CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION The world is facingenergy crisis because of overuse of conventional fuels in automobile, powergeneration and various thermal applications.
Imposition of emission norms bygovernment regulating bodies to reduce environmental pollution lead to searchfor cleaner burning fuel. The natural choice is nonconventional energy sources.One of the non-conventional energy resources is a biomass. Biomass is anorganic matter produced by plants, both terrestrial and aquatic and derivativesenergy from biomass can be acquired through conversion technologies such as:direct combustion, biochemical conversion and thermo chemical conversion.
Thermochemical conversion occurs two forms: gasification and liquefaction. In recent times, gaseous fuels are gainingprominence as cleaner fuels for power generation through internal combustionengine route; power generation package including both reciprocating engines andgas turbine machinery. Complete combustion with minimal emission is key featureof gaseous fuels and this feature is currently being exploited the world-overfor power generation purposes. Among the clean sources of fuel for powergeneration, natural gas had been exploited largely due to significant availabilityin specific locations. Similarly, there is also an impetus on using gasgenerated from industrial and municipal wastes, namely diluted natural gasbiogas and land-fill gas.
As distinct from gas generation from biological or organicwastes by biological conversion process, which limits to non-lignaceous matter,the thermo chemical conversion route (also termed gasification) can processsolid organic matter. Recently producer gas combustor finds its application indomestic area also. The range of biomass includes agro-residueslike rice husk, sugarcane trash and bagasse in compact or briquctted form. Theresultant gas known as `Producer gas’ can be used for fuelling a compressionignition (CI) engine in dual-fuel mode or a spark ignition (SI)engine in gas alone mode.
Harnessing of energy from biomass throughgasification route is not only proving to be economical.