Complex. the. players.. Nowadays,. Complex. training. has.

Complex. TrainingAbstract. Complex. training.

refers. to. a. training. mode. which. combines. strength.

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exercises. with. a. comparable. plyometric. exercises. to.

improve. strength. and. power. of. the. players.

. Nowadays,. Complex. training.

has. gained. popularity. as. a. better.

training. strategy.. The. success. of. Complex.

training. is. well. supported. by. research,. studies. and.

reports. Recently,. several. researches,.

studies. and. reports. also. recommend following.

complex. training. method. in. order.

to. improve. muscular.

power. and. performance. of.

players. particularly. for. volleyball. and. basketball.IntroductionComplex. training.

(CT). is. a.

training. method. designed. to. improve. both. strength. and.

power. in. the. same. training. session. with. the.

combination. of. strength.

training. and. plyometric. training.

. Before. 1986,. Complex. training.

is. a. secret. Russian.

training. method. designed. to.

increase. strength. and. power.

Fleck. and. Kontor. wrote. the. ?rst.

peer-reviewed. article. on. Complex. training.

after. visiting. the. Soviet. Union. in. 1986.

. The. author. describes. that,. the. procedure. of.

Complex. training. is. performed. by. the. use. of.

a. heavy. resistant.

exercise. followed. by. a. lighter. exercise.

of. a. similar. biomechanical. movement. pattern.. The.

heavy. resistant. exercise. also. referred. to. as. the.

training. activity,. can. be.

in. the. form. of. a.

slow. speed/. high. load. exercise. or.

a. high. speed/moderate. load. exercise. (i.e.

,. 4. to. 12. repetition.

maximum).. The. pairing. of. 2.

biomechanically. similar. exercises. (i.

e.,. squats. and.

vertical. jumps). is. termed.

a. “complex. pair”.

Complex. training. combines. a. slow,. heavy.

strength. exercise.. The. idea.

is. to. use. the slow, heavy. movement.

to. maximally. recruit. the. nervous.

system. and. then. take. advantage. of. that. with.

the. fast. exercise.

. More. specifically,. complex. training. alternates. biomechanically. similar.

strength. training. exercises. with. plyometric. exercises.

in. the. same. workout.. For.

example. set. of. squats. followed. by. a. set.

of. squat. jumps,. etc.. Previously,. Ebben.

and. Watts. (1998). reviewed. the. complex. training.

literature. and. described. the. success.

of. combining. strength. training. and. plyometric. training.

. Further,. the. authors. suggested. for. designing.

complex. training. programs,. and. recommended.

research. to. assess. the. possible success. of. complex.

training.. The. purpose. of. this.

article. is. to. know. about. the.

facts. of. Complex. training.

Complex. Training. Complex. training. integrates. strength. training,.

plyometric. training,. and. sometimes. sport-specific. movement.. Complex.

training. is. a. training. method.

with. a. combination. of. several. different.

exercises. in. to. one.

i.e.,. strength. exercise. often.

resistance. based. followed. by. a. matched.

plyometric. exercise. e.g.• Squats. followed.

by. Squat. jumps.• Split. leg.

squats. followed. by. Lateral. bounds.

(Ice. skaters).The.

logic. behind. these. matched. pair.

of. exercises. is. that. the.

resistance. work. gets. the. Central. Nervous.

System. (CNS). into. full.

action. so. that. more. muscle. ?bres.

are. available. for. the. explosive. exerciseso. as.

to. achieve. a. better. training. bene?t. Complex. training,.

also. known. as.

contrast. training. or.

Post-Activation. Potentiation training,. involves. the. integration. of. strength. training.

and. plyometric. in. a.

Training system. designed. to. improve. explosive.

power.. According. to. Robbins,. Post-Activation.

Potentiation. (PAP). is. a. phenomenon.

by. which. the. force. exerted.

by. a. muscle. is. increased. due.

to. its. previous. contraction.

. Post-activation. potentiation. is. a. theory. that.

purports. that. the. contractile. history. of. a. muscle.

influences. the. mechanical. performance. of. subsequent. muscle.

contraction.. Players needs. to. be. physically. fresh.

and motivated. to. achieve.

best. benefit. from.

Complex. training.. Hard. aerobic.

or. anaerobic. sessions. for. at.

least. 48. hours. before. a. complex. session. are.

should avoid.. Avoid. any. static.

stretching. exercises. as. this. will. relax. the. muscles. and. reduce. force. production. potential.. Correct. rest. periods. be. ensured.Thus. Complex. training. improves. sports. performance. of. players. particularly. for. volleyball. and. basketball.Training. MethodsA. complex. training. set. involves. performing. two. exercises. back. to. back,. with. a. brief. rest. period. in. between.. Generally,. complex. training. program. can. be. used. in. three. phase’s viz general. phase,. speci?c. phase. and. competition. phase. of. training.. According. to. Brandon. (1999). the. following. are. example. workouts. for. each. phase.? General. PhaseIn. general. phase. the. players. should. complete. all. sets. of. the. strength. exercise. with. a. recovery. of. 60. seconds/set. followed. by. a. three. minute. rest. and. then complete. all. sets. of. the. matched. plyometric. exercise. with. a. recovery. of. 90. second/set. e.g.. Exercise Reps Rest/SetSquats 3. ×. 6. RM 60. secondsSplit. Leg Squats 3. ×. 6. RM 60. seconds3. minutes. restSquat Jumps 3. ×. 6 90. secondsLateral. bounds. (Ice. skaters) 3. ×. 6 90. seconds3. ×. 6. RM. means. 3. sets. with. 6. repetitions. max. (RM).? Speci?c. PhaseIn. the. speci?c. phase. the. plyometric. exercises. must. be. speci?c. to. your. sport/event.. The. Players should. perform. one. set. of. strength. exercise. immediately. followed. by. one. set. of. the. Plyometric. exercise. e.g.. 6. squats,. 6. squat. jumps,. 3. minutes. rest,. 6. squats,. 6. squat. jumps. (with. minimal. recovery. between. the. squats. and. squat. jumps).Exercise Reps Rest/ExerciseSquats ;S quat. jumps 3. ×. 6. (8RM). 3. ×. 6 3. minutesSplit. Leg. Squats ; Lateral. bounds. (Ice. skaters) 3. ×. 6. (8RM). 3. ×. 6 3. minutes. 3. ×. 6. (8RM). means. 3. sets. of. 6. repetitions. with8. repetitions. max. (RM).? Competition. PhaseIn. the. competition. phase. the. plyometric. exercises. must. be. speci?c. to. your. sport/event.. Same. training. as. in. specific. phase. is. followed. in. completion. phase. with. an. increase. in. repetitions.. The. Players should. perform. one. set. of. strength. exercise. immediately. followed. by. one. set. of. the. Plyometric. exercise. with. maximum. repetitions. e.g.. 6. squats,. 6. squat. jumps,. 5. minutes. rest,. 6. squats,. 6. squat. jumps. (with. minimal. recovery. between. the. squats. and. drop. jumps).. Exercise Reps Rest/ExerciseSquats ; SquatJumps 3. ×. 6. (12RM). 3. ×. 6 5. minutesSplit. Leg. Squats ;. Lateral. bounds. (Ice. skaters) 3. ×. 6. (12RM). 3. ×. 6 5. minutes3. ×. 6. (12RM). means. 3. sets. of. 6. repetitions. with12. repetitions. max. (RM).Note.. Proper. Warm. up/dynamic. stretching. before. beginning. and. Cool. down. /static. stretching. after. finishing. complex. training. must. be. ensured.BenefitsComplex. training. allows getting. a. lot. of. work. done. in. the. shortest. possible. time.. By. combining. several. exercises. into. one. extended. exercise. the. training. time. as. well. as. total. work. output. is. maximized.. Complex. training. greatly. increases. intensity. due. to. the. nature. of. its. effect.. It. is. a. great. training. tool. to. prepare. the. body. for. intense. activity.. It. builds. muscle. stamina. and. endurance.. By. combining. different. exercises. into. one. exercise. you. can. target. multiple. muscle. groups. at. once.. This. improve. muscle. activity. and. the. need. to. flexible. the. muscles. with. energy. so. that. the. body. work. harder. to. breakdown. carbohydrate. molecules. which. can. be. used. for. energy.. More. calories. are. burned. when. the. body. works. harder. to. breakdown. carbohydrates.. Complex. training. workout. is. a. great. way. to. burn. maximum. total. calories.. As. complex. training. is. somewhat. similar. to. circuit. training,. it. also. creates. somewhat. of. a. cardiovascular. effect. in. the. body.Effects’Complex. training. allows. the. players. to. work. the. muscle. fibres. in. conjunction. with. the. nervous. system. in. such. a. way. that. the. slow-twitch. fibres. are. taught. to. behave. like. fast-twitch. fibres. Such. a. process. is. also. referred. to. as. muscle. fibre. type. shifting. Moreover. increase. in. fast-twitch. muscle. fibres. from. slow-twitch. muscle. fibres. occurs. due. to. the. long. term. training. effects. of. complex. training. Generally,. the. aim. of. complex. training. is. to. stimulate. the. players. to. develop. more. muscle. fibres. by. which. strength. can. be. expressed. quickly. for. greater. power. generation. The. way. complex. training. works,. in. theory,. is. that. the. isometric. part. of. the. exercise. will. cause. the. muscle. fibres. which. are. typically. recruited. for. a. given. movement. to. become. fatigued.. The. sport. specific. plyometric. movement. which. immediately. follows. the. isometric. movement. will. then. require. the. neuromuscular. system. to. recruit. new. muscle. fibres,. since. the. fibres. typically. recruited. are. now. fatigued.. The. end. result. is. that. more. muscle. fibres. are. recruited. when. performing. a. particular. movement. enabling. you. to. jump. higher. or. do. a. more. difficult. move.’. Conclusion. The. ambition. in. a. complex. training. regime. is. not. just. to. achieve. better. results. in. an. individual. workout. but. also. to. condition. the. players. so. that. they. can. perform. more. powerfully. as. a. standard. Subjective explanation,. previous. research,. studies. and. reports. on. the. topic. suggest. complex. training. is. an. area. of. interest. for. training. professionals.. Empirically. minded. professionals. have. responded. with. data. to. guide. the. application. of. complex. training. While. implementing. Complex. training. the. factors. such. astraining. age,. training. history,. degree. of. absolute. strength,. exercise. selection,. load,. duration. of. the. session,. and. days. of. recovery,. as. well. as. which. individual. is. a. responder. to. the. training. activity. should. be. considered.. The. goal. of. complex. training. over. long-term. training. is. to. intensely. enhance. power. output. in. tasks. such. as. volleyball. and. basketball.. Hence,. complex. training. is. an. efficient. way. to. improve. strength. and. power. of. players.References. Adams. K.J.. “Plyometric. Training. at. Varied. Resistance:. Effects. on. Vertical. Jump. in. Strength. Trained. Women”,. Medicine. and. Science. in. Sports. and. Exercise,2001.. . Brandon,. R.. (1999). Jumpers,. Throwers. and. sprinters. can. improve. their. results. by. using. the. Complex. system. Peak. Performance,. 114,. p.. 2-5. Conroy. T.R.,. “Plyometric. Training. and. it’s. Effects. on. Speed,. Strength. and. Power. of. Inter-Collegiate. Athletes”,. Abstract,. Microform. Publication. Bulletin,. 1991.. . Docherty. D.,. D.,. Robbins. and. Hodgson. MJ.. The. application. of. post-activation. potentiation. to. elite. sport. Int. J. Sports. Physiol. Perform. 2:. 439–444,. 2007.. Docherty,. D.,. Robbins,. D.. W.. ;. Hodgson,. M.. Complex. training. revisited:. a. review. of. its. current. status. as. a. viable. training. approach. Strength. and. Conditioning. Journal.26:. 52-57.. 2004.. Ebben. (2002). Complex. Training:. A. brief. review.. Journal. of. Sports. Science. and. Medicine. 1,42-46. Ebben. WP. and. Watts. PB.. A. review. of. combined. weight. training. and. plyometric. training. modes:. Complex. training.. Strength. Cond. J. 20:. 18–27,. 1998.. Fleck. S. and. Kontor. K.. Soviet. strength. and. conditioning:. Complex. training.. Strength. Cond. J. 8:. 66–68,. 1986.. Fleck,. S.. ;Kontor,. K.. Complex. Training.. National. Strength. and. Conditioning. Association. Journal.8:. 66-69.. 1986.. Fleck,. S.. and. Kontor,. K.. (1986). Complex. Training.. National. Strength. Conditioning. Association. Journal. 8(5),. 66-68.. Gossen,. R.. E.. ;. Sale,. D.. G.. Effect. of. Post-activation. potentiation. on. dynamic. knee. extension. performance. European. Journal. of. Applied. Physiology.83:. 524-530.. 2000.. Hardayal. Singh. (1984). Sports. Training. General. Theory. and. Methods,. First. Edition,. Published. by. the. publication. unit,. Netaji. Subhas. National. Institute. of. Sports,. Patiala,. printed. by. Roy. Manglajat. Phalkian. Press. pultain. mar,. Patiala,. January,. p-16.. Jua´rez. D,. Gonza´. lez-Rave´. JM,. and. Navarro. F.. Effects. of. complex. vs. non. complex. training. programs. on. lower. body. maximum. strength. and. power.. IsokinetExercSci. 17:. 233–241,. 2009.. Kubachka,. E.. M.,. ;. Stevens,. W.. C.. (1966).. The. effects. of. plyometric. training. and. strength. training. on. the. muscular. capacities. of. the. trunk.. Medicine. and. Science. in. Sports. and. Exercise,28(5),. Supplement. abstract. 1145.. Larson,. G.S.,. Mynark,. R.,. Hackney,. A.C.,. Rubin,. D.A.,. (2003). The. effect. of. plyometric. training. with. a. weight. vest. on. lower. extremity. power. in. volleyball. players.Unpublished. master’s. thesis,. The. University. of. North. Carolina,. Chapel. Hill,. NC.. May. CA,. Cipriani. D,. and. Lorenz. KA.. Power. development. through. complex. training. for. the. Division. I. collegiate. athlete.. Strength. Cond. J. 32:. 30–43,. 2010.. Tricoli,. V.,. Lamas,. L.,. Carnevale,. R.,. and. Ugrinowitsch,. C.. (2005). Short-term. effects. on. lower. body. functional. power. development:. weightlifting. vs.. vertical. jump. training. programs.. Journal. of. Strength. and. Conditioning. Research,. 19(2),. 433-437.. Vinod. Kumar. G.,. “Comparative. Effect. of. Weight. Training. and. Associated. Exercise. To. Develop. Strength. and. Speed. for. Inter. Collegiate. Athletes”,. Journal. of. Studies. in. Physical. Education. and. Sports. Sciences,. 1:1,. December,. 2004.


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