CHAPTER the fig normally found in the Guinea

CHAPTER ONE
1.0INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The therapeutic value and restorative effect of any plant lies in some compound substances that create a particular physiological response and reaction on the human body known as metabolites. Appropriate from times long past up to this point, restorative plants have picked up view as a necessary piece of medicinal services framework all inclusive. Among others, therapeutic plants have extraordinarily discovered applications in the pharmaceutical industries and additionally beauty care products, farming and nourishment ventures all inclusive. These therapeutic plants are utilized as nourishment, flavonoid, solution, or scent and furthermore in certain otherworldly exercises. A few plants are considered as essential wellspring of sustenance and accordingly, they are suggested for their remedial and general pharmacological qualities. A portion of these plants include: ginger, green tea, walnuts, aloe, pepper and turmeric, and so on (Khan, 2016).
Ficus vogelii is an individual from the fig normally found in the Guinea savannah vegetation belt of West and Central Africa. . Ficus which has a place with the group of moraceae is a member of around 800 species collectively known as Figs. Ficus has been appeared to be a moderately antiquated animal types being around sixty million years of age. The products of most Ficus are eatable while some are utilized as nourishment assets by natural life species. Ficus separate is utilized by some culture for its therapeutic qualities while in others it fills in as a protest of love and worship (Egbuna et al., 2011). Therapeutic plants have assumed an imperative part in human services framework all around appropriate from ancient times up to this point. Certain compound substances which deliver positive physiological activities on the human body known as metabolites are in charge of the restorative estimation of any plant.
Ficus vogelii is a typical verdant green vegetable utilized as a part of different neighborhood dishes in Ikwo culture where it is called “ogbu-enu” while in Obudu culture it is called “kujung”. The concentrate of Ficus vogelii leaf, as per report by ethnomedical specialists in Nigeria, is utilized locally for the treatment of iron deficiency (in view of its high adequacy in enhancing hemoglobinopathies), diabetes, wounds and jungle fever.
The general predominance of infertility among couples is up to 15% and in half of the cases male factor is included. Infertility has demonstrated an expanding pattern amid ongoing decades (Safarinejad., 2008). Furthermore, the nature of sperm parameters in men has declined amid the previous couple of decades (Auger et al., 1995) and hindered sperm work has been considered as the most widely recognized reason for infertility among couples (Sheweita et al., 2005).
Infertility is a critical issue with in some cases serious results for couple. The treatment of infertility requires a multi-faceted remedial approach, comprising of enhancements in ecological and environmental related hazard factors, nourishing awkward nature, cancer prevention agents, restorative treatments, medical procedures, and assisted reproductive technology (ART).
Modern and rural exercises are then again connected with broad use of wide cluster of concoction going from pesticides that have changed ranch and woods profitability, synthetic substances utilized as a part of plastic make, substantial metals utilized as a part of the generation of hardware, paints, vehicles and other building materials, and so on. (Leblanc, 2004; Manfo et a1., 2014). These exercises are unavoidable related with the arrival of numerous dangerous substances/components in the earth, for example, substantial metals.
Substantial metals are components ordinarily utilized as a part of industry and blandly harmful to creatures, anaerobic and high-impact forms. Overwhelming metals incorporate yet not constrained to beryllium, mercury, lead, cadmium, aluminum, uranium As, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Se, Fe, Ag, Mn, and Zn, among others (Scott and smith, l98l; Duffi., 2002; Romero-Ruiz et a1.,2008). The term is some of the time utilized freely to allude to both the components and individual mixes. A portion of the overwhelming metals have no known advantage for human physiology, for example, mercury, lead and cadmium, and are basically alluded to as toxicants or “harmful metals”. Scarcely any others required for typical cell physiology are required in pretty little amount or follow sum or cofactors (cupper, manganese, cobalt in vitamin B-12, press in hemoglobin), and therapeutics utilized as a part of pharmaceutical (Al, Bi, Au, Li, Ag, gallium) (Kumari et al., 2011; Croxford et al., 2011). In spite of the fact that the last metals are fundamental in specific sums for typical cell physiology, encounter has demonstrated that “harmfulness” isn’t a contention against “vitality”, particularly when these components are taken up in extensive amount or if the systems of end are prevented or debilitated (Clarkson., 200l).
Overwhelming metals happen normally in the earth hull at low fixation level (Loka et al., 1990), however are persistently brought into the earth through extraction and handling for promote use in industry. In reality, industrialization is ceaselessly propelling these days with goal to enhance and straightforwardness life, and is described by produce of merchandise, for example, hardware, vehicle, and so on, utilizing metals and minerals from mining (Nemcova et al., 2012). This resultant impact is the ceaseless gathering of the overwhelming metals in the earth where they will meddle with ordinary living procedure of creatures and plants even at low fixations (Bednarova et al., 2012; Slomka et al., 2012). Wellbeing neurotic conditions and issues initiated by these synthetic substances are various and incorporate growth, hepatotoxicity, renal disappointment, unfriendly neurocognitive impacts, and additionally irritation of the conceptive capacity, which is required for species survival or life span of species (Lam et al., 2013).
A few investigations have detailed the unfavorable impacts of substantial metals on conceptive strength of people and creatures. For instance, waterbirds presented to mercury poisonous quality endure conduct changes and regenerative brokenness (Scheuhammer, 1987; Carvalho et al., 2013). Cadmium prompted oxidative stress in Sertoli cells, and repressed multiplication of the cells (Zhang et al., 2010), related with modified sperm quality (Chyb et al., 200l).
Overwhelming metals have turned out to be pervasive, and are taken up by people through inward breath, ingestion of debased nourishment, and assimilation through the skin following control or skin contact with instruments produced of such substantial metals.
Cadmium (Cd) is a byproduct of zinc generation and is a standout amongst the most dangerous components to which man can be uncovered at work and in nature. Once ingested, Cd is effectively accumulated for long in the human body in which it aggregates all through life.
Recently, Cd is for the most part utilized as a part of battery-powered batteries and for the creation of unique compounds. Despite the fact that emanations in nature have seen decrease in most industrialized nations, Cd remains a wellspring of worry for modern laborers and for populaces living in contaminated territories, particularly in underdeveloped nations (Sethi et al., 2006). In the business, Cd introduction is risky both by inward breath and ingestion and can cause intense and unending inebriations.
1.1Discovery of the Intoxication and Hazardous Effect of Cadmium
The intense lethality impact of Cd was found as right on time as in nineteenth century (Sovet., 1854), this metal caused constant impacts in people was perceived substantially later with the principal reports of pneumonic, bone and renal injuries in modern laborers distributed in the late 1930s-1940s (Bulmer et al., 1938; Nicaud et al., 1942; Friberg., 1950).
It was the flare-up of the Itai-Itai bone malady in the 1960s in japan (Hagino and Yoshioka., 1961) that truly drew the consideration of people in general and regulatory bodies to the impact of this heavy metal that had been released in the earth at an uncontrolled rate for over a century. After these early reports of serious inebriation, various epidemiological and exploratory looks into were completed worldwide with a specific end goal to portray the danger of Cd and to evaluate the presentation levels from which this across the board toxin could debilitate human wellbeing. These looks into exhibited that Cd consumed by inward breath or ingestion can make irreversible harm a few fundamental organs, among which the most delicate organs are the kidney, the bone and the respiratory tract and reproductive organs (Bernard and Lauwerys., 1986).

1.2Extraordinary Cumulative Effect of cadmium
Cd has an exceptionally solid half-existence of around 30-40 years, when scattered in the earth can hold on in soils and residue for quite a long time. At the point when taken up by plants through soil, Cd focuses along the evolved way of life and at last amasses in the group of individuals eating sullied nourishment. Cd is additionally present in tobacco smoke, additionally adding to human presentation. By a wide margin, the most remarkable toxicological property of Cd is its incredibly long half-life in the human body. Once consumed, Cd irreversibly amasses in the human body, in especially in kidneys and other fundamental organs such the lungs or the liver. Notwithstanding its exceptional combined properties, Cd is additionally an exceedingly harmful metal that can upset various natural frameworks, as a rule at measurements that are much lower than most lethal metals (Järup et al., 1998; Sethi et al., 2006; Nordberg et al., 2007).
Vitamin C otherwise called ascorbic acid is a known cancer prevention agent introduce in the testis with the exact part of shielding it from the oxidative harm (Nayanatara et al., 2008). It additionally adds to the help of spermatogenesis through its ability to protect it from oxidative damage of free radicals. Vitamin C is itself kept up in a lessened state by a GSH-subordinate dehydroascorbate reductase which is abundant in the testicles. Vitamin C has been appeared to enhance sperm motility and improves semen quality and fruitfulness of rats (Rekha et al., 2009).

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Vitamin C works as a co-factor for different key proteins. It helps in the metabolic procedures of folic acid, tyrosine and tryptophan (Iqba et al., 2008). Vitamin C is prevalently known for its part in tissue development and wound mending impact (Kallner et al., 1979; Angulo et al., 2011) Moreover; it has a high strength for rummaging ROS in tissues (Brzozowski et al., 2001; Guaiquil et al., 1997). In an investigation including 30 infertile yet sound men, day by day supplementation of 200 mg and 100 mg vitamin C expanded sperm count by 112 and 140 percent separately. It is important that its fixation in the original plasma is 10-overlay higher than the serum (Dawson et al., 1987; Jacob et al., 1992). Clearly, it is a defender of human spermatozoa against oxidative harm by invalidating the impact of hydroxyl and superoxide radicals (Fraga et al., 1991). Semen tests with overabundance ROS are related with low grouping of vitamin C (Lewis et al., 1997). Also, a joined activity of vitamin C and E has been seen to shield the spermatozoa against peroxidative attack and DNA fragmentation (Acharya et al., 2008).
In recent years, vitamin C supplements have been broadly used in rats diet and the levels for improving creation and conceptive execution have been expanded a few overlap. Supplementation with Vitamin C has likewise been appeared to build add up to sperm yield and sperm fixation (Nayanatara et al., 2008; Rekha et al., 2009).

1.3STATEMENT OF PROBLEM OF THE RESEARCH
Due to the increasing level of infertility among couple and associated detrimental side effect in the usage of synthetic drugs (such as cialis, levitra, staryn etc) for the management of reproductive dysfunctions, this has warrant the search for a natural therapeutic cure and thus led to the investigation if ficus vogelii can potentiate or ameliorate altered sperm parameter.

1.4RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study should provide solution to the following problems which is
If exposure of male albino rats to Cadmium (Cd) will result in positive or negative effects on the testicular function?
If administration of ethanolic extract of ficus vogelii leaf will have a positive or negative effect on the testicular function in male albino rats?
If administration of ascorbic acid will have a positive or negative effect on the testicular function in male albino rats exposed to Cadmium (Cd)?
If the co-administration of Cadmium (Cd), ethanolic extract of ficus vogelii leaf plus Vitamin C. will have a positive or negative effect on the testicular function in male albino rats?
1.5JUSTIFICATION
The study will provide a baseline data for ethno-medical usage of ficus vogelii and when extrapolated to man suffering from altered sperm parameter (motility, morphology and count).

1.6AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study is to determine the effect of ethanol leaf extract of ficus vogelii, vitamin C and cadmium (Cd) on testicular function in male Wister rats and elucidate the ethno-medical claim of the use of the plant in treatment of reproductive dysfunction.
1.7SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE
To determine the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of ficus vogelii on the testicular function (sperm motility, morphology and count) in male Wister rats.

To determine the effect of Cadmium (Cd) on the testicular function (sperm motility, morphology and count) in male Wister rats.

To assess the effect of vitamin C, on the testicular function (sperm motility, morphology and count) in male Wister rats.
To evaluate the effect of co- administration of ethanolic leaf extract of ficus vogelii, vitamin C and Cadmium (Cd) on the testicular function (sperm motility, morphology and count) in male Wister rats.

Chapter with concentrations in a few countries.

Chapter One
1. Introduction
Roads are considered an essential public asset for administrative and strategic reasons and village accessibility has been a primary goal of rural road investments linked to minimum needs and basic minimum services programs (Asif, F. 2012).
There are approximately 700,000 kilometers of rural roads out of a total of over 1.02 million kilometers of road in SSA with concentrations in a few countries. Three countries (Nigeria, Cameroon and Côte d’Ivoire) have more than half the rural roads in West Africa, while Zaire, Zimbabwe, Madagascar and Tanzania account for more than two thirds of East African rural roads. The density of rural roads is low compared with other parts of the world. Nigeria has about 90 meters of rural road per square kilometer, but an acceptable ‘target’ density, based on Indian experience in areas with similar population densities to those in Nigeria, and would be about 730 meters. Density also varies widely within countries. In Kenya, highly populated provinces with abundant natural resources have 400 to 500 meters per square kilometer, falling to less than 30 meters in non productive areas. Sparse populations and low agricultural productivity mean that the burden of providing and maintaining an adequate rural road network falls more heavily on SSA populations than it does, for example, on the heavily populated and productive countries of Southeast Asia. Whereas road lengths per head of population are high, they are still low per unit of area (John,Juan,; Sydney,1990.4).
The need for a better rural transport infrastructure in SSA is pressing and obvious. The structural transformation from subsistence to market economy is dependent on transport. The potential gains in agricultural outputs and incomes, which is unlikely to occur without improved roads, would be sufficient to make the economic case for the level of expenditure mentioned above. In practically all countries, a rapid expansion of rural road networks would not be feasible unless adequate financial and institutional arrangements for planning construction and maintenance can be put in place (ibid).
The sparse densities and the low level of income in rural areas imply a heavier burden per capita. The all around weakness of rural infrastructure management capabilities severely constrains resource mobilization and maintenance. Hence, while Africa is underequipped in relation to its potential it is overburdened by the little infrastructure that it possesses (ibid).
The developing world, and especially the African continent, has a very poorly developed infrastructure, compared to middle- and high-income countries. On average, Sub-Saharan Africa has a road density of only approximately 200 meters of paved roads per km2 compared to 1400 meters in high-income OECD countries (Fay and Yepes, 2008 as cited in Hannah, 2014). Recently, enhancing transport infrastructures has been a vital strategy for sustainable development and poverty reduction in developing regions. Reducing poverty by half is one of the Millennium Development Goals in 2015. There is wide recognition that the poor not only have low level consumption but they are also less connected with inadequate access to basic services. The international community has thus been providing considerable support to build roads, rail ways, bridges, power plants, and some basic infrastructures with the objective of promoting economic growth (Lulit, 2012).
1.1. Background of the study
The Ethiopian Roads Authority (ERA) is a legally autonomous organization established on January 26, 1951. Ever since its establishment, the Authority has gone through a series of structural changes, the most recent one being in July 2011 by the Council of Ministers Regulation No. 247/2011. This regulation agrees with the split of the operational and regulatory wings as two independent entities, leaving ERA to focus on Road Network Development and Asset Management rather than construction and maintenance of same. Hence, the main objectives of ERA, as stated in the aforementioned regulation, are to develop and administer roads, create conducive conditions for the coordinated development of roads network, and ensure the maintenance of standards in road construction (Azeb, 2006).
The Government of Ethiopia has well recognized that limited road network coverage and
poor condition of the existing road network has been an impediment to economic recovery and economic growth. Therefore, to address the problems in the road sector; the
Government has launched the Road Sector Development Program (RSDP) in 1997. Since
then, four phases of RSDP were implemented over the period of 1997 – 2015 and the fifth
phase; RSDP V has been implemented since July 2015 ( ERA:2016:1).
RSDP has been financed from domestic sources including GOE, Road users through Road Fund Office and community, and foreign sources including bilateral and multilateral institutions. The Government has been major financer of RSDP followed by the World Bank. Development partners including the World Bank (WB), European Union (EU), African Development Bank (ADB), Nordic Development Fund (NDF), Bank of Arab for Economic Development in Africa (BADEA), OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID) and the Governments of Japan, Germany, U.K, Ireland, the Saudi Fund for Development, the Kuwait Fund and the Government of China have been involving in financing the Program. The recent donor which joined this effort is Abu Dhabi Fund (ERA 2016).
Roads are clearly a critical enabling condition for improving living conditions in rural areas. However, the distribution of socioeconomic benefits resulting from a rural road is a separate issue, and there are no guarantees or inherent mechanisms to ensure that these benefits will be distributed equitably between the poor and the non-poor in communities.
According to (World Bank, 2005. 4). The Government has a set vision to make public, economic and social services physically more accessible to the rural population. There remains a critical need to provide rural communities with transportation infrastructure and services that ensures permanent accessibility to social and government services, economic and business services, and better opportunities for employment and income generation. In response to this need, and as part of the RSDP-IV, Government is embarking on a Universal Rural Road Access Program (URRAP) that sets out to connect all Kebele by roads of a standard that provides all-weather, year round access, meets the needs of the rural communities, are affordable and maintainable.
As a catalyst, the URRAP is designed to improve rural livelihoods by reducing isolation for rural populations and to provide year round access to their markets, social and other services. The program focuses on poverty reduction and is an important poverty alleviation catalyst. It is seen as an essential pillar for delivery of GTP and our MDG targets and furthermore underpins Government’s actions and vision for expansion of all sectors of the economy (ibid).
The program recognizes the challenges faced by isolated communities and their constraints in trying to take part in our economic growth. The program provides a response to the voice of the rural poor who demand and have a basic right to access to transport, social and other services. As part of the RSDP, URRAP “joins up” and harmonizes all rural road infrastructure development under a single umbrella. The program unifies all efforts that provide improved road access (ibid).
URRAP is not prescriptive in its approach. It recognizes fully the local context, local needs, local capabilities and local realities and builds on and rolls out the experiences and lessons learned on the ground in Ethiopia through a number of key pilot programs and projects implemented over the last five years or so. The program promotes application of innovation, knowledge and learning (ibid).
URRAP is realistic and achievable in that it provides the opportunity to establish sustainable road access at an appropriate standard and affordable cost. The inclusion of labour-based approaches, community contributions and an expanded participation by the private sector are key elements. The program captures the preservation of assets through streamlining of sustainable maintenance and management systems, such as implementation of length-man approaches (ibid).
The program is multi-dimensional in its outlook and inclusive in its approach. It removes barriers and promotes participation from communities, private sector and all layers of government and as such is a facilitator for development. In its approach the program promotes road user safety, equality and protection of our environmental assets.
The vision for the Universal Rural Road Access Program is a clear and simple one: To free the country’s rural peoples from their access constraints, reduce rural poverty, improve welfare and opportunity, stimulate agro-productivity and share growth – a growth in which poor people benefit. In its mission, the Universal Rural Road Access Program will connect all Kebele by all-weather roads and will provide communities year round access. Road infrastructure will be of appropriate standards to meet the needs of the rural communities and will be affordable to build and maintain

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