CHAPTER 3RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.1 IntroductionThis chapter outlines the research method used, in carrying out this research. According to Moore (2000) methodology is a basic scientific approach for gathering facts from which one can get the truth or knowledge for solving a problem. The research methodology elements in this research are the research design, the research instruments used, the participants of the research, the data collection procedures, data presentation and analysis.
Methodology adopted has a strong bearing on the final results, together with the validity and reliability of data collected. Problems anticipated are also highlighted, together with the steps taken in order to minimise and or eliminate the anticipated problems. Research instruments used were the questionnaires, which were administered by the researcher. 3.2 Research DesignA research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose. According to Bryman and Cramer (1997) and Ouko (2007) descriptive designs reveal relationships between variables. Descriptive survey design suits this study it allows the researcher to gather information, summarize, present, and interpret for the purpose of clarification.
Descriptive research is useful in describing the characteristics of a large population. This helps the researcher to ask many questions that provides considerable flexibility in the analysis. This study used descriptive research design to assess the effects of the Schools Feeding Programme on school enrolment attendance and academic performance of children of Kazozo ECD up to Grade three in Nyanga District in Manicaland Province. The design was preferred since it ensured complete description of the situation, making sure that there is minimum bias in the collection of data and to reduce errors in interpreting the data collected. This assisted the researcher in describing the phenomenon under study.
The study employed the survey design since the researcher intends to get the precise information and make conclusive results regarding the effects of School Feeding Programme on enrolment in early childhood education.3.3 Population and SampleAccording to Mugenda and Mugenda (1999) population refers to a complete census of all items or people in a researcher’s area of study. The target population included the headmaster 4 female ECD teachers, 2 female grade 1 and2 teachers and 1 male grade 3 teacher, ECD A and B with 40 students in each class and Grade 1, 2, 3 with 40 ,40 ne 35 students respectively.3.
4 Sampling Size and Sampling ProcedureSampling is the procedure a researcher uses to gather people, places or things to study. It is a process of selecting a number of individuals or objects from a population such that the selected group contains elements representative of the characteristics found in the entire group, (Orodho and Kombo 2002). Simple random sampling was used to select 1 school headmaster, 4 female ECD teachers, 2 female grade 1 and 2 teachers and 1 male grade 3 teacher, 40 ECD A and B students 40 Grade 1, 40 Grade 2 and 35 Grade 3 students. The sample size, therefore, was 163 respondents.
Table 3. 1: Sample sizeNo. in the schoolHeadmaster 1ECD Teachers 4Grade 1 ; 2 Teachers 2Grade 3 Teacher 1ECD A ; B students 40Grade 1 students 40Grade 2 students 40Grade 3 students 35Total 163According to Mugenda ; Mugenda (1999), at least 30% of the target population is adequate, for social science research. Purposive sampling was used in the selection of the 163 respondents. The researcher relied on his expert judgment to select respondents who will be representative or typical of the population. Orodho (2009), notes that purposive sampling is hand picking the cases to be included in the sample on the basis of one’s judgment of the typicality.3.5 Research InstrumentsBarile (2016) explaines that research instruments are fact finding strategies and they are the tools for data collection.
Reardon (2006) states that research instruments are devices, techniques and mechanisms used by the researcher to obtain, record and analyse data. According to Wilkins and Birmingham (2003), research instruments are simply devices for obtaining information relevant to the research project and there are many alternatives or types of research instruments to include questionnaires, observations, interviews, and surveys among others. In the present research, the researcher used questionnaires distributed to the respondents. The study used both primary data and secondary data. The primary data was collected using questionnaires and interviews guides. Secondary data consisted of report forms. According to Bryman (2004) a researcher needs to develop instruments with which to collect necessary information.
For this study, the researcher developed and administer questionnaire and interview schedule to obtain the data from respondents.Questionnaires included structured and unstructured questions and were administered through drop-and-pick method to the teachers. Questionnaires formed a major data collection tool for collecting basic statistical facts on attendance, participation and performance.
The structured questions were used in an effort to conserve time and money as well as to facilitate in easier analysis as they are in immediate usable form, while the unstructured questions were used so as to encourage the head and teachers to give an in-depth and felt response without feeling held back in revealing of any information. Observation checklist was formulated to include information that will lead to conducting the study. Observations were made when the researcher visited the respective classes at meal times. Interview schedule was designed for teachers and children at the ECD to give insight to information that may not have been covered by the questionnaires as it provides for personal contact with the individual giving chance to the investigator to interpret responses.3.6 Data collection proceduresThe researcher obtained a research request letter from Women`s University in Africa which assisted in obtaining permission from the relevant authorities at Kazozo Primary to conduct the research. The researcher made appointments with the headmaster and the relevant teachers who are the respondents.
The researcher administered questionnaires to the respondents in person for completition. The researcher then made a plan with the respondents to conduct interviews at the most convenient time. The data and information gathered on the questionnaires and interviews was collected and put in a safe place for confidential purposes. The whole information given by each respondent was put together and recorded down accordingly for interpretation and analysis.3.7 Data presentation and analysis proceduresData analysis is the process of systematically searching and arranging filed notes, data and other materials obtained from the field with the aim of increasing one’s own understanding and to enable one to present them to others (Orodho, 2003). The information and data gathered during the research was verified by checking for logical consistency and any unnecessary data was removed. The quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics where the responses from the questionnaires were tallied, tabulated and analyzed using percentages, frequencies and mean.
The qualitative data from the interview guide and the open-ended questions in the questionnaire were analyzed thematically using content analysis. The study used a correlation analysis to determine the effect of the independent variables on the dependent one.The data collected was both qualitative and quantitative in nature. Qualitative data was analyzed by content analysis. Content analysis is the systematic qualitative description of the composition of the objects or materials of the study. Data gathered was coded and analyzed using Microsoft excel and then analyzed using statistical measures such as percentages.
Structure data was analyzed through content analysis to understand the consistence of information from various respondents. The results were then presented using frequency tables, graphs and charts.3.8 SummaryThis chapter focused on the methodology of the study thus the ways in which researcher obtained data in her research. The study employed a case study as a research design since the study was a case of Kazozo Primary School. The chapter also looked at the research instruments and ethical considerations. The following chapter focuses on data presentation, analyses and interpretation.