CHAPTER greenhouse gas emissions. Architects are now obligated

CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION1:1: Topic Background:For many years, climate change has been an increasingly widespreadissue on Earth. Carbon dioxide and methane are two gases which are majorlyaffecting us on a global scale which are caused by humans and animals, they areclassified as greenhouse which majorly impact climate change.

As we can seefrom Figure 1, carbon dioxide makes up 65% of the total globalgreenhouse gas emissions. The Carbon dioxide emitted originates from’direct human-induced impacts’ (EPA, 2017) such as industrial processes andfossil fuel usage. figure1 Architectsmajorly impact the environment due to buildings which that they have designedas they do contribute towards greenhouse gas emissions. Architects are nowobligated to design sustainable buildings to slow down the rate at whichclimate change is occurring via greenhouse gases and lessen the damage to theenvironment.

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A sustainable building is defined as ‘a building that canmaintain or improve: 1. The quality of life and harmonise within the localclimate, tradition, culture, 2. Conserve energy, resources and recyclingmaterials, 3. Reduce the amount hazardous substances to which human and otherorganisms are (or may be) exposed and 4. The local and global ecosystemthroughout the entire building life-cycle’ (Srinivas, 2015). Therefore, the aimof sustainable buildings is to be energy efficient and to improve the qualityof health to the building occupants by saving natural resources for the future.

Aside from the constructionprocess which is harmful to the environment, buildings still affect theenvironment post-construction by using non-renewable resources such as fossilfuels for energy. Lighting systems in buildings contribute to harmingthe environment by consuming some of this energy. As we can see from figure 2, ‘Electricity accounts for nearly 20% of UK’stotal energy use’ (ECIU, 2016) According to the U.S. Department of energy, ‘lighting accounts for about 14% of all building electricity use(about 10% of home electricity)’ as well as 25% of commercial buildings.  (DOE, 2018)  figure 2 To help with such a pressing matter, we asthe consumers of electricity and lighting must find methods which can slow downthe climate change process.

One of these methods is sustainable lighting whichcan be defined as energy efficient lighting which can benefit the environmentas well as benefit the consumer. 1.2: Historical Context: In 1802, Humphry Davy invented the firstlight bulb by inventing an electric battery. When he connected his electricbattery to a strip of carbon using wires, the strip began to glow. In 1809,Davy publicly displayed his first electric lamp of over 10,000 lumens at theRoyal Society. In 1840, Warren De La Rue inserted a platinumfilament inside a vacuum tube.

An electric current was then passed through thetube which caused the platinum to glow. Although a scientific breakthrough, thebulb was not practical for production due to the cost of platinum. Soon after in 1850, British physicist JosephWilson Swan produced a ‘light bulb’ similar to an incandescent lamp howeverwith carbonised paper filaments in a partial vacuum.

However, the bulb’slifespan was too short to be the conventional means of light. After working onhis device for several years, by 1878 Swan produced a better version of hisdevice due to better vacuum pumps available in the 1870s. He changed hiscarbonised filaments for carbonised treated cotton thread.In 1878, Thomas Alva Edison worked onincreasing the longevity of Swan’s lamp. After numerous attempts, Edison used acarbonised bamboo filament which lasted for 1200-1500 hours. This invention wastherefore commercially manufactured in Edison’s company ‘Edison Electric LightCompany’.1.3:Dissertation Structure:The dissertation is divided into three chapter.

The first chapterfocuses on the nature of the topic studied which is climate change andsustainability, a look into the historical context of light bulbs and the aimsand objectives of the dissertation The second chapter is a comprehensive literature review focusing on thedifferent light bulbs available in the market, comparing the light bulbs tofind which is the most suitable for offices, , a detailed look into LEDtechnology, the effects lighting has on space users, governmental regulationsand lastly, lighting requirements in offices. The research obtained for thischapter was obtained from multiple sources including books, governmentaldocuments, journals and websites which have been respectively referenced.The final chapter will address the original key question by summarisingthe findings and drawing up final conclusions. This will in result answer thekey questions of the dissertation on the impact of LED technology in officespaces and show whether my hypothesis was initially valid. 1.4: Aims and Objectives:The aim of the dissertation is to explore LED technology, whether moreoffices should use LED lighting systems to benefit them, discuss the importanceof shifting to LED in offices as a more environmentally sustainable source oflight and the advantages and disadvantages of choosing LED technology.

Thequestions I would like to propose are: “Why is there a lack of LED technology used in offices? What effectsdoes LED lighting have on the space user; would LEDs be advantageous for theirwellbeing?” 1.5: Key Questions:·       Are space users’ health being affected by light?How?·       How is LED technology beneficial to offices and tothe environment?·       Why are LED lighting systems not the conventionallighting in offices?·       Is there a potential for more LED lightinginstalled in offices in the future? 1.6: Hypothesis:In the United Kingdom, there is minimal use of LED systems in offices.Considering LED technology is a fairly new innovation, there is still a lot ofresearch that can still be done and obstacles to tackle that can assure peoplethat converting to this method of lighting is the right option.

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