CHRONIC class of cigarette use and indirect

CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVEPULMONARY DISEASE                                                          2                       Chronic obstructivepulmonary disease is a phrase used to discuss ongoing lung diseases includingchronic bronchitis, emphysema, refractory asthma, etc. (Kleinschmidt, P. 2014,June 06)  This condition is distinguishedby increasing breathlessness. Some of  the warning of COPD can be  sputum making also immedicable cough,  and awful life threatening breathing particular individuals, chronic cough an sputum production are the firstsigns that they are at chance for developing the airflow obstruction andshortness of breath that is trait of this disease.

in others, shortness ofbreath could be the main suggestion of this problem.  According to the World Health Organization,COPD was the main cause of death worldwide in 2006. Also millions people passaway from this condition in countries as diverse as different continentals inthe world. ( Jørgen Vestbo, J.

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(2013, February 15)               Cigarette smoking is, by far,the most important risk factor for COPD. pipes, cigar, and other class of cigaretteuse and indirect disclosure to smoke are also risk factors. further risk factorsfor COPD that have been pinpointed include, vulnerability to industrialpollutions and recurrent lung sickness, airway hyperresponsivenes, andsocioeconomic factors.     COPD is distinctive by a chronicinflammatory response throughout the airway, lung tissues, and pulmonaryvasculature. with this chronic inflammatory response, macrophages,T-lymphocytes, and neutrophils are increased in various parts of the lung. Theinflammatory process of COPD lead to repeated cycles of injury and repair ofthe airway wall. The repair   CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVEPULMONARY DISEASE                                                       3process results instructural remodeling of the airway wall with increasing collagen content andscar tissue formation, which narrows the lumen and produces fixed airway obstruction.

        Regardless of the lung diseasepredominating in the patient with COPD, hypoxia can cause by long termventilation perfusion mismatch.   Dependingon the lung disease present, various symptoms including barrel chest, cyanosis,and clubbing may occur. (Mosenifar, Z. 2014, October 30)           Several classes of medications areused to decrease symptoms and complications of COPD, although they have notbeen shown to modify the long-term decline in lung function of such patients.Medications commonly used include beta-adrenergic agonists, anticholinergics,corticosteroids, methylxanthines, and a combination of one or more of these drugs.(NHLB,2017) For COPD patients Bronchodialtors are recommended treatment.  They will help with ventilations improvementand to reduce airway obstruction. Oxygen delivery is actually considered aprescription therapy and is to be administered with great caution.

In advancedCOPD, oxygen therapy for more than 15 hours per day quality of life with getterand survival rate.          the patient with COPD requires considerablepatient and family teaching. patients do well in a climate with low shifts in coldor heat, and no extremes of any weather conditions. (Algusti, A. G. 2017,April).

 The patient and family can betaught to avoid environmental and occupational irritants, how to userespiratory devices, and how to correctly use oxygen delivery systems. Inaddition, the patient can be instructed to have good nutrition and avoid excessweight gain or loss and to avoid substances, such as nicotine, alcohol, anddrugs. CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVEPULMONARY DISEASE                                                           4My patient has a historyof COPD, due to long term smoking, for many years. For treatment my patient istaking albuterol 2.

5 mg and ipratropium bromide. during discharge the patientand family are educated on smoking cessation and management and treatments forCOPD.                                                           SummaryCOPD may not be able tocompletely reversible and it is increase in restrictions in breath intakes.  that is not fully reversible.

The airflowlimitation is associated with an inflammatory response of the lungs to noxiousgases. There are many causes and smoking is the primary cause. As a health careworker we should be able to teach the family and the patients on how to care a  patient with this condition, how to manageand the importance of not smoking.


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