CHAPTER IINTRODUCTION Teacher’s beliefs practices and attitudes are important for understanding and improving educational processes. They are closely linked to teacher’s strategies for coping with challenges in their daily professional life and their general well-being, and they shape students learning environment and influence student motivation and environment. Furthermore they can be expected to mediate the effects of job-related policies such as changes in curricula for teachers’ initial education or professional on student (Candy, 2000).Effective teaching requires a substantial commitment to the content or subject matter. Good teachers have mastery of subject matter or content. It is teachers’ primary responsibility to a represent the content accurately and efficiently for learner. Good teachers take learners systematically through sets of takes that lead to content mastery.
Such as teacher provide clear objectives, adjust the pace of lecturing, make efficient use of class time, clear by misunderstanding, answer, questions provide timely feedback; correct error, provide reviews summarize what has been presented set his standers for achievement and develop objective means of assessing learning. Good teachers are enthusiastic about their content and convey that enthusiasm to their students’ they are memorable presenters of their content (Candy, 2000).This essay is based on premise that education program are largely ineffective in improving the current practice of teaching. Subsequently Kennedy, (1997) attributed this state of affairs in the part to the beliefs that the candidates and teacher bring to teacher education. It is not clear what the source of those beliefs might be-a product of their bringing a reflection of their life experience, or a result of socialization processes in school. Nevertheless, teachers and teacher candidates have strong beliefs about the role that education can play, about explanation for individual variation in academic performance, about right and wrong in the class room, andmany other areas. Those teaching that square with their beliefs are recognized as what new? Comedy went to say that one belief that teacher candidates bring to their professional schooling is “that they already have what it takes to be a good teacher, and that therefor they have little to learn from the formal study of teaching (Smith, 2005).Teacher education is at a cross-road.
Public interest in school reform has increased and teacher education has been rediscovered as a “problem” in policy circles. With this heightened visibility there exists a press, on the national level, for evidence and answers concerning the effects of teacher preparation on future teacher quality. Lepage(2005) offer a framework for conducting research on teacher preparation that points out a critical need for research on “how teachers learn to engage in practices that successfully support student development and learning”. Our investigation is consistent with this goal. In order to understand what pre-service teachers need to learn, it is critically important to understand what they already believe and what personal attributes (e.
g., personality) they have that may relate to their beliefs and learning (Smith, 2005).The present paper asks three questions about pre-service teachers. First, what are the prevalent beliefs about teaching among pre-service teachers? Second, what are the personality characteristics of pre-service teachers? Third, in what ways do personality traits and other demographic attributes predict beliefs about teaching? (Lambert,2001).Many studies have acknowledged the importance of teacher beliefs.
Teaching involves multiple, simultaneous decisions related to content pedagogy, students relationships, praise and discipline, materials of instruction, and interactions with colleagues Griffin(1999). Teachers do not possess templates to guide their work. Rather, teachers draw upon past experiences and their own ways of approaching problems. They develop their own solutions based on their personal understanding of the circumstances an understanding that is rooted in their belief systems (Smylie,1994). Two factors motivate our interest in the beliefs of pre-service teachers. First, existing work indicates that students come into teacher education programs with a set of beliefs about teaching, classrooms, and children stemming from their own educational experiences Kagan (1992). This is in contrast to college students planning to work in other professions who have less direct experience upon which to base beliefs about future work. This situation creates a challenge to teacher educators striving to improve the practices of future educators.
This challenge occurs because, in human learning, it is clear that it is more difficult to unlearn existing beliefs than it is to learn new beliefs Brown and Cocking, (2000). Therefore, pre-service teachers may teach the way they remember being taught rather than pushing pedagogical knowledge learned in teacher education Ginsburg and Newman (1985). As Pajares (1992) describes, “Unexplored entering beliefs may be responsible for the perpetuation of antiquated and ineffectual teaching practices” (Branford, 2000).
Teachers’ beliefs are more malleable during the years of teacher preparation, rather than once an individual is in a classroom. So and Watkins (2005) found that pre-service teachers’ thinking changed to a more constructivist approach by their first year of teaching. A mixed-methods study conducted by Purdie (2001) found growth in the epistemological beliefs of pre-service teachers due to a year-long reflective teaching program.
Such work provides evidence to suggest that changing teacher beliefs should and can occur during the training years (Brownlee,2001).Second, the majority of work on teacher beliefs is based on in-service, not pre-service teachers which pose a problem. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education recommends that teacher educators increase their awareness of beliefs of their pre-service teachers Raths (2001) even goes so far as to say that beliefs should be used as one criterion for entrance into teacher education programs (NCATE, 2000).
Taken together, this body of work points to the importance of teacher beliefs as a useful outcome for understanding pre-service teachers’ future teaching quality. We recognize an imperfect correspondence between beliefs and practices. However, we posit that teacher beliefs offer a reasonable proxy for practice since it is impossible to use teaching practices as an outcome for pre-service teachers. As such, the present study strives to identify predictors of teacher beliefs Personality. Teaching requires not only the ability to teach lessons, but also an understanding of the rules and routines of the school culture, the ability to collaborate with other education professionals, and an awareness of the communities in which one teaches. People are highly variable in the degree to which they can meet these multi-level demands. Personality characteristics are likely to be important predictors of this ability (Guyton ,1996). Statement of the problem This study based on prospective teacher’s beliefs about teaching effectivenessSignificance of ProblemTeaching is an art and it should be judged for the passion and beauty of the performance and the meaningfulness of the message conveyed.
Teaching is a complex and demanding activity that involves mastery of content, classroom control, techniques of organization, and command of teaching skills. Teaching consists not only of instruction, but also of the systematic promotion of learning by whatever means the profiles of effective teachers are as diverse as the students they teach. Still, the best teachers do share several characteristics. In Qualities of Effective Teachers, Stronge (2002) synthesizes research to identify specific teacher behaviors that contribute to student achievement. Rather than look at outside factors like demographics, district leadership, and state mandates, Stronge focuses specifically on what teachers can control-their own preparation, personality, and practices. Fitzpatrick (2004) comments that though it is important to develop more comprehensible means to measure effectiveness, it is equally important to recognize that one may be able to truly measure the art of teaching in conventional ways (Stronge, 2002).
While these global perspectives are important they do not identify many of the specifics that are associated with effective teaching in nursing education and the means that could or should be used to assess teaching effectiveness in nurse preparation programs. These specifics include: determining what are the effective teaching skills, what beliefs about the teaching and learning process educators and their students hold, what criteria should be used to assess teaching effectiveness, who should evaluate thevarious aspects of teaching, and what other important elements should and do guide the assessment of effective teaching in nursing education. Identifying these components is necessary for educators to improve their teaching and, ultimately, for helping aspiring nurses acquire the beliefs, the skills, and the knowledge that are needed in nursing practice.
Indeed, evaluation of teaching is central to providing feedback to educators, and for providing reliable and valid information for the tenure and promotion process (Fitzpatrick, 2004). In the past two decades as economic realities and accountability requirements have affected higher education, the evaluation of educators in nursing education programs has become an important issue. Documenting teaching effectiveness in nursing education is essential to demonstrating nursing education’s accountability to the profession and to the public it serves. For the teaching of prospective nurses to remain a dynamic activity, regular evaluation is vital .it is equally important for nurse educators to develop their teaching by systematic evaluation. The evaluation of teaching facilitates attainment of several important objectives: to improve the quality of teaching, to assist faculty to evaluate their own teaching, to fulfill the criteria of the academic institution, to improve accountability in education, and to identify the content areas for faculty development programs. Arthur Jr, et al.
(2003) mention that the most appropriate criterion for assessing teaching effectiveness is a function of the goal of evaluation. Evaluation of teaching is important in the teaching-learning process. The review of evaluation data can identify areas of effectiveness, as well as problem areas in teaching (Arthur Jr, et al., 2007).ObjectivesThe purpose of this research study will be:1. To find out the beliefs of prospective teachers.
2. To study the beliefs of prospective teachers about teaching effectiveness.3. To study the beliefs about teaching effectiveness between male and female prospective teacher.Research QuestionsThe research question to be made for this research will be:1. What are the beliefs of prospective teachers?2.
What are the beliefs of prospective teachers about teaching effectiveness?What are the beliefs about teaching effectiveness between male and female prospective teachers?LITERATURE REVIEWDefinition of Effective TeacherAn effective teacher is a good person who meets the community ideal for a good citizen, good parent, and good employee. He or she is expected to be honest, hardworking, generous, friendly, and considerate, and to demonstrate these qualities in their classrooms by being authoritative, organized, disciplined, insightful, and dedicated. However, this definition lacks clear objective standards of performance (Borich, 1992).
Makes Effective TeachersAccording to Maryellen, (2009) This particular list of teaching characteristics appears in an excellent book that is all but unknown in the states, Learning to Teach in Higher Education, by noted scholar Paul Ramsden. In the case of what makes teaching effective, he writes, “…a great deal is known about the characteristics of effective university teaching. It is undoubtedly a complicated matter; there is no indication of one ‘best way,’ but our understanding of its essential nature is both broad and deep.”.
He organizes that essential knowledge into these six principles, unique for the way he relates them to students’ experiences.1: Interest and explanation “When our interest is aroused in something, whether it is an academic subject or a hobby, we enjoy working hard at it. We come to feel that we can in some way own it and use it to make sense of the world around us.
“. Coupled with the need to establish the relevance of content, instructors need to craft explanations that enable students to understand the material. This involves knowing what students understand and then forging connections between what is known and what is new.2: Concern and respect for students and student learningRamsden starts with the negative about which he is assertive and unequivocal.
“Truly awful teaching in higher education is most often revealed by a sheer lack of interest in and compassion for students and student learning. It repeatedly displays the classic symptom of making a subject seem more demanding than it actually is. Some people may get pleasure from this kind of masquerade. They are teaching very badly if they do. Good teaching is nothing to do with making things hard. It is nothing to do with frightening students. It is everything to do with benevolence and humility; it always tries to help students feel that a subject can be mastered; it encourages them to try things out for themselves and succeed at something quickly.” 3: Appropriate assessment and feedback This principle involves using a variety of assessment techniques and allowing students to demonstrate their mastery of the material in different ways.
It avoids those assessment methods that encourage students to memorize and regurgitate (Maryellen,2009). Foundations of Effective Goal SettingStrong goals are founded on three ideas. First, like all other strong leaders, highly effective teachers insist on defining and measuring achievement so that progress and success are clear. In our context, that principle takes the form of ambitious standards—aligned, and quantifiable goals—targets that help students see their progress and appreciate the benefits of their hard work. Second, the highly effective teachers we have studied expect the best of those they are leading. In our context, this means seeing and demanding that their students reach their full potential, holding high expectations that actually raise student performance. The best teachers, in our experience, refuse to accept and instead set out to disprove the myth that students in low-income communities are destined for lower achievement and fewer opportunities than children in higher-income communities.
Third, like other great leaders, strong teachers are keenly aware of their constituents’ (in this case, their students’) needs and desires. These teachers not only seek to meet those inherent interests and motivations; they also find ways to build them into their vision of success to make it all the more inspiring to their students (Steven Farr, 2010).We will engage these three leadership tenets in two passes. First, we will explore the purposes and power of big goals. Then, to make these ideas more concrete, we will revisit these tenets through the processes and reflections of highly effective teachers as they design the big goals for their classroom (Steven Farr, 2010).
The benefits of Technology to Teaching and Learning With the increasing presence of technology in our classrooms, and the comfort of students using technology, it is important for faculty to understand the pedagogical implications of integrating technology into their classrooms Watts and Hammons, (2002). It is important to provide a model classroom for faculty to see best practices exemplified, and observe how the various technologies can be integrated in teaching and learning. Faculty development efforts and programs must focus on the integration of technology into teaching. Instructional or educational technology should be “integral to teaching practice” Chism ( 2004) and not viewed as an add-on to teaching Bates and Poole, (2003) Grasha and Yangarber (2000). Instructional technology can influence and improve learning Kulik and Cohen ( 1980).
These types of technologies can improve teaching and learning by increasing teacher and student efficiency and reaching different learning styles (Flecknoe, 2002). Through increased exposure to and competence with technology, faculty can select those technologies that improve “the quality of teaching and learning and student motivation” (Gilbert, 1996).Strategies for Effective TeachingTo improve students’ reading comprehension, teachers should introduce the seven cognitive strategies of effective readers: activating, inferring, monitoring-clarifying, questioning, searching-selecting, summarizing, and visualizing-organizing.
This article includes definitions of the seven strategies and a lesson-plan template for teaching each one (MCEwan,2007).Seven Strategies of Highly Effective ReadersStrategy DefinitionActivating “Priming the cognitive pump” in order to recall relevent prior knowledge and experiences from long-term memory in order to extract and construct meaning from textInferring Bringing together what is spoken (written) in the text, what is unspoken (unwritten) in the text, and what is already known by the reader in order to extract and construct meaning from the textMonitoring-Clarifying Thinking about how and what one is reading, both during and after the act of reading, for purposes of determining if one is comprehending the text combined with the ability to clarify and fix up any mix-upsQuestioning Engaging in learning dialogues with text (authors), peers, and teachers through self-questioning, question generation, and question answeringSearching-Selecting Searching a variety of sources in order to select appropriate information to answer questions, define words and terms, clarify misunderstandings, solve problems, or gather informationSummarizing Restating the meaning of text in one’s own wordsdifferent words from those used in the original textVisualizing-Organizing Constructing a mental image or graphic organizer for the purpose of extracting and constructing meaning from the textBeliefsDemographic characteristics and attributes. Age, gender, and ethnicity contribute to beliefs that pre-service teachers hold Richardson (1996). In a study of Turkish pre-service teachers, Celep (2000) found older teachers had greater self-confidence in ability to motivate students and held more positive views of students’ willingness to learn than younger teachers. Witcher, and James (2002) found that men were Two and a half times more likely to endorse subject knowledge as more important for effective teaching than women and minority pre-service teachers were more likely to endorse enthusiasm for teaching over knowledge of subject as more important. Pre-service Teacher BeliefsMany studies have acknowledged the importance of teacher beliefs. Teaching involves multiple, simultaneous decisions related to content pedagogy, student relationships, praise and discipline, materials of instruction, and interactions with colleagues Griffin (1999).
Teachers do not possess templates to guide their work. Rather, teachers draw upon past experiences and their own ways of approaching problems. They develop their own solutions based on their personal understanding of the circumstances Smylie(1994) an understanding that is rooted in their belief systems (Lambert,2001).Two factors motivate our interest in the beliefs of pre-service teachers.
First, existing work indicates that students come into teacher education programs with a set of beliefs about teaching, classrooms, and children stemming from their own educational experiences Pajares (1992). This is in contrast to college students planning to work in other professions who have less direct experience upon which to base beliefs about future work. This situation creates a challenge to teacher educators striving to improve the practices of future educators. This challenge occurs because, in human learning, it is clear that it is more difficult to unlearn existing beliefs than it is to learn new beliefs Cocking(2000). Therefore, pre-service teachers may teach the way they remember being taught rather than using pedagogical knowledge learned in teacher education .
As Pajares (1992) describes, “unexplored entering beliefs may be responsible for the perpetuation of antiquated and ineffectual teaching practices” (Pajares,1992).Teachers’ beliefs are more malleable during the years of teacher preparation, rather than once an individual is in a classroom. So and Watkins (2005) found that pre-service teachers’ thinking changed to a more constructivist approach by their first year of teaching. A mixed-methods study conducted by Purdie (2001) found growth in the epistemological beliefs of pre-service teachers due to a year-long reflective teaching program.
Such work provides evidence to suggest that changing teacher beliefs should and can occur during the training years (Purdie, 2001).Second, the majority of work on teacher beliefs is based on in-service, not pre-service teachers which pose a problem. The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education recommends that teacher educators increase their awareness of beliefs of their pre-service teachers NCAT( 2002) even goes so far as to say that beliefs should be used as one criterion for entrance into teacher education programs. Taken together, this body of work points to the importance of teacher beliefs as a useful outcome for understanding pre-service teachers’ future teaching quality. We recognize an imperfect correspondence between beliefs and practices . However, we posit that teacher beliefs offer a reasonable proxy for practice since it is impossible to use teaching practices as an outcome for pre-service teachers.
As such, the present study strives to identify predictors of teacher beliefs (Raths,2001).CHAPTER IIIRESEARCH METHODOLOGYMethodology is a way through which researchers conduct their study. This chapter describes the nature of study as well as the population, sampling design, instrumentation, data collection procedure and proposed data analysis techniques. Type of ResearchThis research is descriptive in nature and survey is conducted to collect data through questionnaire. Population of the StudyThe Population of the study was the prospective teachers of I.E.R University of the Punjab Lahore.Sample of the StudyIn this study the convenient sampling technique was used, This sample of the study was consisted of 200 prospective teachers of M.
A and B.Ed. (Hons) programs from I.E.R University of the Punjab Lahore.
I collected the data of the eight departments of I.E.R.25 questionnaire fill from each department.Instrument for the Data CollectionA questionnaire was developed under the supervision of thesis committee.
The questionnaire consisted of 29 items. Five point Likert scale.Procedure of the StudyThis study was designed to see the beliefs of prospective teachers about teaching effectiveness at master and B.Ed. level.
The type of research was survey. The population of study was prospective teachers studying in I.E.R. University of the Punjab Lahore.
Resource of Study1. Article2. InternetThe researcher developed the questionnaire under the supervision consisted of 29 items. The data was collected and analysis by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and result was drowned and recommendations were made.Data AnalysisCollected data was analysis on computer and result of data were presented in the tables. At the end, the results were presented in finding, draw the conclusions and made the recommendations.ReferencesBrophy, J. E.
, & Good, T. L. (1970). Teachers’ communication of differential expectations for children’s classroom performance: Some behavioral data. Journal of Educational Psychology, 61, 365–374.Calderhead, J. (1996).
Teachers: Beliefs and knowledge. In D. Berliner & R. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 709–725). New York: Macmillan.
.Corno, L., & Snow, R. (1985). Adapting teaching to individual differences among learners. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.
), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed., pp. 605–629). New York: Macmillan.Davis, E. A. (2006).
Characterizing productive reflection among pre-service elementary teachers: Seeing what matters. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22, 281–301.Bates, A., & Poole, G. (2003). Effective teaching with technology in higher education: Foundations for success.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Flecknoe, M. (2002). How can it help us to improve education? Innovations in Education and Teaching International 39(4), 271-279.Davis, H.
A. (2003). Conceptualizing the role and influence of student-teacher relationships on children’s social and cognitive development.
Educational Psychologist, 38(4), 207–234.Steven, F. (2010). Teaching as a Leadership. The highly effective Teachers Guide to closing the achievement.McEwan, E.
K. (2007) 40 way to support struggling Readers In classroom. Graders6—12 (pp.6) Corwin press.www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3200229http://www.adit.org/article /19844http://cteduonline.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=244:characteristics-of-21st-century-teachers&catid=44:strategies&Itemid=148shttp://educationresearchreport.blogspot.com/2009/12/status-of-teaching-profession-2009.htmlhttp://www.ehow.com/about_6102244_effectiveteachescommunication.html#ixzz25ZUG