Vocabulary is one important thing that has to be mastered by the students in learning English as a second or foreign language. Vocabulary needs to be mastered because students learn from words, sentences, dialogues, and paragraphs in order to make a good communication with other people. Vocabulary should be taught as one important aspect of foreign language components, in which it will determine the success of the four language skill: listening, reading, writing and speaking. In addition, the learners’ vocabularies that have been fully mastered will determine their performance in their target language.
Mastering vocabulary is one of the important activities to achieve students’ proficiency in learning language. This is because it is possible for students to achieve the four major English skills. How well the students’ mastery in Listening, reading, writing and speaking depends on how far the vocabulary mastering is. According to Hong (2008) vocabulary is a crucial thing because it is core part of language proficiency for students in providing the four major skills as foreign language learners. Furthermore, in Webster Dictionary (2014) vocabulary is defined as a collection of words, terms, or phrases that are use by individuals, groups, or science to explain something or define something.
In addition, vocabulary mastery is a great skill of knowledge about a set of words known by learners as a part of specific language. The knowledge that they get from mastery vocabulary can use for communicating or sharing their idea with other students through giving opinion or idea can make interaction among students will set up the class more active and alive.
Teaching vocabulary is not easy to do. A good teaching technique to make students understand and master the lesson requires appropriate techniques. If students know more vocabulary, it will be easy for them to learn other aspects of the English language. According Shepher, (1983: 43)teaching vocabulary is important, to enable the student to communicate using the language they are learning and makes the students are be able to identify quickly and accurately the meaning that appear in book, articles and other material that student read. In English curriculum in 1994 explained that students are able to communicate in English they have to master 1000 vocabulary to Junior high school student but in the curriculum 2013 explained that it is not specify the amount of vocabulary mastery.
Based on observation in school Katolik Santa Maria (Tuesday, March 14, 2017) researcher choice this school because based on interview with the English teacher. Based on the interview of English teacher, researcher has some information. The first is English teacher uses the curriculum 2013 in learning process. The second is students have lack vocabulary, it can be seen of the students find difficult in mastering the meaning of words in the reading text. The third is students not interesting about the strategy of English teacher to teach vocabulary.
Based on the reason above, the researcher try to find out the effective to enhance the students’ vocabulary by using scientific approach. This approach can help the students to knowing more vocabulary and can be easier to understand the material and also by this approach students can be comfortable to learn English especially in vocabulary skill.
Scientific approach is intended teachers as facilitator to facilitate the students to get learning activity where this approach centered to the students. According to Tang et al. (2009) scientific approach is characteristics of “doing science”. This approach allows teachers to improve the process of learning by breaking the process down into steps or stages which contains detailed instructions for conducting students learning. From the explanation above, the researcher aims to enhance the students vocabulary by using scientific approach.
Based on the description about the problems above, the formulation of problem in this research is “Can the scientific approach enhanch the students’ mastery of vocabulary?”
Objective of research
“Based on the problem stated previously, the objective of this research is to find out whether the using of scientific approach can enhance the student mastery of vocabulary or not.
Significance of research
For teacher, researcher hope to give information on the teacher’s teaching and learning process especially about the implementation of the word mixing technique.
For student, Practically, the present study be useful for the students in improving the vocabulary mastery and be able to increase their motivation and interst in leraning English.
Delimitation of research
In this research, the researcher focuses on applying scientific approach to enhancing the students’ vocabulary. This research focuses on vocabulary especially nouns in the class VIII of SMP Katolik Santa Maria in 2017/2018 academic year.
The relevance of research
The researcher found some previous research to related scientific approach. The first is skripsi entitled ” Scientific Approach of 2013 Curriculum: Teachers’ Implementation In English Language Teaching (At state junior high school in Bandung Regency) it was written by Pupung Purnawarman, Al, a graduate of English Department of Indonesia University of Education. The objective of her study was at investigating the teachers’ implementation of scientific approach in English Language Teaching in one state junior high school in Bandung Regency. In addition, this research discusses the conformation of the Scientific Approach implementation and the lesson plans based on the 2013 curriculum. The result of her study showed that the teachers implemented the scientific stages in English Language Teaching. They conducted observing, questioning, experimenting, associating and communicating in the sequence activities.
The second study entitled “The Implementation of Scientific Approach in Teaching English Speaking (A Descriptive Study to the Seventh Grade Students of SMP Nurul Islam Ngemplak in 2014/2015 Academic Year).” by Reni Trisnawati (2015). She is a student of IAIN SURAKARTA. The researcher mainly describes the implementation of scientific approach in teaching English speaking and to describe the strength and weaknesses of implementing scientific approach in teaching English speaking at seventh grade students of SMP Nurul Islam Ngemplak in academic year 2014/2015.
From two previous studies above, the difference of the study from previous research is that the skill of the research. At the first previous research, it used the English Language teaching and the second is speaking skill while in this research it using vocabulary. The researches focuses uses scientific Approach to enrich the students vocabulary in learning process at eight grade of junior high school of SMP Katolik Santa Maria.
Definition of Vocabulary
Vocabulary is very important in language learning and it must be learned by the students. We can make sentence by new vocabulary that we have. In Oxford learner pocket dictionary (2005:482) states that vocabulary is all the word in language that a person knows or uses. Vocabulary also is a list of words with their meanings. The list of words that is orderly alphabetical and usually has meaning.
Vocabulary is defined by Armbruster and Osborn (2001) as “words we need to know to communicate effectively”, they are also divided vocabulary in two parts which are first is “oral words” used in speaking, listening and reading. Second is “words understood” when reading or writing. Furthermore, studying about language cannot be separated from learning about vocabulary. That is caused vocabulary is the key of the language. A sentence cannot be stand when the vocabulary is lack.
Vocabulary is one of the language aspects which should be learnt. Learning it is important because in order to be able to speak, write, and listen learners have to know vocabulary first.Nunan (1991, p. 117) states vocabulary is the important thing to be able to use of second language. Without vocabulary someone cannot use of structure and language function in a communication comprehensive.
From the explanation above researcher conclude that vocabulary is the main focus to speak fluently for the people, because without enough vocaubulary, it makes us are not able to understand what the others say. Therefore, the vocabulary is one of the most important things in speech. If we only have a little vocabulary, we could not communication well. To make English learning easily the researcher have limited of research which is focused on noun. Noun is the important rule of kind vocabulary to teach English.
Concept of Noun
According to Macmilan (2010), noun is a word that names a person, place, or thing. A noun can function as a subject, object, compliment, appositive, or object of a preposition. Nouns can be singular or plural. Jackendoff (2002, p. 124) nouns are describe as words that refer to a person, place, thing, event, substance, quality, quantity, etc.Mostin word mixing nouns are words for people, animals, places, things, or ideas, made up of two or more words. Nouns are made with nouns that have been modified by adjectives or other nouns. In word mixing, noun is one word, like toothpaste, haircut, or bedroom. Thenin word mixing nouns are connected with a hyphen or nouns appear as two separate words: full moon, Christmas tree, and swimming pool are some examples of nouns that are formed with two separate words (Lieber, 2010).
In word mixing, nouns can be made with two nouns, like; boyfriend, the word boyfriend is noun in word mixing which is formed through the process: boy (noun) + friend (noun). The other example is cupboard, the word cupboard is noun in word mixing also which is formed through the process: cup (noun) + board (noun).
Based on the explanation above, in this research the researcher uses noun – noun to identification word mixing of the text.
Concept of Teaching Vocabulary
Vocabulary is very important for second language learners; only with sufficient vocabulary learners can effectively express their ideas both in oral and written form. Thus they should have a good idea of how to expand their vocabulary so that they can improve their interest in learning the language. Therefore, the teacher should have knowledge on how to manage an interesting classroom so that the learners can success in their learning vocabulary.
Teaching vocabulary is an important role in language acquisition because the mastery of vocabulary will help students to master all the language skills; speaking; listening; writing; and reading. According to Finochiaro (1974:38) the vocabulary will make the students belief that English can be used to express the same ideas or feeling they express in their native language.
The function of vocabulary is to support the four skills namely: Listening, speaking, and writing. But the existence vocabulary mastery is very crucial in learning English as a foreign language. Students with poor mastery of vocabulary cannot communicate in target language well. Consequently they will not be able to infer any ideas transmitted to them. In learning English is foreign language, vocabulary is one of the aspect of foreign language component is deemed to the big problem. If learns have insufficient stock of vocabulary, they will not be able to graphs any expression to them.
According to John (2000: 16), vocabulary is knowledge of knowing the meanings of words and therefore the purpose of a vocabulary test is to find out whether the learners can match each word with a synonym, a dictionary–tape definition, or an equivalent word in their own language. In learning vocabulary automatically they have to know the meaning of words themselves and can use it in sentences.
LotfiGazal (2011, p.84) suggested that teaching vocabulary not only consist of teaching specific words but also is aimed at equipping learners with strategies necessary to expand their vocabulary knowledge.
Vocabulary teaching also includes training learners in the use of the vocabulary method of guessing from the context, learning from word cards, word part analysis and word mixing. Philips (1993 : 63) says that vocabulary is best learned when the meaning of the word (is) is illustrated, for example by a picture, an action, or real object. Each of the technique has its own advantages. The technique that will be used by the teacher should enable to facilitate the creativity and the practical experience for the learners in gaining the language skill above.
In connection to this study, that is improving the mastery of the students, vocabulary using scientific approach, the vocabulary items being taught to the students, especially the meaning of unfamiliar words is presented in various ways and context. The presentations of the word or vocabulary are given through context, so the students are asked to look for and also to understand the meaning of those words by relating them to their context.
Definition of Scientific Approach
Scientific Approach is a new approach in English Language Teaching because the term “scientific” is more familiar with natural science, social science and management (Suharyadi, 2013, p.1). According to Longman (2014) Scientific approach is defined as the process of finding out information in science, which involves testing the ideas by performing experiments and making decisions based on the result of analysis. It means that scientific approach is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, and correcting and integrating previous knowledge.
Scientific Approach is particularly relevant to the three learning theories, namely the theory of Bruner, Piaget’s theory, and the theory of Vygotsky. Bruner theory of learning is called discovery learning theory. There are four main things related to learning theories of Bruner by Carin&Sund (in Daryanto, 2014: 52). They are:
Individuals learn and develop his mind only when he uses his mind.
By doing cognitive processes in the discovery process, students will gain sensation and intellectual satisfaction which is an intrinsic reward.
The only way that a person can learn the techniques of doing discovery is that it has the opportunity to conduct discovery.
By making the discovery will strengthen memory retention.
The objective and the principles of Learning by using Scientific Approach
There are six learning objectives of scientific approach by Daryanto (2014: 54) they are:
Built students self concept learning.
Avoid verbalism learning.
Provides opportunities for students to assimilate and accommodate the concepts, laws, and principles.
Learning leads to increase students’ thinking skills.
Lessons improve student motivation and motivate teachers to teach.
Provide an opportunity for students to practice abilities in communication.
The existence of process validation of concepts, laws, and principles that students constructed in cognitive structure.
Steps of Scientific Approach
According to Daryanto (2014) there are some steps of scientific approach, are:
Observing in the learning activities as presented in Permendikbud No.81a in 2013, let the teacher opened wide and varied opportunities for students to make observations trough activities: observing, scrutinizing, listening, and reading. The advantages of this method are to present a real media object, learner happy and challenged, and easy to apply. However, the disadvantage of this method is to observe the learning activities needs much time. (Daryanto, 2014: 60-61).
Questioning is aimed at building students’ critical thinking, the students are required to have a critical thinking to give question. According to Daryanto (2014;65) Questioning in learning activities as presented in Permendikbud No. 81a in 2013, is asking questions about information that is not understood from what is observed or questions to get additional information about what is observed (starting from factual questions to the questions that are hypothetical).
The next is Exploration or experimenting, according to Daryanto (2014: 78) Application of the experimental method is intended to develop various domains of learning objectives, namely attitudes, skills, and knowledge.
Associating refers to grouping ability of various ideas and associating various events to be part of memory. When the experiences are stored in the brain, they will interact with the previous events or experiences. In this stage, students and teacher are engaged into learning activities, such as text analyzing and categorizing. Acoording Daryanto (2014 : 70) associating in learning activities as presented in the Permendikbud as No. 81a in 2013 is to process the information that has been collected both from the results of the limited collecting/ experiments and observe the results of the activities and information gathering activities.
In commnunicating the activity that can be conducted by the students in communicating step is presenting their works. Daryanto (2014 : 80) The competencies expected in this activity is to develop the attitude of honest, conscientious, tolerance, the ability to think systematically, to express their opinions briefly and clearly, and to develop good language skills and correct.
Based on the explanation above, scientific approach which makes the students’ interest and creative in learning process especially English learnimg.In this research, there are six meetings. The teacher will use descriptive text as media to easy the students understand. In the first meeting, the activity of students is observed. In this observed the students observed the explanation about the descriptive text.In the second meeting, the activity of students is questioning. In this questioning, they explained about their pet and the other students give some question. In the third meetings, the activity of students is exploration. In this exploration, the students readthrough descriptive text about house and answer the question based on the text they has been read. In the fourth meetings, the activity of students is exploration. In this meeting the students looked the word that appropriated to picture by LCD. In fifth meeting the activity is association, in this association, the each student got one vocabulary card and looked for the part of vocabulary to another student. And the last meetings is the sixth meeting, the activity of students is communication, in this communication the students would got the topic from teacher and they told in front of class about the one of topic that teacher give.
From explanation above, it could be conclude that there are many techniques can be used to improve the students mastery in vocabulary but there is no researcher that conducts the research about implement Word Mixing technique. Now the researcher tries to implement Words Mixing technique to improve the vocabulary mastery of the Eleventh Grade Students of SMP KatolikSanta Maria.
Methodology of Research
Method of Research
This research uses quantitative method. It is uses to know whether scientific approach can enhance the student’s vocabulary at Junior High School or not.
In this research, the researcherusespre-experimental design. In addition, this research usesone group pre-test post-test design.Sugiyono (2012, p.75) explain that one group pre-test post-test design is a design of research that consists of give pre-test, treatment, and post-test to one class only. The design consists of three steps as follows:
O1 X O2
O1 = pre-test
X = treatment
O2 = post-test
(Sugiyono 2012, p.75)
Pre-test is the first step to access the covering level students’ vocabulary. Researcher would give a test of vocabulary to students. Obtain got the data about students’ vocabulary. The test related to the material. The topic about thing arround us and describing thing and people. The aim of pre-test is want to know the students ability of vocabulary before they get treatment. The form of test is multiple choice question is the most common test technique in vocabulary assessment, particulary informal tests (Coombi, 2011). Total questions of multiple choice are 30 numbers. The students have to in pre-test section, the students have to answer about about sixty minutes.
Treatment is the procedure how to do something. In this research, using scientific approach in enhance students’ vocabulary is the treatment of the researher. The treatment does sixth meetings in three weeks. The matterial about “Animal, Thing and People”. The first meeting about Animals, researcer used this topic for 2 meetings. The third meeting about School, the topic just for one meeting. The fourth meeting about House, like the third meeting this topic just for one meeting. The fifth and the last meeting the topic is about People, this topic discuss in two meetings.
In the first meeting, researcher used descriptive text as the material. When the students had understand about descriptive text researcher gave students topic about animal, they identify the word mixing. After the students redied the words they found of text and also identify the word to clasify of noun all at ones. In the second meetings, researcher used picture in LCD in order to show the students of example word mixing. When, they saw picture picture of LCD they found word can be combined to be a word mixing. After that, they wrote the one of pet that they had. The other students gave some questions as guess to found the answer what the student’s pet. In the third meetings, researcher asked the students answered the questions of descriptive text. In the fourth meetings, students looked for the word that appropriate to picture. In the fifth meetings, each students got vocabulary card, they readied the word in English and Indonesian and looked for the part of vocabulary to another student. The last meeting is students wrote the descriptive text by using topic the researcher gave.
In the end of the study, all groups will give post-test at the end of the study. The researcher give post-test after finishing the treatment. The test will give in post-test is the same with the test in pre-test. The students will answer 30 questions. The students’ result of post-test will be compare will the students’ result in pre-test. The differences of students’ result in pre-test and post-test will indicate the students’ average score after and before get the treatment.
Population and Sample
Arikunto(2006) has a view that population is the total of the research subject. The population also means as objective to get and to collect the data. In this research, the population was all members of research subject. It means that atall student in grade of VIII of SMP KATOLIK SANTA MARIA. The member of each class consists of 18 students.
In this research samples use purposive sampling technique. Purposive sampling is taking sample based on the specific purpose (Arikunto, 2006). In this study, the researcher will be choosing class VIII2 consists of 18 students as the sample. The reasons why the researchers choose this class because based of my observation before the students have the lack of vocabulary and the characteristic of the students are represent the population.
Variable of Reseach
In this research, the researcher uses two variables that call dependent and independent variable. The dependent variable is students’ ability and independent variable is scientific approach. Moreover the reason use two variable is because the dependent variable need a method to measure the improving students’ ability while independent variable is scientific approach that improve or influence the dependent variable.
There are two variables in this research, they are:
Scientific approach as independent variable (x)
Students ability as dependent variable (Y)
Technique of collecting the data
Testing process is an important step that to see students comprehension. In this part, researcher used a multiple choice for all the test process. Also the type of test it clearly explained in blue print instrument. According to Arikunto (1993, p.219) blueprint was make to validity test through prediction test in order to know the students comprehension about the vocabulary.
In the test, the students will ask to identify of noun based on the topic of lesson: Animal, thing and people. For scoring the test, the researchers give 1 point for each correct number at the students’ result in the multiple choice test. For the students’ who have the incorrect answers, the researchers give 0 points. Thus, the highest score is 1 and the lowest score is 0.
Table 1. Blueprint Instrument of Try-out form
Indicator Topic Number Total items
Noun House 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 8
School 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22 7
Animal 9, 10, 27, 28, 29 and 30 6
People 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 23, 24, 25and 26 9
Normality test is intended to know whether the data is normal distribution or not. The reason of choosing normality test in analyzing the data is because normality is useful to determine the data that have been collect are normal distribution or take from a normal population. The research used Liliefor’s method with the level of significant ? = 0,05 .
Observation X1, X2, X3……………Xn become derivation Z1,Z2,Z3………..Zn by using formula:Zi= X1- X2SNotes:
Zi = Standard of value
X = Average total value
S = Total score deviation
Descriptive Statistic of Normality Test
Table: 4.1 Case Processing Summary
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent
Pretest 18 100.0% 0 0.0% 18 100.0%
Posttest 18 100.0% 0 0.0% 18 100.0%
Only a partial list of cases with the value 17 are shown in the table of upper extremes.
Only a partial list of cases with the value 13 are shown in the table of lower extremes.
Only a partial list of cases with the value 27.00 are shown in the table of upper extremes.
Only a partial list of cases with the value 25.00 are shown in the table of lower extremes.
Table 4.2 Tests of Normality
Kolmogorov-SmirnovaShapiro-WilkStatistic dfSig. Statistic dfSig.
Pretest .183 18 .114 .940 18 .293
Posttest .163 18 .200* .925 18 .158
*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.
Lilliefors Significance Correction
Table 4.2 shown the normality analysis of the data. The description can be seen as follows:
The normality analysis of pre-test (X)
The hypothesis of the normality analysis was:
Ho: X variable data (pre-test) was normally distributed.
Hi: X variable data (pre-test) was not normally distributed.
Tests of Normality
Statistic Df Sig. Statistic Df Sig.
Grammar competency .117 18 .078 .923 18 .053
Speaking ability 18 30 .200* 30 18 .716
*.This is a lower bound of the true significance
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction The hypothesis stated the Ho means the data of pre-test was normality distrubuted and Hi means the data of pre-test was not normality distributed. Ho is rejected if the level of significant was < ? (0.05). Based on the result of calculating this study found that the level of significant was 0.078 > ? = 0.05 which means that the pre-test was normally distributed.
The analysis of the data
Before applying t-test, the researcher explains about the pre-test and post-test.
The Data of Pre-Test
After calculating the students’ result or score of pre-test, it was found out the data of the students’ score in doing the pre-test. The data are presented as follow:
The lowest score is 9
The highest score is 19
The range of class interval (R) is 5
The amount of class interval (K) is 5
The wide of class interval (P) is 5
The mean of score is 15
The standard deviation is 5
The data of pre-test is presented in the table of interval relative frequency as below:
Table 1: The Interval Frequency of Pre-Test Data
No Interval Class F. Absolute F. Relative
1 5-10 1 10%
2 11-15 9 50%
3 16-20 8 40%
4 21-25 0 0%
5 26-30 0 0%
Total 18 100%
The table above clearly describes the students’ ability in doing the pre-test of vocabulary mastery. The table distributed the students’ pre-test score of interval classes into five. Those are interval class 5-10, interval class 11-15, interval class 16-20,interval class 21-25,and interval class 26-30. The table above further explains that in interval 5-10 there is one student with 10% from the total students’ percentage. In interval 11-15, there are 9 students with the 50% of percentage. The result is also almost same with the interval class of 16-20 with 8 students or with the 40% of percentage. On the other hand, the interval class of 21-25 and 26-30, there were no students or with the 0% of percentage. Furthermore, the data of the students’ ability in doing the pre-test above will be presented into the polygon graphic 4.1 as follow:
Graphic 4.1: Students’ Presentation in Pre-Test
Based on the graphic 4.1, that showed the five classes or range of score in pre-test before applying the proof in the character method. When viewed from the score that had been distributed into five classes, it could be seen that most of the students’ vocabulary mastery is still low. The graphic above clearly explains that there is no students who could obtain more than twenty correct answer in term of the vocabulary mastery.
The Data of Post-Test
The data of the post-test are presented as follow:
The lowest score is 19
The highest score is 30
The range of class interval (R) 5
The amount of class interval (K) 5
The wide of class interval (P) is 5
The mean of score is 25.77
The standard deviation is 5
Furthermore, the data of post-test is presented in the table of interval relative frequency as below:
Table 2: The Interval Frequency of Post-Test Data
No Interval Class F. Absolute F. Relative
1 5-10 0 0%
2 11-15 0 0%
3 16-20 1 6%
4 21-25 6 33%
5 26-30 11 61%
Total 18 100%
The table above explains the students’ ability in doing the post-test of simple present tense. The table distributed into eight interval classes. The table above shows that there is no student in 5-10 and 11-15 interval class with 0% percentage, one student in 16-20 interval class with 6% percentage, six students in 21-25 interval class with 33% percentage, and eleven students in 26-30 interval class with 61% of percentage.
The table above has shown the improvement of the students’ score in term of their vocabulary mastering. Different from the result of the pre-test, where the lowest score was 9, after the scientific approach had been applied to the students, the lowest score is 19. This indicates an improvement on how the students solved the problem of vocabulary mastery. Furthermore, the data of the students’ ability in doing the post-test above is presented into the polygon graphic 4.2 as follow:
24898453715Graphic 4.2: Students’ Presentation in Post-Test
Based on the graphic 4.2 above, that showed the five classes or range of score in post-test after applying the scientific approach. When viewed from the score that had been distributed into five classes, it could be seen that most of each range score only obtained less than 10 students or from any range of score no one reached 50%.
The researcher use t- test formula to analyze the result of pre-test and post-test. It can be explain detaily as follow :
Md = dnNote:
Md= mean of the different result of pre-test and post-test
Xd= deviation of each subject
?x2d= the total of deviation quadrate
N= sample of pre-test and post-test
d.b= determine of N-1
The researcher use t- test formula to analyze the result of pre-test and post-test. The elaboration of t-test formoula is that the mean of the different result of pre-test and post-test (Md) will be devided with the square root of the total amount of standard devitiant square divided with the total sample minus one(Arikunto, 2010). In geeting the value of Md, based on the formula the researcher calculated the score by dividing the total value of Gain (d) with the total of subject (n).
The hypothesis (H0) will be accepted if tcount<tlistThe hypothesis (H0) will be rejected if tcount>tlistNote :H0: The effect of scientific approach cannot enrich students’ vocabulary
H1: The effect of scientific approach can enrich students’ vocabulary.