CHAPTER the provision and supply of water, therefore,

1. Introduction
1.1. Background of the study
Water is the very basis for sustenance of life. It is the most essential necessity of life after oxygen. The importance of water is not only attached to the drinking but also to cooking, bathing, washing and other activities. Anything that disturbs the provision and supply of water, therefore, tends to disturb the very survival of humanity. Where provisions for water and sanitation are inadequate, the diseases that arise from contaminated water, food and hands are among the world’s leading causes of premature death and serious illness (Yewondossen, 2012).

Sufficient potable water supply is one of the basic urban services, which highly affects the economic progress of towns and the health of their people. However, many urban centers around the world are facing serious problem of water supply. The problem in most of third world countries, including Ethiopia, is particularly worst and multidimensional.
Thus, clean potable water is an absolute prerequisite for healthy living. The importance of water in human welfare cannot be over-emphasized in the saying “water is life”. The normal functioning of the human body depends entirely upon an adequate quantity and quality of water. But if the water is from contaminated sources, it causes numerous water-associated diseases (Tesfaye and Zeyede, 2004).

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Due to the rapid population growth and uncontrolled residential development witnessed in most developing countries, the global urban environment is seriously being degraded in terms of service delivery (UN-Water 2007). Water supply is the public utilities that have been worst hit by this scenario. These facilities are necessary commodities in household and municipal activities (FAO, 2008). Though continuity of water supply is taken for granted in most developed countries, it is a severe problem in many developing countries, where some times water is only provided for a few hours every day or a few days a week (UN-Water, 2007).
Provision of quality urban infrastructure system has become a major concern in many developed and developing countries. Contrary to this, the quality aspect of providing water has been downplayed by the focus put on access provision to this infrastructure. This is mostly the case of water supply provision and other basic infrastructure. The low quality of urban infrastructure such as water supply and sanitation may be detrimental to the environment leading unhealthy living conditions. The performance of one infrastructure may affect the other due to their interconnection such as water supply and sanitation are highly interrelated. Hence, understanding this integration and interrelation provide a better consideration on the importance of providing quality infrastructure (Salendu, 2010).

2. Statement of the problem
Water is one of the most crucial and non substitutable environmental resources. Adequate, quality, safe and affordable supply of drinking water is a basic need for human life. However many people across the planet do not have access to safe and adequate water supply services which affects their life in various ways (Yibeltal, 2011).

The availability of water sources throughout the world is becoming depleted by the rate at which populations are increasing, especially in developing countries. This has brought into focus the urgent need for planned action to manage water resources effectively for sustainable development (Khatri and Vairavamoorthy, 2007).

Lack of access to safe and clean water is locked in the heart of the poverty. Even though the issue of water is observed as a general problem for both the urban and the rural population, women bear the greatest burden because of their social gender roles including collecting water for their households (Rose, 2009).

Though there is difference on water supply coverage between global and national estimates, all sources confirm that water supply coverage in Ethiopia is on strong upward trajectory (AMCOW, 2010). According to MOWR (2013), the national water access reaches 61.6% (58.71 % rural and 80.72% urban) in 2012/13 fiscal year. ‘The National Wash Inventory’ (NWI) has been conducted in 2010 to provide reliable data about the water supply coverage of the country. As a result of the NWI the combined urban and rural water supply coverage in 2011 is determined to be 54 percent.

Dawit (2015) finding indicates in Addis Ababa, household drinking water quality deteriorates after treated water leaves the treatment plant and enters into the distribution system. A major factor causing this deterioration is the frequent supply interruptions which are common in most areas of Addis Ababa. The main reason for these disruptions is the lack of available water supply. Power cuts are also common and contribute to the disruption of the water supply. During supply disruptions, the pressure inside the pipelines can fall and then allow intrusion of external contaminants from unhygienic areas where water supply pipes have been laid. In Addis Ababa rapid urbanization is taking place. This includes higher population growth, the construction of new apartments and investment in the city. This rapid growth has led to an increasing demand for water from the original water treatment facility. The demand for domestic water is growing at a faster rate than the supply. Even though the Addis Ababa Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (AAWSA) is working to increase the supply capacity, it is currently not able to supply enough drinking water to the growing population. This has resulted in water shortages in many areas of the city. As a result, drinking water is now being supplied on a schedule.

Furthermore, the gap between water need and supply has widened steadily in Ethiopia’s urban centers despite continuous efforts by the government in providing water supply to the rapidly growing urban population. Sodo is one of the towns in the SNNPR with rapid urbanization, high population growth; high investment flow due to its investment potential as the capital city of the Wolaita zone. It is also serving as an administrative, business and transport center of the Wolaita Zone. Moreover, the researchers knowledge and also information collected from the office of the water supply and sewerage service and municipal offices indicated that there is majority of the households in shortage of water supply and distribution in the study area. There is no adequate researches have been yet carried out in the study area regarding to problem of water supply. So, this study was emphasized on assessing urban water supply and distribution problems as well as the challenges with possible recommendation that the community of the town and service providers in Sodo town face.

1.3. Objectives of the Study
1.3.1 General of objective study
The general of objective the study was to assess urban water supply and distribution
Problems in Sodo town.
1.3.2 Specific objectives of the study
The specific objective of this study is:-
1. To identify the coverage of water supply and distribution in Sodo town.
2. To find out the challenges to water supply and distribution in Sodo town.
3. To scrutinize the coordination and participation of stakeholders in water supply and
distribution scheme.
1.4. Research Questions

In order to achieve the above mentioned research objectives and to seek answers for the stated problems, the following major research questions were prepared.
1. What is the coverage of existing water supply and distribution in Sodo town?
2. What are the challenges to improvement of water supply and distribution in Sodo town?
3. Are stakeholders coordinating and participating in water supply schemes?
4. What are the effects water supply shortages in the study area?

1.5. Scope of the Study

This research principally focused on urban water supply and distribution problems at domestic level in Sodo town. Furthermore, the study also emphasized on the administrative issues like accessibility, distribution problems, budget, the cause and the consequence of inadequate water supply on the urban communities.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study shows the current water supply condition of urban settlement based on investigating the coverage and distribution of water, causes of water inaccessibility and their impacts on the urban situation. It provides insight to policy makers, NGOs, CBOs and stakeholders who are concerned with urban water supply and distribution problems. The thesis should also append to the literature on urban water supply and distribution issues, which is presently a worldwide challenge. It would also serve as a base line for other researchers who will be interested in the area.

1.7 Justification of the study
As stated by Yewodwossen (2012) water is one of the primary driving forces for sustainable development of any country, where its environmental, social and economic development are to a large extent dependent on improved water supply services. Water is a basic need for human being welfare. Adequate water supply is an entry point to sustainable development. However, limited access associated with poor water supply, hygiene and sanitation is widening the poverty gap. The urban water sector in many developing countries, there are serious constraints to meeting the challenge to provide adequate water for all urban residents. However due to insufficient structures coupled with rapid population growth and urbanization, the gap between demand and supply of water continues to widen.

My personal motivation for this study is, it clear that water is crucial for human survival and economic development. The provision of adequate potable water in addition to drinking, cleaning etc, it also improves health by reducing incidence of water related illnesses. The main reasons for selecting Sodo town as a study area are due to the researcher’s personal acquaintance with the area as his workplace and dweller of the town, he is fully aware of the problems of water supply and distribution facing the people of the town. In addition, I hope this study may provide data for those who need resources on this topic and will also initiate other researchers to study on water supply challenges. The recommendations from the findings could contribute to the preparation of strategies on how the government and other concerned bodies could create favorable environmental conditions to sustainable water supply and distribution.
1.8 Limitation of the study
Some respondents have reservation to express their opinion as could not duly understand the long term outcome of the study and this limited the thorough collection of the required data. It was very difficult to make interviews with some officials as they always made appointment to give information and not available on the appointment. Concerning to documents and secondary data in all the three visited offices there were no adequate documents, which were relevant to this study. The data were fragmented and very difficult to access and get the necessary information. There was no clear explanation on the existing data. Reference books for the study were also rarely available and this influenced study to some extent to review the literatures. Shortage of time and finance were also major challenges to accomplish this paper.
1.9 Organization of the thesis
This thesis consists of five chapters. The first chapter is the one section that deals with background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives and research questions, significance, justification, delimitation, limitation and organization of the study. The second chapter of the study includes review of related literatures. The description of the study area and research methodology adopted for the study including sources of data, decisions regarding sample procedures and sample size, and statistical tools used in data analysis would present in chapter three. Then, chapter four contains the data analysis and discussions. Finally, the paper is summarized with conclusions and some recommendations in chapter five to overcome the main problems of water supply and distribution in Sodo town.


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