CHAPTER ONE1.0INTRODUCTIONBACKGROUND OF STUDYThe therapeutic value and restorative effect of any plant lies in some compound substances that create a particular physiological response and reaction on the human body known as metabolites.
Appropriate from times long past up to this point, restorative plants have picked up view as a necessary piece of medicinal services framework all inclusive. Among others, therapeutic plants have extraordinarily discovered applications in the pharmaceutical industries and additionally beauty care products, farming and nourishment ventures all inclusive. These therapeutic plants are utilized as nourishment, flavonoid, solution, or scent and furthermore in certain otherworldly exercises. A few plants are considered as essential wellspring of sustenance and accordingly, they are suggested for their remedial and general pharmacological qualities.
A portion of these plants include: ginger, green tea, walnuts, aloe, pepper and turmeric, and so on (Khan, 2016). Ficus vogelii is an individual from the fig normally found in the Guinea savannah vegetation belt of West and Central Africa. . Ficus which has a place with the group of moraceae is a member of around 800 species collectively known as Figs. Ficus has been appeared to be a moderately antiquated animal types being around sixty million years of age.
The products of most Ficus are eatable while some are utilized as nourishment assets by natural life species. Ficus separate is utilized by some culture for its therapeutic qualities while in others it fills in as a protest of love and worship (Egbuna et al., 2011). Therapeutic plants have assumed an imperative part in human services framework all around appropriate from ancient times up to this point. Certain compound substances which deliver positive physiological activities on the human body known as metabolites are in charge of the restorative estimation of any plant. Ficus vogelii is a typical verdant green vegetable utilized as a part of different neighborhood dishes in Ikwo culture where it is called “ogbu-enu” while in Obudu culture it is called “kujung”.
The concentrate of Ficus vogelii leaf, as per report by ethnomedical specialists in Nigeria, is utilized locally for the treatment of iron deficiency (in view of its high adequacy in enhancing hemoglobinopathies), diabetes, wounds and jungle fever. The general predominance of infertility among couples is up to 15% and in half of the cases male factor is included. Infertility has demonstrated an expanding pattern amid ongoing decades (Safarinejad.
, 2008). Furthermore, the nature of sperm parameters in men has declined amid the previous couple of decades (Auger et al., 1995) and hindered sperm work has been considered as the most widely recognized reason for infertility among couples (Sheweita et al., 2005). Infertility is a critical issue with in some cases serious results for couple. The treatment of infertility requires a multi-faceted remedial approach, comprising of enhancements in ecological and environmental related hazard factors, nourishing awkward nature, cancer prevention agents, restorative treatments, medical procedures, and assisted reproductive technology (ART). Modern and rural exercises are then again connected with broad use of wide cluster of concoction going from pesticides that have changed ranch and woods profitability, synthetic substances utilized as a part of plastic make, substantial metals utilized as a part of the generation of hardware, paints, vehicles and other building materials, and so on.
(Leblanc, 2004; Manfo et a1., 2014). These exercises are unavoidable related with the arrival of numerous dangerous substances/components in the earth, for example, substantial metals.
Substantial metals are components ordinarily utilized as a part of industry and blandly harmful to creatures, anaerobic and high-impact forms. Overwhelming metals incorporate yet not constrained to beryllium, mercury, lead, cadmium, aluminum, uranium As, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Se, Fe, Ag, Mn, and Zn, among others (Scott and smith, l98l; Duffi., 2002; Romero-Ruiz et a1.,2008). The term is some of the time utilized freely to allude to both the components and individual mixes. A portion of the overwhelming metals have no known advantage for human physiology, for example, mercury, lead and cadmium, and are basically alluded to as toxicants or “harmful metals”.
Scarcely any others required for typical cell physiology are required in pretty little amount or follow sum or cofactors (cupper, manganese, cobalt in vitamin B-12, press in hemoglobin), and therapeutics utilized as a part of pharmaceutical (Al, Bi, Au, Li, Ag, gallium) (Kumari et al., 2011; Croxford et al., 2011). In spite of the fact that the last metals are fundamental in specific sums for typical cell physiology, encounter has demonstrated that “harmfulness” isn’t a contention against “vitality”, particularly when these components are taken up in extensive amount or if the systems of end are prevented or debilitated (Clarkson., 200l). Overwhelming metals happen normally in the earth hull at low fixation level (Loka et al., 1990), however are persistently brought into the earth through extraction and handling for promote use in industry. In reality, industrialization is ceaselessly propelling these days with goal to enhance and straightforwardness life, and is described by produce of merchandise, for example, hardware, vehicle, and so on, utilizing metals and minerals from mining (Nemcova et al.
, 2012). This resultant impact is the ceaseless gathering of the overwhelming metals in the earth where they will meddle with ordinary living procedure of creatures and plants even at low fixations (Bednarova et al., 2012; Slomka et al., 2012). Wellbeing neurotic conditions and issues initiated by these synthetic substances are various and incorporate growth, hepatotoxicity, renal disappointment, unfriendly neurocognitive impacts, and additionally irritation of the conceptive capacity, which is required for species survival or life span of species (Lam et al., 2013).
A few investigations have detailed the unfavorable impacts of substantial metals on conceptive strength of people and creatures. For instance, waterbirds presented to mercury poisonous quality endure conduct changes and regenerative brokenness (Scheuhammer, 1987; Carvalho et al., 2013). Cadmium prompted oxidative stress in Sertoli cells, and repressed multiplication of the cells (Zhang et al., 2010), related with modified sperm quality (Chyb et al., 200l).
Overwhelming metals have turned out to be pervasive, and are taken up by people through inward breath, ingestion of debased nourishment, and assimilation through the skin following control or skin contact with instruments produced of such substantial metals. Cadmium (Cd) is a byproduct of zinc generation and is a standout amongst the most dangerous components to which man can be uncovered at work and in nature. Once ingested, Cd is effectively accumulated for long in the human body in which it aggregates all through life. Recently, Cd is for the most part utilized as a part of battery-powered batteries and for the creation of unique compounds. Despite the fact that emanations in nature have seen decrease in most industrialized nations, Cd remains a wellspring of worry for modern laborers and for populaces living in contaminated territories, particularly in underdeveloped nations (Sethi et al.
, 2006). In the business, Cd introduction is risky both by inward breath and ingestion and can cause intense and unending inebriations. 1.1Discovery of the Intoxication and Hazardous Effect of Cadmium The intense lethality impact of Cd was found as right on time as in nineteenth century (Sovet., 1854), this metal caused constant impacts in people was perceived substantially later with the principal reports of pneumonic, bone and renal injuries in modern laborers distributed in the late 1930s-1940s (Bulmer et al.
, 1938; Nicaud et al., 1942; Friberg., 1950). It was the flare-up of the Itai-Itai bone malady in the 1960s in japan (Hagino and Yoshioka.
, 1961) that truly drew the consideration of people in general and regulatory bodies to the impact of this heavy metal that had been released in the earth at an uncontrolled rate for over a century. After these early reports of serious inebriation, various epidemiological and exploratory looks into were completed worldwide with a specific end goal to portray the danger of Cd and to evaluate the presentation levels from which this across the board toxin could debilitate human wellbeing. These looks into exhibited that Cd consumed by inward breath or ingestion can make irreversible harm a few fundamental organs, among which the most delicate organs are the kidney, the bone and the respiratory tract and reproductive organs (Bernard and Lauwerys., 1986).1.2Extraordinary Cumulative Effect of cadmiumCd has an exceptionally solid half-existence of around 30-40 years, when scattered in the earth can hold on in soils and residue for quite a long time. At the point when taken up by plants through soil, Cd focuses along the evolved way of life and at last amasses in the group of individuals eating sullied nourishment.
Cd is additionally present in tobacco smoke, additionally adding to human presentation. By a wide margin, the most remarkable toxicological property of Cd is its incredibly long half-life in the human body. Once consumed, Cd irreversibly amasses in the human body, in especially in kidneys and other fundamental organs such the lungs or the liver. Notwithstanding its exceptional combined properties, Cd is additionally an exceedingly harmful metal that can upset various natural frameworks, as a rule at measurements that are much lower than most lethal metals (Järup et al., 1998; Sethi et al., 2006; Nordberg et al., 2007). Vitamin C otherwise called ascorbic acid is a known cancer prevention agent introduce in the testis with the exact part of shielding it from the oxidative harm (Nayanatara et al.
, 2008). It additionally adds to the help of spermatogenesis through its ability to protect it from oxidative damage of free radicals. Vitamin C is itself kept up in a lessened state by a GSH-subordinate dehydroascorbate reductase which is abundant in the testicles.
Vitamin C has been appeared to enhance sperm motility and improves semen quality and fruitfulness of rats (Rekha et al., 2009).Vitamin C works as a co-factor for different key proteins.
It helps in the metabolic procedures of folic acid, tyrosine and tryptophan (Iqba et al., 2008). Vitamin C is prevalently known for its part in tissue development and wound mending impact (Kallner et al., 1979; Angulo et al., 2011) Moreover; it has a high strength for rummaging ROS in tissues (Brzozowski et al.
, 2001; Guaiquil et al., 1997). In an investigation including 30 infertile yet sound men, day by day supplementation of 200 mg and 100 mg vitamin C expanded sperm count by 112 and 140 percent separately. It is important that its fixation in the original plasma is 10-overlay higher than the serum (Dawson et al., 1987; Jacob et al.
, 1992). Clearly, it is a defender of human spermatozoa against oxidative harm by invalidating the impact of hydroxyl and superoxide radicals (Fraga et al., 1991). Semen tests with overabundance ROS are related with low grouping of vitamin C (Lewis et al.
, 1997). Also, a joined activity of vitamin C and E has been seen to shield the spermatozoa against peroxidative attack and DNA fragmentation (Acharya et al., 2008).
In recent years, vitamin C supplements have been broadly used in rats diet and the levels for improving creation and conceptive execution have been expanded a few overlap. Supplementation with Vitamin C has likewise been appeared to build add up to sperm yield and sperm fixation (Nayanatara et al., 2008; Rekha et al., 2009).1.3STATEMENT OF PROBLEM OF THE RESEARCHDue to the increasing level of infertility among couple and associated detrimental side effect in the usage of synthetic drugs (such as cialis, levitra, staryn etc) for the management of reproductive dysfunctions, this has warrant the search for a natural therapeutic cure and thus led to the investigation if ficus vogelii can potentiate or ameliorate altered sperm parameter.
1.4RESEARCH QUESTIONSThe study should provide solution to the following problems which isIf exposure of male albino rats to Cadmium (Cd) will result in positive or negative effects on the testicular function? If administration of ethanolic extract of ficus vogelii leaf will have a positive or negative effect on the testicular function in male albino rats?If administration of ascorbic acid will have a positive or negative effect on the testicular function in male albino rats exposed to Cadmium (Cd)?If the co-administration of Cadmium (Cd), ethanolic extract of ficus vogelii leaf plus Vitamin C. will have a positive or negative effect on the testicular function in male albino rats?1.5JUSTIFICATIONThe study will provide a baseline data for ethno-medical usage of ficus vogelii and when extrapolated to man suffering from altered sperm parameter (motility, morphology and count).1.6AIM OF THE STUDYThe aim of the study is to determine the effect of ethanol leaf extract of ficus vogelii, vitamin C and cadmium (Cd) on testicular function in male Wister rats and elucidate the ethno-medical claim of the use of the plant in treatment of reproductive dysfunction. 1.7SPECIFIC OBJECTIVETo determine the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of ficus vogelii on the testicular function (sperm motility, morphology and count) in male Wister rats.
To determine the effect of Cadmium (Cd) on the testicular function (sperm motility, morphology and count) in male Wister rats.To assess the effect of vitamin C, on the testicular function (sperm motility, morphology and count) in male Wister rats. To evaluate the effect of co- administration of ethanolic leaf extract of ficus vogelii, vitamin C and Cadmium (Cd) on the testicular function (sperm motility, morphology and count) in male Wister rats.