cause some landowners to withhold land from the market (Lessinger 1962; Ottensmann 1977). Expectations may vary, however the intention remains the same which is to gain profit from the increase in market value of land. Thus influence the pattern of land use development to be happen outward and potentially reach the suburbs and rural area.Land hunger and legal disputes Many institutions including individuals are eager and desire for the ownership of land especially the one which is located in development potential area. This is because in urban area legal disputes such as ownership problem, subdivision problem and so on are more likely to occur due to people are unable to come to an agreement when it comes to the sale of land.

Development and Property TaxGenerally, these taxes are independent of location and in many instances these taxes are lower in the suburbs compare to the inner city. The problem is that local tax systems usually require developers to pay only a fraction of the community-infrastructure and public-service costs associated with their projects, which makes development look artificially cheap and encourages urban expansion (Brueckner and Kim 2003). Underpricing of urban infrastructure encourages excessive spatial growth of cities, as shown by Brueckner (1997).Living and property costIncreasing cost of living at main developed area has influence the pattern of development to be happen at countryside. Harvey and Clark (1965) say ‘at the time of sprawl occurred, the cost was not prohibitive to the settler, (rather) it provided a housing opportunity economically satisfactory relative to other alternatives’.

Meaning that people are rather living in core area but lower living cost at countryside has attract them to come.Lack of Affordable HousingIt is similar to living and property cost and another reason of urban growth. Affordable housing is a term used to describe dwelling units whose total housing costs are deemed ‘affordable’ to those that have a median household income. Lack of affordable housing within the city forces people to set their residences in the countryside.Demand of more living spaceLack sufficient living space at core area encourage development to be happen at countryside due to available of more opportunity. Besides that, people can buy more living space in the countryside than in the inner city, since the cost of property is less in the countryside. If the demand of more living space forces rapid low-density development in the countryside then it must be an indication of urban growth.

Public RegulationGenerally, outside of the main city is lesser controlled and loosely regulated. As a result, many developers and individuals find these places more suitable for new construction (Harvey and Clark 1965). Loosely regulated public regulations also fail to control the new construction in a compact and sustainable manner, and in many instances developers do not bother about the government planning policies.Country living desireResidents of countryside are often former urbanites who moved into rural area in seeking for a better quality of life.

Despite long commutes to work and poor services available, moving to suburbs remains a desire for them. Unless this perception changes and the conditions of urban life improve, sprawl development will continue as the flight from cities to suburbs continues (Barnes et al. 2001). 2.

3.2Consequences of Urban GrowthConsequences of urban growth may have both positive and negative side effects. However, negative impacts are generally more highlighted because this growth is often uncontrolled or uncoordinated and therefore the negative impacts override the positive sides. In terms of positive side effect, it includes higher economic production, opportunities for the underemployed and unemployed, better life because of better opportunities and better services, and better lifestyles.Urban growth can extend better basic services (such as transportation, sewer, and water) as well as other specialist services (such as better educational facilities, health care facilities) to more peoples. However, in many instances, urban growth is uncontrolled and uncoordinated resulting in sprawl.

As a result, the positive side effect which should happen cannot be highlight. One of the major effects of rapid urban growth is sprawl that increases traffic, saps local resources, and destroys open space. Urban sprawl is responsible for changes in the physical environment, and in the form and spatial structure of cities.

Evidence of the environmental impacts of sprawl continues to mount. Kirtland (1994) report that the impact of urban land on environmental quality is much larger than its spatial extent would imply. The consequences and significance of sprawl, good or ill, are evaluated based on its socioeconomic and environmental impacts. Often these are overlapping or one may have several indirect impacts. However, major consequences of urban sprawl can be summarised as follows.Inflated infrastructure and public service costsSprawl is usually accepted as being inordinately costly to its occupants and to society (Harvey and Clark 1965).

Sprawl is blamed due to its environmental cost and economic cost (Buiton 1994). The Costs of Sprawl and other studies have shown that development of neighbourhood infrastructure becomes less costly on a per-unit basis as density rises (Frank, 1989). As long as developers are responsible for the full costs of neighbourhood infrastructure,and pass such costs on to homebuyers and other end-users of land, lower-density development patterns will meet the test of economic efficiency (at least with respect to infrastructure costs).

Disparity in wealthThere is marked spatial disparity in wealth between cities and suburbs. Sprawl implicated in a host of economic and social issues related to the deterioration of urban communities and the quality of life in suburbia (Wilson et al. 2003). In many cases private utility systems serving the main segment of the settled area cannot be expanded for technical and financial reasons.

Urban sprawl often occurs in peripheral areas without the discipline of proper planning and zoning; as a result, it blocks the ways of future possible quality services.Loss of farmlandUrbanisation generally, and sprawl in particular, contribute to loss of farmlands and open spaces (Berry and Plaut, 1978). According to Burchell (2005), urban growth only in the United States, is predicted to consume 7 million acres of farmland, 7 million acres of environmentally sensitive land, and 5 million acres of other lands during the period 2000–2025.

This case is enough to visualise the world scenario. Provincial tax and land-use policies combine to create financial pressures that propel farmers to sell land to speculators. Low prices of farm commodity in global markets often mean it is far more profitable in the long term for farmers to sell their land than to continue farming it. In addition, thousands of relatively small parcels of farmland are being severed off to create rural residential development.Impacts on public and social healthOne of the original motivations for migration to the suburbs was access to nature. The sense of escaping from the turmoil of urban life to the suburbs, the feeling of peaceful refuge, may be soothing and restorative to some people. In these respects, there may be health benefits to suburban lifestyles (Frumkin, 2002).

However, sprawl is generally blamed for its negative impacts on public health (Sturm and Cohen 2004). Sprawl is blamed for driving out local downtown commerce by attracting consumers to larger, regional malls and restaurants (Pedersen, 1999). Sprawl results waste in time of passing vacant land enroute from central city to the sprawled suburb (Harvey and Clark, 1965), giving rise to more traffic congestion (Brueckner, 2000) and reduced social interaction.Other impactsOne Exurban development can place additional burdens on rural economic or land-use activities such as forestry, mining, and farming, since the values of exurbanites may clash with those of traditional users regarding the most suitable uses of rural lands.

Urban sprawl, a potential manifestation of development, has its negative impacts in coastal regions also, where beach-oriented tourism and amenity-driven population growth and land development are prominent (Crawford 2007). Sprawl also includes aesthetic impacts such as more ugly and monotonous suburban landscapes.2.4Urban Growth in MalaysiaMalaysia independence day fall on 1957 and since then the economic development focus towards improving the socio-economic status of Malaysians, especially those who lived in rural areas. This planning remains until mid-1980s.

The development of satellite towns and new towns intend to distribute the developments and control the urbanization that happen within the city core (Jamalunlaili Abdullah, 2012). The development of new towns away from city centre is to support the approaches by Malaysia government through New Economic Policy (NEP). The strategy focused on reducing poverty as well as restructure the socio-economic activity of the society. The development of socio-economic in Malaysia are in favour of Bumiputera which then led to a massive government funds towards Malays who mostly reside in rural and less developed area. However, despite all of this planning the progress of new town developments seems to be slowing down. Some of new towns only managed to attract people less than to be expected. Some of the factors include a high competition from establish regions and lack of connection between new towns and surrounding elements (Ghani Salleh, 2000).

2.4.1The Spread of Urban GrowthThe strength of existing primary cities such as Kuala Lumpur has attracted a number of population to come into the area in seeking for a job opportunity. A high number of manufacturing activity also seems to be exist surround Kuala Lumpur which took placed in satellite town such as Petaling Jaya which purposely develop in order to distribute a large number of population who already reside in Kuala Lumpur. This is because, these workers who originated from various of places required housing and urban services.

As their number increase, the need to provide adequate number of services also increase.The increasing in growth of new land development outside the boundary of existing cities had influence the growth of new cities in suburban in order to provide services for new communities (Jamalunlaili Abdullah, 2012). It all started during 1990s, when the development of new towns enormously expands and located far away from Kuala Lumpur and existing satellite towns.

These include the development of cities such as Shah Alam, Bangi and Klang. The rapid growth in urban areas within the state of Selangor grew in between two to six times faster annually in compare to Kuala Lumpur within 10 years period of time (refer Table 2.2).

Table 2.2: Comparison of population and annual rate of Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and Malaysia between 1991 and 2000State and District Population Annual Rate1991 2000 1991-2000Selangor 2,297,159 3,947,527 6.02Gombak 352,649 553,410 5.

01Klang406,994 648,918 5.18Kuala Langat 130,090 189,983 4.21Kuala Selangor 123,052 157,28 2.73Petaling633,165 1,181,034 6.93Sabak Bernam99,824 110,713 1.15Sepang 54,671 97,896 6.

47Hulu Langat 413,900 865,514 8.20Hulu Selangor 82,814 142,771 6.05W.P. Kuala Lumpur 1,145,342 1,297,526 1.

39Malaysia 17,563,420 22,202,614 2.60Source: Department of Statistic, Malaysia (2000)To be specific, urban spraw in Klang Valley started to separated beginning from Kuala Lumpur up towards west of Malaysia whereby lead to the growth of Subang Jaya, Shah Alam, Klang and finally Port Klang. After that, newer development started to growth towards south as the provision of Putrajaya and Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) make it happen. 2.4.2Implications to Socio-economic and CulturalThe need for Malaysia to growth is to ensure Malaysia are well competitive in terms of economic and to achieve a ‘modern’ status approaching 2020.

Based on this statement, it is likely that sprawl are going to happen simply because Kuala Lumpur are welcoming any mega projects which would bring more economic revenues. This scenario would effect socio-economic activity as well as cultural elements of urban area. This is because, town which originally develop 20 to 30 years ago will start to slow down their growth. Many of this town struggled to survive due to significant increase in competition.More available of spaces for development offer by Sepang to the south and Klang to the west attract people who once lived in urban area. This has led to a polarization of the socioeconomic status within the metropolitan areas. Other cultural shift can be seen from people who live in suburbs, they have the most activities conducted throughout the day. The rapid increase of commercial lot in suburbs has left certain part of Kuala Lumpur being emptied at night.

For example, the culture of local people who love to eating out at night are more notable in suburban area such as Shah Alam and Klang compare to Kuala Lumpur (Jamalunlaili Abdullah, 2012). 2.4.3Kampong Bharu as Urban VillageIn urban planning an urban village refers to a community of people or human settlement that is relatively clustered but smaller than a town. It denotes a community or settlement that is small and subsistence-based, local, rural in characteristics and fundamentally traditional, particularly tied to some socio-cultural system and values. They are communities that are closely tied to cultural and traditional values and are situated and co-exist within metropolitan areas.

Urban villages are rural-like enclaves inside large cities, characterised by high building densities, poor building quality, irregular streets and open sewage (Sharifah Mariam, 2012). Physically these rural-like settlements are surrounded and overshadowed by skyscrapers, transportation infrastructures and other modern urban constructions. Kampong Bharu fts into these characteristics and therefore can be rightfully categorised as an urban village. Due to its strategic location in the Kuala Lumpur city centre, Kampong Bharu has experienced development pressure and has undergone ad hoc developments over the years. It is presently relatively retarded in its development, with poor roads, haphazard urban design and infrastructure. Rental is relatively cheap, and hence attracts the poor and transient who come from rural areas, including foreigners, to make a living in the city. Deplorable living environments often breed social problems such as crime, drug addiction, alcoholism and even prostitution (Sharifah Mariam, 2012).

Scenario that happened in Kampong Bharu are the clear example of urban pressure towards small settlement. 2.5Urban Growth in Others RegionUrbanization pattern in regional economies has indicated that urbanization in developing countries as a whole is more rapid and massive and the share of urban population will increase by more than three times by 2030, thus touching almost 56 per cent from just 18 per cent in 1950.

It is predicted that now it is Asia which is on the fast track of rapid urbanization, that have an urban population share of 37.1 per cent in 2000, would reach 54.1 per cent by 2030 (Table2.3). The Asian prediction is a follow-up of spectacular urbanisation process experienced by Latin America which has reached the urban population level of 75 per cent from 42 per cent during the second half of the last century.

The main reasons for such a prediction for Asia are: Asia has almost 50 percent of the global urban population (1.6 billion of the 3.15 billion total world urban population in 2005)Asia is going to house a major share of global urban population in the near future (2.

6 billion out of the 4.91 billion total urban population in 2030) (United Nations, 2006)The Asian region has been very dynamic as revealed by the rapid and diversified levels of urbanisation (high level: Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan, New Zealand, Australia; medium level: China, India, Pakistan; low level: Bhutan, Nepal, Maldives)Emergence of primate cities and regions (Bangkok city and its region; Seoul and its region; Bombay (now Mumbai) and its region, Bangalore and its region, etc.) (Mathur, 1992). Although the latter process has led to higher levels of urbanisation, they are concentrated in certain pockets, thus promoting city-region disparities in their levels of development.

Table 2.3: World urbanization pattern in 1950, 2000 and 2030Region Level of Urbanization(percentage to total population) Rate of Urbanization (Percentage)1950 2000 2030 2005-2030Africa 14.7 36.2 50.7 1.12Asia 16.

8 37.1 54.1 1.23Latin America 42.0 75.

4 84.3 0.34Ocenia62.0 70.5 73.

8 0.17North America 63.9 79.1 86.7 0.29Europe 50.5 71.7 78.

3 0.33World 29.0 46.7 59.9 0.83Source: United Nations (2006)Table 2.

1 provides the details of how the problem of city-region disparities would be further accentuated on account of the proposed emergence of large cities. Out of the 22 cities which are expected to reach 10 million plus population by 2015, 17 will be in the developing countries, and more significantly, 11 out of 17 cities will be in the Asian region (Mohan and Dasgupta 2005). Again, unlike the developed countries, rapid urbanisation in developing countries is taking place at a much lower GDP levels which would aggravate the emerging problems due to financial constraints in implementing various environment and development programmes. This obviously calls for adoption of comprehensive urbanisation policies in the Asian region by incorporating the concepts of resource conservation and mobilisation, environmental management, appropriate policy instruments and associated institutional structure for implementation, monitoring and people’s participation to achieve the prime objective of sustainable urban development. It relates to the economic characterization of urbanization. By ‘Economic Characterization’ of urbanization the economic structure and the process operating in a country are associated with its on-going urbanisation process (McGee, 1971).

In an economy, urbanisation by its very nature promotes either manufacturing or service sectors or both in a very broad sense, and in particular, it may be of any specialized activity under each broad group. While promoting these sectors, urbanisation generates more specific urban characteristics.Manufacture-led urbanization may be characterized as: High concentration of workforce engaged in the manufacturing sector,Higher share of workforce with technical specialization, Growth of the small-scale sector as ancillaries to feed the production requirements of large-scale manufacturing units, More organized labour with less disparity in income, andDemand for better land use planning for organized location of manufacturing activities, labour and associated economic and service activities. The broad implications of tertiarisation-led urbanization are:Higher concentration of unorganized labour, Heterogeneous educational attainments of population,High income disparity among the workforce,Greater chances for development of slums to meet the demands of the unorganized sector, andLand use planning will be more complex for the reasons of location of various heterogeneous tertiary activities.Similarly, in the primacy-based urbanisation pattern, higher primacy leads to more city-region disparities.2.6Quality of Life IndicatorThe well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in economics and political science.

It is measured by many social and economic factors. A large part is standard of living, the amount of money and access to goods and services that a person has; these numbers are fairly easily measured. Others like freedom, happiness, art, environmental health, and innovation are far harder to measure.Diener and Suh (1997), early researchers in the field of QOL models, state that the empirical study of quality of life is more than simply an intellectual exercise. It is a purposeful effort by people to understand the fundamental concerns of societies. Accordingly, the quality of a society can only be determined by measurement or asking the principal question that will answered towards on whether the society is improving or is it deteriorating. Intuition or individual subjective opinion is not sufficient in itself to give comprehensive meaning to society’s overall shared values and potentialities. Common ideas and notions about what are desirable qualities of life must be examined and assessed on an empirical basis by surveying a distinct population using strict scientific methods and rules.

Further, according to Diener and Suh, “QOL indicators or well-being measures are necessary since their aims are to evaluate society and add substantially to the regnant economic indicators that are now favoured by some policymakers.”These QOL indicators provide an important additional measurement, a “direct” one, about how people feel about life conditions, which unlike economic and other objective measures or data are “indirect.” As such, QOL indicators explore and identify what factors are important to the good life, which do not rest solely on wealth or gross domestic product (GDP). Felce and Perry (1995), state that these QOL factors are varied and extensive and cover the wide range of life domains. These include, for example, material comforts, health conditions, recreational opportunities, social interaction, learning or education status, creative expression and diversity, cultural values, work environment, compensation and finance, professional development, leisure activities, safety, housing, and freedom of expression. These factors, when placed within a common frame of reference, give an alternative and expanded comprehension as to existing external influences and life conditions.

left164721POPULATIONIndividual SatisfactionLife ConditionsSurveySharedValuesBeliefsAspirationsPreferencesQuality of Life System (Indicator Set)Traditional Indicator System0POPULATIONIndividual SatisfactionLife ConditionsSurveySharedValuesBeliefsAspirationsPreferencesQuality of Life System (Indicator Set)Traditional Indicator SystemFigure 2.3: Quality of Life System Model2.6.

1Key DomainsMany of the key domains of quality of life identified in social gerontological research reflect the demand for policy research and particularly the evaluation of the physical and social environments in which people live. It is therefore important to distinguish quality of life from quality of care (Bond 1987). Below are lists the key domains which includes positive as well as negative (adapted from Hughes 1990).Subjective satisfactionGlobal quality of life as assessed by individual older personPhysical Environmental FactorsStandard of housing or institutional living arrangements, control over physical environment, access to facilities such as shops, public transport and leisure providersSocial Environmental FactorsFamily and social networks and support, levels of recreational activity and contact with statutory and voluntary organizationsSocio-Economic FactorsIncome and wealth, nutrition and overall standard of livingCultural FactorsAge, gender, ethnic, religious and class backgroundHealth Status FactorsPhysical well-being, functional ability and mental healthPersonality FactorsPsychological well-being, morale, life satisfaction and happinessPersonal Autonomy FactorsAbility to make choices, exercise control and negotiate own environment2.6.2Measuring Quality of LifeSchalock (2004), has provided a helpful methodological overview which can be used in order to measured people’s quality of life. He insisted that quality of life is best measured through the use of different approach by using a range of techniques. This is because not all survey conducted towards quality of life having the same objective.

QOL may be measured, simultaneously, from both subjective and objective perspectives, including both subjective and objective assessments of objective factors. The combination of multiple research approaches to the same research subject, known as “triangulation”, overcomes some of the weaknesses and problems of individual research methods, producing stronger research findings. Table 2.

4: Methodological pluralism applied to measure Quality of LifeSystems level Focus of Measurement Strategies of MeasurementMicrosystem Subjective nature of QOL (“personal appraisal”) Satisfaction survey Happiness measuresMesosystem Objective nature of QOL (“functional assessment”) Rating scales (level of functioning) Participant observation Questionnaires (external events and circumstances) Engagement in everyday activities Self-determination and personal control Role status (education, employment, living) Macrosystem External conditions (“social indicators”) Standard of living Employment rates Literacy rates Mortality rates Life expectancy Source: Schalock, (2004). 2.7Urban Growth PolicyUrban growth policy is a conceptual and systematic activity by a public authority aimed at the development of cities. Its objectives are derived from the identification of major urban development problems and from their status and functions in the national settlement and regional structure, and are expressed in the form of written document, strategic plan and so on. The step taken to implement the policy involves coordination of sub-policies and require the joint of public.

Land use planning provide a substantive and territorial framework for this coordination.Principles of Urban Policy is a framework document which aims to coordinate the approach taken by all levels of government to urban development, to propose guidelines and activities conducive to sustainable urban development, and in light of the importance of towns. Towns make a major contribution to the creation of the country’s GDP and provide services that benefit their own population and inhabitants across their conurbation, but also face serious specific problems such as social inclusion, transport problems, and environmental pollution. 2.

7.1Zoning as Tool to Manage GrowthZoning has been the foundation of land use control in this country. It is no surprise therefore, that it has evolved to form the center of many local efforts to control growth. The use of zoning to control growth has been summarized by Carter, Kendall and Noberts in an article for the 1 9 7 k Municipal Yearbook. They identify several specific zoning strategies that have been used to control growth, in addition to the more general approach of reducing the number of zoning requests approved. This latter tactic has the effect of increasing land use intensity, since it restrict the amount of land available for particular of use. Open space zoningAlmost self-explanatory, this technique involves zoning area for open spaces. In effect, it operates to substantially restrict development within these areas.

The leader in the use of this technique is Palo Alto, California. The adoption of open space zoning was the result of extensive studies prepared for the city of Palo Alto. The studies concluded, rather startlingly, that it would actually be as cheap for the city to buy the foothills outright as to allow them to be developed.Agricultural zoningSimilar to open space zoning, this strategy involves zoning land for agricultural purposes.

It is innovative in that agricultural land was traditionally zoned only as it came into urban use. This technique allows agricultural land to continue in that use, protecting it from the pressures of increasing values and taxes which typically force its conversion to urban uses.Conservation zoningThis technique involves designating lands which shall be conserved, although agricultural uses are often permitted. conservation zone’s purpose is to retain land in substantially its natural state and includes areas generally unsuitable for development for a variety of reasons, or which contain valuable environmental qualities. By this zoning technique, potential developers are made aware of areas of poor soils, high water tables, or other conditions which are not conducive to good development.Development district zoningThis technique involves zoning land on the basis of its readiness for development rather than traditional use districts. The purpose of the technique is to prevent sprawl and contain development within certain areas. To be successful, it must be carefully coordinated with the extension of public facilities within the district.

Density zoning and planned unit developmentsThese are two of the most popular innovations in zoning in recent years. Their appeal is that they allow the developer flexibility, releasing it from traditional use classifications and requirements as long as overall density and quality of design are maintained. Planned unit development ordinances often allow a variety of uses within a site that would traditionally be restricted to one particular use. To obtain approval for such plans, developers are usually required to submit detailed site plans.

2.7.2Geographical Limits to GrowthThe way this technique is being implemented is through the use of compact growth concept. Infill development is one of the approach use to achieve compact growth. Generally, compact growth is the result of geographical limits. In order to promote compact growth, the boundary of geographical limits will be drawn on the area where services were presently available, or when they were planned, based on the most economical expansion of sewage facilities. The boundary was intended as a strategy to implement a policy of growth containment within a compact area.

2.7.3Development Impact TaxesMany areas have responded to growth pressures by impose charges on new developments to offset the cost of facilities and services for the developments, and in essence, have been attempting to discourage development. Although these charges are commonly referred to as ‘taxes,’ in reality, they are charges or fees.

These charges typically are charged in one of three forms:the developer is required to dedicate land for schools, parks, etc.the developer is required to pay fees in replacement of dedication of landthe developer is required to pay fees for services provided in support and regulation of the development process such as building permits, sewer connections and so onThese charges are, of course, passed from the home builder to the homeowner, and as such, exhibit regressive characteristics. As such fees raise the overall cost of housing, it is the lower income population who find it more and more difficult to purchase housing.2.8SummaryUrban sprawl as one of famous phenomena in development of modern world had affect all countries, having Malaysia, with no exception.

In Malaysia, urban sprawl occured all over the places. However, the urban sprawl obviously occurred more in Klang Valley than in other district or state. The common causes of urban sprawl come from increasing in population growth with people seek in more space for living, resulting in increasing demand of land. The right solution to solve issue brought by urban sprawl which outlined by researchers is through the use of urban growth policies, or any other related strategies intend to control and manage the pattern of development.

This chapter has discussed the important aspect of study which includes the impact of urban sprawl towards community. From the discussion, an initial conclusion can bemade to form an initial view and perspective about what is to be study. Besides that, the important element found in the study can help in analyses stage.

As for the next chapter, the discussion is focusing towards the background of study area.


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