Chapter 4 Case Study of Indoor Air Pollution in Southern Province 2005-2015 and Findings This chapter analyses, interprets, discusses, and critically presents the empirical findings and data obtained from the field objectively. This section analyzed the findings typically on implementation of policies on indoor air pollution in Southern Province, Rwanda 2005-2015. The method used in this research is stratified sampling in 8 districts of Southern province and in each district 10 people were selected randomly. The analysis was based on the responses given to the questionnaires. In all 80 (100%) respondents for population; this study was generated with the aid of IBM-SPSS Statistical package version 22. 4.
1 Indoor air Pollution from 2005-2015Currently southern province has more than 2 million of people who live in rural area and basically are the one who are effected more because they do not have access to electricity and improved cooking stoves; they use biomass fuel in their everyday lives while cooking and heating in their homes. Despite clear evidence that HAP is an important risk factor for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, evidence for the health impact of improved cook stoves that can be deployed at scale among vulnerable populations is limited, (K.R. Smith,2011)123 . Although trials are currently underway to explore the effectiveness of various improved cook stove types, these are all limited scale efficacy trials (E.
A. Boamah, 2014) 124. Further, doubts about the potential of any biomass stove to achieve WHO indoor air quality targets have shifted much of the focus to clean cooking fuels such as LPG, ethanol and electricity, although supply chain limitations currently render these options impractical in most rural settings (WHO, 2014) 125 . There is strong evidence that household-based water filters are effective in preventing diarrhea (T. Clasen, 2006) 126. The actual protective effect, however, is likely to vary by setting, season, and the extent to which water is a dominant transmission pathway.
As evidence also suggests that even occasional consumption of untreated water vitiates the potential health impact, correct and consistent use is essential (J. Brown, 2012) 127. The up-front cost of household filters, together with the need to establish supply chains for consumables, has limited the extent to which they have been scaled up among vulnerable populations, particularly in rural settings. Like improved cook stoves, there has been no large-scale effectiveness trial to assess the impact of household water filters promoted programmatically.
In an effort to reduce the disease burden in rural Rwanda, the Rwanda Ministry of Health (MOH) partnered with the social enterprise Del Agua Health to distribute and promote the use of improved cook stoves. 4.2 Characteristics of Respondents for Population This section presents the results and discussions of data gathered during the fieldwork. The presentation is based on the objectives of the study. Section A of questionnaire shows background of respondents which involves general information of the respondents including their age, sex, education qualification, whether or not they know anything about indoor air pollution, what they use while cooking in their homes, and section B of questionnaire focus on their views about people in South Province use biomass fuels for cooking; Population in South Province know that indoor air pollution can harm their lives; many people have well equipped kitchens. And finally section C collect respondents views on government intervention and policies implementation in Southern province of Rwanda.
Source: Field Data 2018 Figure 4-1 Age of RespondentsFigure 4-1 indicates the age range of respondents responded to the questionnaire, out of 80 respondents the majority of them they have the age between 31-40 representing (33) 41%, this way followed by those with the age is between 18-30 representing (28) 35%, and those with the age between 41-50 are representing (18) 23%, then finally the age between 51-60 are representing (1) 1%. And this is a proof that people are mature enough to provide the information related to research. Table 4-1 Sex of Respondents Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative PercentValid Male 32 40.0 40.0 40.
0 Female 48 60.0 60.0 100.
0 Total 80 100.0 100.0 Source: Data Field, 2018Table 4-1 shows the sex of respondents out of 80 respondents, the majority are females with (48) 60% and are the ones mostly who stay indoors and involve in home activities like cooking, cleaning, looking after for their babies, and finally this lead them to be the most affected by indoor air pollution; then and males represent (32) 40% they usually have jobs which require them not to stay at home for many hours. Source: Filed data 2018 Figure 4-2 Qualification of Respondents Figure 4-2 indicates the academic qualification of respondents, the research come up with the majority of respondents (48) 60% have completed their secondary school. This was followed by respondents who completed university (17) 21%; respondents who have completed their vocational school represent (11) 14% and finally those who completed their primary are very few to fill questionnaire, they represent (4)5%. And this is a proof that respondents are skilled and they provide relevant information when answering questionnaires and providing information.
Table 4-2 do you know anything about indoor air pollution? Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative PercentValid Yes 73 91.3 91.3 91.3 No 7 8.
8 8.8 100.0 Total 80 100.0 100.0 Source: Field Data, 2018 Table 4-2 do you know anything about indoor air pollution? This time respondents were supposed to say yes or no and as in table above, (73) 91.3% said yes and only (7) 8.
7% don’t have much information about indoor air pollution; Southern Province population are aware of indoor air pollution; and this means that it is easy to collaborate with them while implementing policies and training staff. Table 4-3 what do you use for cooking at home Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative PercentValid Firewood 73 91.3 91.3 91.3 Wood coal 4 5.
0 5.0 96.3 Traditional cook stove 3 3.8 3.8 100.0 Total 80 100.0 100.
0 Source: Field Data, 2018Table 4-3 what do you use for cooking at home, (73) 91.3 of respondents use firewood in their home in Southern province of Rwanda, (4) 5 % use wood coal, and finally (3) 3.8 use traditional cook stove; and this can be a proof that there are exposed to be affected by indoor air pollution, and this should be reduced by applying new technology for cooking and heating, using improved cooking stoves, and designing new policy. 4.
2.1 Social Economic Cause of Indoor Air Pollution Almost of population who live in Southern Province do not have access to electricity because it is very expensive and this make most of them using biomass fuel for cooking. Biomass (firewood, charcoal and residues) remains practically the only source for cooking for many years to come as electricity will remain too expensive in the medium future. LPG consumption is extremely low (consumption per capita is 1/50 only of Kenya, the market leader in the region) while kerosene is practically only used for lighting. For the urban areas wood and charcoal will remain the most import sources of fuel for cooking while in rural areas households mainly rely on agricultural residues (with its negative impacts on soil fertility) and collected wood.
Alternative way is to use new technology another to end the problem. Table 4-4 Population in Southern Province know that indoor air pollution can harm their lives Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative PercentValid Strongly agree 3 3.8 3.8 3.8 Agree 14 17.5 17.
5 21.3 Disagree 62 77.5 77.5 98.8 Strongly disagree 1 1.3 1.3 100.0 Total 80 100.
0 100.0 Source: Field Data, 2018 Table 4-4 Population in Southern Province know that indoor air pollution can harm their lives shows that how people are aware of indoor air pollution and the majority of them (62) 77.5% don’t know that indoor air pollution can harm their lives, (14) 17.5% agree that they know, (3) 3.8% strongly agree and finally (1) 1.3 strongly disagree. This shows that the government should try their best by designing new policy, providing professional training and increasing budget to inform population the effect of indoor air pollution so that they can start getting new ways through new policies.
Table 4-5 People in Southern Province use biomass fuel for cooking Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative PercentValid Strongly agree 77 96.3 96.3 96.3 Agree 3 3.8 3.8 100.0 Total 80 100.
0 100.0 Source: Field Data, 2018Table 4-5 People in Southern Province use biomass fuel for cooking gives information about Southern Province population in Rwanda about what they use while cooking in their daily lives, the majority of them they use biomass fuel (77) 96.3% strongly agree that they use biomass fuel, and (3) 3.8% agree that they use biomass fuel while cooking. New technology should be applied to end this problem and investors should collaborate with government and institutions to find solution.
4.2.2 Political Cause of Indoor Air PollutionThis section focus on government implementation of policies to reduce indoor air pollution, if policies are well implemented to reduce indoor air pollution and if they are enough trained staff to educate population about this issue in Southern Province of Rwanda; respondents who live there give their views and the table below shows details.
Table 4-6 Political Cause of Indoor Air PollutionVariables SA A D SD TOTAL Freq % Freq % Freq % Freq % Freq %Government implemented policies to reduce indoor air pollution 33 41.3 40 50.0 3 3.8 4 5% 80 100Policies are well implemented 9 11.
3 3 3.8 11 13.8 57 71.3 80 100They is enough trained staff to educate population about this issue 7 8.8 5 6.3 54 67.5 14 17.5 80 100Source: Field Data, 2018Table 4-6 Political Cause of Indoor Air Pollution shows that government implemented policy to eliminate the problem, but the policies are not well implemented, and the problem there is no enough trained staff to educate the population; which is affecting the lives of people in this region.
4.2.3 Poor Equipped Kitchen Southern province has many people whose kitchens are not well equipped and this affect lives of people, such inefficient cooking fuels and technologies produce high levels of household air pollution with a range of health-damaging pollutants, including small soot particles that penetrate deep into the lungs. In poorly ventilated dwellings, indoor smoke can be 100 times higher than acceptable levels for fine particles. Exposure is particularly high among women and young children, who spend the most time near the domestic hearth. Source: Field Data, 2018 Figure 4-3 People have well equipped kitchens Figure 4-3 People have well equipped kitchens shows people view in Southern Province of Rwanda and the majority of them disagree (51) 65% disagree statement, and (17) 21% strongly disagree that in Southern Province of Rwanda people have well equipped kitchens, (6) 8% agree the statement and finally (5) 6% strongly agree.
4.3 Consequences of Indoor Air Pollution in Southern Province 4.3.1 Social Economic EffectBased on data collected during research, many people in Southern province of Rwanda use biomass fuels, most of them are not aware the health effect that biomass fuel cause to their health; The adverse effects on respiratory health of products of incomplete solid-fuel combustion are so many, which also includes some of the known or proposed mechanisms of damage. Exposure to solid fuel smoke can be lifelong, beginning before birth and early infancy, and continuing during adulthood, especially in women, who are traditionally charged with the task of cooking. Exposure is longer in cold communities that require re-related heating, and may adversely impact lung growth and development, both directly and through an increase in lung infections. 4.
3.2 Political EffectThe government of Rwanda, non-governmental organizations, and international organizations have begun to devise strategies for reducing indoor air pollution for individuals because many people are being affected and better prevent than cure; and this is affecting the economy of the whole country, and the government should work on policy making to save the lives of many people who are being victims of indoor air pollution. 4.3.3 Effect on South Province Population Basically in Southern province schools, prisons, restaurants, and people in their homes use biomass fuel and people are affected highly, government has put in place an elaborate program for disseminating bio digesters in households, schools and prisons to reduce demand for wood and charcoal and improve people’s health; high demand of wood lead to deforestation, climate change, floods, natural hazards and risk and this affect agriculture.4.4 Policy Implementation of Indoor Air Pollution in the South Province and its ResultIn this section, researcher used experts and administration officers who live and work in Southern province of Rwanda to make sure that the information from the research will have enough potential with good result.
Experts work in different department which have closest relation to policy implementation and its evaluation. Out of 30 (100) respondents take part in this section. 4.
4.1 Characteristic of respondents for Experts and Administration This part analyses the findings from experts and administration views relating to duration they have been working in Southern province, their departments, duration they have been working in their departments, and their analysis concerning effectiveness and efficiency of policies relating on indoor air pollution and environment in Southern Province. Source: Field Data, 2018Figure 4-4 Duration living in Southern Province of Rwanda Figure 4-4 shows the duration of experts and administration officers they have been in Southern Province, out of 30 respondents the majority of them (10) 33% have been living in Southern province 15 years or more, (9) 30% have been living there between 2-5 years; 10-14 years represent (6) 20% and finally (5) 17% have been living there between 6-9 years. Source: Field Data, 2018 Figure 4-5 Department of Respondents Figure 4-5 Department of Respondents shows the department career of respondents and the majority of them belong to administration department representing (10) 34% and health represents (5) 17% then planning, university lecturers, and research expert have same number of experts (4) 13% and finally environment represents (3) 10%.
4.4.2 Analysis on Efficiency of Policy Implementation To date, many ministries of health have not engaged fully with this problem, in part because it is considered the responsibility of other sectors including energy, environment and finance. If the potential for large health benefits is to be realized, the health sector needs to play a key role. This can include assessing and communicating health risks and benefits, but in particular ensuring that proposed intervention technologies, fuels and other changes really do improve health and safety, and making the most of opportunities to change household energy practices through direct interactions between the public and health services. ?Table 4-7 Policies are implemented efficiently Frequency Percent Valid PercentValid Strongly agree 6 20.
0 20.0 Agree 4 13.3 13.3 Disagree 9 30.0 30.0 Strongly disagree 11 36.7 36.7 Total 30 100.
0 100.0Source: Field Data, 2018 Table 4-7 above shows efficiency of policies from experts who live and work in different career departments and the majority of them strongly disagree the statement says that policies relating to air pollution are efficiently implemented; (11) 36.7% strongly disagree, (9) 30% disagree and (6) 20% strongly agree and finally (4) 13.4 agree the statement. 4.
4.3 Analysis on Effectiveness of Policy ImplementationFrom the view of experts and administration officers who work in administration, health, research experts, university lecturers, environment, and planning show that effectiveness of policies is not enough to handle the whole problem. Based on the table below experts give their opinion about the effectiveness of policies and most of them strongly disagree representing (11) 36.
7% and (9) 30% disagree, while only (8) 26.7% strongly agree and (2) 6.7% agree with the statement.
Table 4-8 Policies are implemented effectively Frequency Percent Valid PercentValid Strongly agree 8 26.7 26.7 Agree 2 6.7 6.7 Disagree 9 30.0 30.0 Strongly disagree 11 36.7 36.7 Total 30 100.0 100.0Source: Field Data, 2018