Chapter Memory Digital I/O Analogue I/O Arduino Uno

Chapter Two: ARDUINO2.

1Introduction 2.1.1Meaning of Term Arduino Arduino is a platform used for making electronics projects. Arduino consist of two units in whole , one is the physical or hardware programmable circuit board (often referred to as microcontroller) and second is the piece of software, or IDE (Integrated development environment) that runs on computer used to write and upload computer code to the physical board.Arduino works as brain of the projects made on it ,and act as the controller of the project. Arduino was first made at Ivera interaction Design Institute as an easy tool for fast prototyping for students without a background in electronics and programming.Unlike most older programmable circuits boards the arduino does not require a separate part of hardware in order to program a new code onto board you can just use a USB cable. Arduino uses a basic version of c++ , making it simpler to learn the program.

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Arduino boards offers a typical form factor that breaks out the function of microcontroller into a more variable package.2.1.2ARDUINO BOARDS There are different types of arduino boards available according to the processor, memory, digital I/O, analog I/O used in these boards.

The list of arduino board include :*Arduino Uno(R3)*Lilypad Arduino*Red Board*Arduino Mega(R3)*Arduino LeonardoArduino Board Processor Memory Digital I/O Analogue I/OArduino Uno 16Mhz ATmega328 2KB SRAM, 32KB flash 14 6 input, 0 outputArduino Due 84MHz AT91SAM3X8E 96KB SRAM, 512KB flash 54 12 input, 2 outputArduino Mega 16MHz ATmega2560 8KB SRAM, 256KB flash 54 16 input, 0 outputArduino Leonardo 16MHz ATmega32u4 2.5KB SRAM, 32KB flash 20 12 input, 0 output TABLE 2.1The term “open source hardware” in defining of arduino means that these arduino boards can be modified further for more form factors and functionality. There can be more derivatives of these boards.2.2Board Used (Arduino Uno R3)2.2.1Reason To Choose Arduino Uno R3 The Arduino Uno R3 is a best choice for us because it is the best for the students to get started initially in this field of Arduino.

It has got everything which are useful for initial start such has 14 digital input/output pins out of these 14 pins, 6 can be used as PWM output pins. 6 Analog input pins, a USB connection , Power Jack, Reset Button , Power Led Indicator, TX RX Leds, Main IC, Voltage Regulator.2.2.2Components of Arduino FIGURE 2.11) Power USB (USB Connector) Power USB acts as a way to connect the power source with Arduino . If the power supply is coming from the USB then we use power USB as a connector.

It is also used to load code into Arduino board.2)Barrel Jack (Power Connector) Barrel Jack is also used as a way to connect power source with Arduino . If the power supply is coming from wall power then we use Barrel Jack as a connector. Do not use the power supply greater than 20 volts. If the supply is greater than 20 volts there is overpowering of Aduino and due to this Arduino can destroy.

Suitable operating voltage for most Arduino boards is between 6 and 12 volts.PINSThe pins are the places on Arduino where we connect the wire coming from breadboard in order to implement a circuit.Made up of black plastics headers that allows you to just plug a wire right into the board.3)Ground Pins (GND) There are two ground pins on Arduino which are used to ground the circuit we are making on breadboard.

4)5V Pin The 5V pin supplies a power of 5 volt which is used to drive different components such as sensors.5)3.3V Pin The 3.3V pin supplies a power of 3.3 volt which is used to drive different components such as sensors. 6)Analog Pins The Analog pins as shown in Arduino given by “Analog In” from pin A0 to pin A5 on UNO used only as Analog input pins.

The pins are used to read signal/values from the the Analog sensor and convert it to a digital value that is understandable by microcontroller of Arduino.Each of analog input pins provide 10 bits of resolution(i.e 1024 different values of sensor).

By default they measure from ground to 5 volts though it is possible to change upper end of this range by using AREF pin.A4 and A5 are also known as SDA(Serial data) and SCL(Serial clock) pins for TWI communication using wire library. These are the two wires for communicate using I2C bus between I2C master and I2C device , and hence communication is know as Two wire interface.7)Digital Pins The Digital pins as shown in Arduino given by “Digital (PWM~)” from pin 0 to pin 13 on UNO can be used in both ways as Digital input pins or Digital output pins.

Out of these 14 pins some are also used as PWM output pins, Interrupts pins(2 and 3) to trigger interrupt at low values or rising edge or falling edge or due to change in value, pin 13 an inbuilt led and TX RX pins(used for serial communication). 8)PWM Pins The PWM output pins denoted by the symbol of “~” with the some of the Digital pins on UNO. These pins are 5, 6, 9, 10, 11 on UNO.

These pins normally acts as Digital pins but can also be used as PWM pins. The pulse width modulation allow us to vary how much time the signal is high in analog fashion. The PWM pins are able to simulate analog output. 9)Analog Reference(AREF) AREF pins used to set an external refrence voltage as an limit for the Analog input pins. 10)Reset Button The Reset Button on Arduino will act as a switch. When the switch is pressed it will temporarily connects the Reset pin to the ground and restart any code that is loaded in arduino at that time.

This pin can be very useful if your code does not repeat but you want to test it multiple times. Reset button will reset microcontroller when low.11)Power Led Indicator The Power led indicator is the small led located just below the point on the Board where UNO is written.This led always light up whenever we plug the Arduino to the Power source. If this light does not turn on there is a good chance that there is a fault in the circuit.12)TX RX LEDs The word TX stands for transmitter and RX stands for receiver. These types of definition of TX and RX are frequently used in electronics to indicate pins responsible for serial communication.

In this Arduino board there are two times these TX and RX appear i.e one time by the digital pins 0 and 1 , and second times on the indicator leds. These Leds will provide the information when the Arduino is transmitting data or receiving data by glowing that Led at the moment (for ex : when we are loading new program onto the board RX led will glow).13)MAIN IC (Microcontroller Ic ATMEGA328) The black thing with metal legs is know as the main IC also known as ATmega328 is a microcontroller which is the Brain of arduino. The IC is made by ATMEL.Main focus to understand that the Arduino board includes a microcontroller, and this microcontroller is what executes the program instruction.

If you know this the there is a difference between Arduino and ATmega328.The ATmega328 microcontroller is the microcontroller used in Arduino UNO as a controller. ATmega328 belongs to family AVR , it is an 8-bit device means it has data bus of 8 bit, internal registers are designed to handle 8 parallel data signals.ATmega328 has three types of memory:*Flash memory: 32KB nonvolatile memory.(for storing codes)*SRAM memory: 2KB volatile memory.(for storing variables used at time of running the code)*EEPROM memory: 1KB nonvolatile memory.

(for storing data that will be needed Arduino is switched on) Pin diagram of Atmega328 FIGURE 2.2Pin Number Description Function1 PC6 Reset2 PD0 Digital Pin (RX)3 PD1 Digital Pin (TX)4 PD2 Digital Pin5 PD3 Digital Pin (PWM)6 PD4 Digital Pin7 VccPositive Voltage (Power)8 GND Ground9 XTAL 1 Crystal Oscillator10 XTAL 2 Crystal Oscillator11 PD5 Digital Pin (PWM)12 PD6 Digital Pin (PWM)13 PD7 Digital Pin14 PB0 Digital Pin15 PB1 Digital Pin (PWM)16 PB2 Digital Pin (PWM)17 PB3 Digital Pin (PWM)18 PB4 Digital Pin19 PB5 Digital Pin20 AVCC Positive voltage for ADC (power)21 AREF Reference Voltage22 GND Ground23 PC0 Analog Input24 PC1 Analog Input25 PC2 Analog Input26 PC3 Analog Input27 PC4 Analog Input28 PC5 Analog Input TABLE 2.2Features Of Atmega328 CPU 8-bit AVRNumber of Pins 28Operating Voltage (V) +1.8 V TO +5.5VNumber of programmable  I/O lines 23Communication Interface Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface(17,18,19 PINS) Can be used for programming this controllerProgrammable Serial USART(2,3 PINS) Can be used for programming this controllerTwo-wire Serial Interface(27,28  PINS)Can be used to connect peripheral devices like Servos, sensors and memory devicesJTAG Interface Not availableADC Module 6channels, 10-bit resolution ADCTimer Module Two 8-bit counters with Separate Prescaler and compare mode, One 16-bit counter with Separate Prescaler,compare mode and capture mode.Analog Comparators 1(12,13 PINS)DAC Module NilPWM channels 6External Oscillator 0-4MHz @ 1.

8V to 5.5V0-10MHz @ 2.7V to 5.5V0-20MHz @ 4.5V to 5.5VInternal Oscillator 8MHz  Calibrated Internal OscillatorProgram Memory Type FlashProgram Memory or Flash memory 32Kbytes10000 write/erase cyclesCPU Speed 1MIPS for 1MHzRAM 2Kbytes Internal SRAMEEPROM 1Kbytes EEPROMWatchdog Timer Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip OscillatorProgram Lock YesPower Save Modes Six ModesIdle, ADC Noise Reduction, Power-save, Power-down, Standby and Extended StandbyOperating Temperature -40°C to +105°C(+105 being absolute maximum, -40 being absolute minimum) TABLE 2.314)Crystal Oscillator The silver colour plate behind barrel jack is known as crystal oscillator. Crystal oscillator is available with a frequency of 16 MHZ.

In Our project we have main use of this oscillator in calculating time taken by the level sensor signal in twice leg travel ,first leg before deflection from object and second leg after deflection from the object.14)Voltage Regulator The work of voltage regulator is similar as it name suggest. It will fix the voltage entering the Arduino. If the voltage greater thanvoltage given by voltage regulator trys to enter Arduino , it will be stopped by this Voltage regulator.15)Icsp pin Icsp pin generally consist of MOSI, MISO, RESET, VCC, GND, SCK all these things together makes icsp pin which is nothing but AVR (small program header for arduino).The oher name given to iscp pin is SPI(serial peripheral interface). SPI can be taken as expansion of the output. The output device is a slave to the master of SPI bus which is used for programming this microcontroller.

2.3Arduino Advantages1) Inexpensive: Due to this less cost of Arduino can be used by students easily to make DIY PROJECTS.2)Less hardware: During the period of code uploading it does not require extra hardware, uses a bootloader of 0.5 kb of space which allow program to burn directly to ckt.3)Compatibility : Can be used with all types of operating system such as windows, linux etc.

4)Open Source Hardware : This is the thing which help the user to make their individual kit by taking guide with available kit.5)Open Source Software : This is the thing which help the programmers to merge the Arduino code with existing programming language libraries.6)Convenient : All the peoples who are using arduino for the first time it is easy to understand and people get used to it in less time due to this quality.Therefore people who are starting from their first project are generally advised to work on Arduino than any other microntroller.7)Easy Connections : The uno can be connected easily with the computer cpu by using the usb port of cpu and can transfer code by using serial communication.The serial communication is decided by the transmitter and receiver pins on the Arduino.

2.4Arduino Architecture FIGURE 2.3Arduino processor uses the architecture in which the program code and program data have individual separate memory.

There are two memories one is program memory and the other one is data memory. The code is stored in the memory which is known as flash program memory and the data is stored in the data memory.Atmega 328 has 32kb of flash memory for storing code out of this 32kb , 0.5kb is used for the storing code by the bootloader, 2kb of SRAM, 1kb of EEPROM and operates with cock speed of15MHZ.

2.5Programming of Arduino In Arduino is the program can be directly loaded to the device without usng any hardware programmer to burn the program, this all is done by 0.5kb bootloader which makes the program to burn into the circuit directly.All we need for direct loading is Arduino software IDE on which code is written.STEPS TO PROGRAM ARDUINODeclaration of variables.Inialization: written in setup() function.Control code: written in loop() function.

Sketch is saved with .ino extension.(in sketch book directory).Choose the proper board from tool menu and the serial port number. And then click on the upload button then code uploaded by bootloader onto the microcontroller. Arduino Basic Functions digitalRead(pin): Reads the digital value at the given pin. digitalWrite(pin, value): Writes the digital value to the given pin.

pinMode(pin, mode): Sets the pin to input or output mode. analogRead(pin): Reads and returns the value. analogWrite(pin, value): Writes the value to that pin. serial.

begin(baud rate): Sets the beginning of serial communication by setting the bit rate.2.6Making of Arduino Parts needed to make an Arduino are Breadboard, a Led, a Power Jack, a IC socket, a Microcontroller atmega328, few resistors , 2 capacitors, 2 regulators. STEPS TO MAKE First of all put Power Jack and IC socket on board by soldering. Then by using capacitor and regulators make 5v and 3.3 v regulator ckts.Make power connection to MCU pins.The reset pin of IC socket attached with 10k resistor and then to reset puch button.Attach crystal oscillator to pins 9, 10.Connect the Power led.Attach the pins with female headers.Alternative should be kept with 6 male headers to upload program.Upload the code on MCU of readymade Arduino.

CHAPTER of previous literature related to lean

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 IntroductionThis chapter entails a review of theories related to this study, a review of previous literature related to lean practices, implementation of lean programs to supply networks, empirical literature review and a conceptual framework of the study. 2.2 Theoretical FrameworkIn this section, the research introduces and explores the Theory of constraints (TOC) and Systems Hypothesis and in respect to this research.

2.2.1 Theory of Constraints (TOC) The focus of the TOC theory is to maximize the system’s performance (Gupta ; Andersen, 2012).

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Three global measures identified for the TOC theory for evaluating organizational performance toward the goal of the company are finished goods, inventory, and operating expenses (Gupta ; Andersen, 2012). These three measures are company -level operational measures of performance and may be used by the company’s management to achieve continuous improvement (Gupta & Andersen, 2012). In addition, Gupta and Andersen (2012) stated that the TOC’s primary assumption is that at least one constraint in each system limits the ability of achieving higher levels of performance relative to its goals. Any organization can improve its performance and move toward achieving its goals by improving the weakest operating activity (Rhee et al., 2010).

When an organization removes the constraint, and moves to a higher level of production or service, a new constraint appears and the cycle of managing the system with respect to the new constraint resumes (Gupta ; Andersen, 2012).SCM is the basis for a firm’s competitive advantage because it enables the firm to lower operation costs, increase the service reliability, decrease the inventory level, reduce order cycle time, lower the number of backorders, improve customer satisfaction, and improve overall competitive advantage (Talib & Hamid, 2014). Oglethorpe and Heron (2013) used the TOC technique to distinguish and overcome the operational, supply chain blockades, and constraints that happen in the pharmaceutical supply chains, particularly with smaller producers, as they look to build market penetration over a more extensive geographic territory. Oglethorpe and Heron (2013) observed that the TOC approach provides an advancement of knowledge in the area of pharmaceutical supply chain analysis and is done in a way that is more viable in use.

Further, Oglethorpe and Heron (2013) prescribed seven general classes to conquer the operational obstructions: constraints due to the nature of the market, due to scale and the nature of products; constraints related to employment and skills; institutional imperatives; constraints in supply chain relationships; certification, policy, and regulatory constraints; and constraints on individual convictions and humanoid attribution. 2.2.

2 Systems Hypothesis According to Ackoff (1981), a system is an arrangement of more than two interrelated components that operate by at bare minimum every component influencing one other component. Systems hypothesis incorporates design, developing of connections and how they function in solidarity towards a shared objective (Laszlo, 1995a). Organizational activities supply chain links and interphases form the system segments to this theory.

These interphases together shape well-knit cross-connected operations designs that work interactively in accomplishing a definitive supply operation chain goal (Bertalanffy, 1968). Flynn, (2011) demonstrates that general consequences of a lean operations supply chain is credited to the systems theory’s aggregate intervention areas, in which all chain operators together contribute to formulate, institutionalization and usage of lean tools and procedures. This gives an ideal scientific approach to continuous improvement and subsequently performance as every one of these connected activities. 2.3 Lean Practices Providing for the Seven Muda Model one of the fundamental strides in the execution of a Kaizen system, is the determination of the appropriate devices for the application of Kaizen methodology in each organization or industry (Imai, 2012). In view of articles published by a several writers, this segment presents data gathered on some Lean instruments and the examples on the application of these instruments. These entails lean practices systems such as Value Stream Mapping (VSM), 5s, Just–In-Time (JIT), Kaizen (Continuous Improvement), Kanban (Pull System), Heijunka (Level Scheduling), Jidoka (Automation), SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die), TPM (Total Productive Maintenance), and Visual Management.Kaizen Strategy Planning (KSP) is an instrument created by Kaizen Institute whose primary objective is to design and plan the program of ceaseless change and social change of an organization or association.

The KSP is directly identified with the mapping and planning of the organization’s Value chain and is a simplification of the VSM in the following four stages: analysis of the present circumstance, in which the targets and extent of the strategy are clarified, with the quantification of the present state and identification of the improvement suggestions; overview of Kaizen Strategy, which comprises of the prioritization of the activities proposed in the previous stage; Strategic Improvement Plan – planning feasible activities to implement in a transient period; and follow-up, creation of a mission control room and impression of the lessons learned so as to enhance knowledge (Kaizen Organization, 2014). The principle focus of this tool is the advancement of a strategic plan for persistent change through demonstrating how to enhance QCDM indicators (quality, cost, delivery, motivation) and explain the role of leadership and support of a constant improvement program bolstered (Kaizen Establishment, 2014). The Five S (5S) 5S is a tool that intends to shop floor organization and adds to great condition and functionality of all workplaces, by cleaning, housekeeping and disciplining (Melton, 2005). Like the name specifies, the tool is divided in five stages: sort (seiri) – remove superfluous things; straighten (seiton) – arrange the items so they can be effortlessly picked; shine(seiso) – clean the work environment; standardize (seketsu) – maintain the three past steps; and sustain (shitsuke) – keep all the standards in order (Imai, 2012).The objective of Visual Management is to outwardly distinguish the area of work. It is used to help communicate, as well as to help highlight anomalies and to abstain from committing errors (Tenera e Pinto, 2014).The improvement of visual management is portrayed as a one amongst the best Lean tools and one of whose effect is felt quickly, as its viable application to production systems adds to the rapid increment of the primary indicators of performance: safety, quality and productivity, acting as an interface amongst employees and production system (Murata and Katayama, 2010).Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) was developed by Shingeo Shingo at a time Taiichi Ohno was implementing Just-in-Time in Toyota, One of Taiichi Ohno’s principle objectives was to produce smaller, more regular batches to create flow and eradicate stocks.

In this setting he employed Shingeo Shingo with the motivation behind lessening the changeover times with the goal of producing smaller batches without diminishing productivity (Ferradas ; Salonitis, 2013). SMED methodology is divided in five steps: observing the present methodology; isolating the internal and external activities; converting internal activities to external; reducing the internal activities; and finally reducing the external activities (Shingo, 1985). Upon combining these five steps, Shingo reached unexpectedly positive results in reducing changeover times, but the general success rate was only accomplished when all the people whose duties were involved in change were incorporated, such as the cleaning crew, the maintenance team, the quality division and all providers of materials and tools needed to implement the changes. Hence, it is concluded that it is not only necessary to contemplate the system but also achieving the commitment of all employees included. (Almomani et al., 2013).The Kanban system was created as a subsystem of Toyota Production System with the goal of controlling stock levels, production orders and the supply of parts and raw materials. Kanban is entails a control mechanism that enhances material flow and screens the production of the required items in the right amount at the appropriate time (Lage Junior e Godinho Filho, 2010).

2.4 Implementing lean programs to supply networksKenyan pharmaceutical manufacturers operate in an intricate atmosphere since their production process entails multiple inter-related processes that use various materials from several distinct suppliers. Many of these manufacturers have implemented lean practices to reduce waste, cost, cycle time and variability in outputs (Altria and Carleysmith 2009). Reports show that pharmaceuticals manufacturers applying lean have lowered cycle time and enhanced efficiency of manufacturing and procurement processes (Altria and Carleysmith, 2009). Research of Azagedan et al.

(2013) has discovered that the ecological vulnerability influences lean operations and lean procurement practices. As a result, intricate atmospheres lender it more problematic to detect, diagnose and respond to challenges. For instance, in an intricate supply chain, it may be difficult to diagnose whether a production shortfall was due to a quality issue in the raw material, a late conveyance from a provider, or an internal procedure issue that happened during final assembly. Complex atmospheres also enhance the possibility of operational errors. For instance, firms in a more intricate atmosphere have more providers, which intensifies the chances of errors in projecting raw material requirements and handling in -bound logistics (Azadegan, Patel et al. 2013).

The higher levels of volatility and uncertainty in changing environments undermines lean operations to harmonize production process and reduce inventory, which undermines the efficacy of lean operations (Azadegan, Patel et al. 2013). Previous researches define supply chain integration as a competitive resource that manufacturers use to create economic rents and that this could influence general performance positively. Supply chain integration can be realized through adoption of; supplier involvement, knowledge transfer, lean program commitment and lean program alignment strategies.Currently, firms view supply chain management through integration as a vital apparatus to expand their competitive edge. Supply chain traverse all movement and storage of raw material, work-in-progress inventory, and finished merchandise from point of origin to point of consumption (Qrunfleh and Tarafdar 2013). This is to say, a strategic supply chain signifies a set of practices that complete key tasks in support of its network methodology such as building relationship with suppliers, eliminating waste, facilitating customization, and exchange of information within the supply chain (Li et al.

, 2005; Li et al., 2006; Wong et al., 2005; Zhou and Benton, 2007). These practices are believed to represent the most important forms of integration that are employed in supply network: external integration (observed through tactical supplier partnership) and delivery integration (observed through postponement) (Frohlich and Westbrook 2001). Strategic supplier partnership is the lasting bond between the organization and its suppliers, which affects the tactical and operational competences of participating companies to help them realize substantial constant benefits (Li, Rao et al. 2005).


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