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Contents Page What you believe to be the qualities of a good teacher ……………………………….. 01 A teacher should be the eclectic in their approach to language teaching discuss this statement. ………03 Explain how you might introduce the present simple to a class of beginners.07 Explain how you contrast the past simple and present perfect to class of intermediate leaners..13 Explain in your own words the different between an error and a mistake…………19 Explain why it is useful to have a rough guide to which structures are suited to which level.21 Set out your ideas on how..25 a). Realia b). Magazine Pictures Can be used within a lesson Transcribe the sentences below in to phonetic script.28 a). It had been a hot summer and I was expected a bumper crop of raspberries and gooseberries b). It was a great pity that the train was late as it meant I might now be in danger of missing my plain. 9. Why do you think it is important for the teacher to have a basic Understanding of phonology ……………………………………………………………………………………29 10. Choose a picture of your own and build a 15 minute activity around that picture for a class of intermediate students..31 11. Explain some of the ways that video and DVD clips can be used in the ELT class room…34 12. Accuracy is more important than fluency Discuss this statement36 13. Describe an activity that might be used to improve the learners writing skills..37 14. Set out the difference between intensive and extensive listening…39 15. Select a text of 150 words suitable for class of upper intermediate learners and devise and activity to improve the leaners skills at skimming a text.41 16. What are the main reasons that we make use of learner interaction (pair and group work) in the class room …………………………………………………………………….43 17. Write a full lesson plan to practise Asking for directions for a class of elementary learners for a 60 minute lesson…45 18. Take a song and devise a lesson plan using that song for a 45 minute lesson to 15/16 years old…49 What you believe to be the qualities of a good teacher A teacher cant teach a subject well, unless they truly understand it and enjoy learning more about it. They need to keep up to date with new developments and new findings, and they will want to share these with their students. A good teacher will read a newspaper article and immediately think that they need to cut it out so they can talk to their class about it. Good teachers will be respectful of all their students and expect respect in return. They know how to structure a class, both academically and in terms of student behavior, so that the class runs smoothly and each student can learn as best they can. They use various methods of teaching–some students learn visually, some editorial some kinesthetically, and some by a combination of these. Good teachers also recognize that some students have trouble sitting for a long period of time and therefore they break up the lesson so that students can move around from time to time. Holding students to high but realistic standards encourages learning and good study habits. The teacher must do the same for themselves, returning papers or tests promptly, being well prepared for class, etc.But perhaps most important is caring for the students. Good teachers connect with their students academically, but also simply as people buy, Ex Greeting them as they arrive, smiling at them, asking how their weekend was, or telling them about a new book the teacher just read. Good teachers like teaching, love their subject, and enjoy children of whatever age they teach. Below the small description for qualities of a good teacher. Friendliness and congeniality The most important characteristic of a good teacher can have is to be friendly and congenial with students. It is plus if students can share their problems with the teacher. Without being afraid to hesitant. Students have always thoughts of their teachers as their enemies, with their mentality, they can never be close to each other, and besides that how many teachers did you like who were not friendly, and were rather arrogant and rude A Good Personality A good teacher has a very good personality there is no second thought about it. The student gets attracted to teachers with good personality which leads to better communication, understanding and ultimately better results. Everyone has a good, decent, likable and presentable personality. Just dress sensibly well, Smell good, and be a little gentle and kind. 3. Deep knowledge and a Great Education Another important characteristic of a good teacher has a knowledge and own education. Sign up with only that subjects which have really good expertise, it is a moral duty too, otherwise, it is not worth it. 4. A good communicator. One of the very important characteristic of a good teacher has communication skills. Should be a very good speaker. This qualification will provide benefits in several ways. For example If the teachers communication skills are good, teacher convey lectures with better skill and results. If the teacher is a good speaker, the class strength increases automatically. Student love to hear a person who can speak well enough. There is always a shortage of good speakers in the world. 5. A Good Listener A good teacher should also have the characteristic of being an even better listener. As there is a Turkish proverb If a Speaking is silver then listening is gold. 6. A good sense of humour It is a logical fact that a person generally teaches the next generation, and as they are younger than the teacher, they are expected to have more fun in the class too. So good teacher is the one who can keep up with his sense of humour, and with strong communication skills and personality, can also maintain the discipline of the class. 7. Kindness The most important characteristic is to have in box of qualities the teacher should be a gentle, kind, chivalrous, and benevolent person. Students should love to teach. And when they love to teach they idolize the teacher. Then ultimately, they will respect to the teacher, will do the homework, and eventually will bring greater outputs and results. 02. A teacher should be the eclectic in their approach to language teaching discuss this statement. Eclectic is a method of language education that combines various approaches and methodologies to teach language depending on the aims of the lesson and the abilities of the learners. It is a conceptual approach that does not merely include one paradigm or set of assumptions. Instead, eclecticism adheres to or is constituted from several theories, styles and ideas in order to gain a thorough insight about the subject, and draws upon different theories in different cases as follows. Approaches and method used. There are different approaches and methods for language teaching. In eclectic approach, the teacher can choose these different methods and approaches. Grammar translation method The grammar translation method of second language teaching is one of the most traditional method. The grammar translating method is a way of studying language first through a detailed analysis of its grammar rules and methods. The task of translating sentences and texts into and out of the target language. In terms of the classroom roles and the nature of classroom interaction, it can be stated that the roles of teachers and learners are traditional. While the teacher is the authority in the classroom, the students do as the teacher says so that they can learn what the teacher knows. The interaction in the classroom is from the teacher to the students. Ex Ask the students to write down the conversations of their friends in their native language, and then translate it in to the target language. Ask the students to memorise at least 5 words per day in English and give their native language equivalent. This method of teaching languages by which students learn grammatical rules and then apply those rules by translating between the target language and the native language. Direct method The direct method of teaching, which is sometimes called the natural method. In general, teaching focuses on the development of oral skills. The teaching concepts and vocabulary through real life objects and other visual materials. Teaching a language is directly establishing an immediate and audio visual association between experience and expression, words and phrases, idioms and meanings, rules and performances through the teachers body and mental skills, without any help of the learners native language. This method build a direct way of the target language making a relation between experience and language, word and idea, though and expression rule and performance. The language is presented totally in the target language. The students are expect to be able to work out the grammatical rules as they progressed. The actual language present is select according to its usually in everyday context and us around purely oral context in strictly control structures. The lesson begin with a dialogue using a modern conversational style in the target language. Material is first presented orally with actions or pictures. Ex Paragraph writing the students asked to write a passage in their own words. Conversation practice the students are given an opportunity to ask their own questions to the other students or to the teacher. Structural- situational approach The situational approach is useful in presenting language as used in situation, the method overlooked other important considerations about language learning and teaching. The method made an assumption that language is situational. The language is use for real life communication and not predicted. This approach is useful today for teaching a language. According to the situational approach. The language that is being taught is realistic, all the words and sentences must grow out of some real situation or imagined real situation. The meaning of words are tied up with the situations in which they are used. Ex the students know the meaning of the word blackboard, not because they have known it from the dictionary. But because they have learned the word in situations. By hearing commands such as clean the blackboard, look at the blackboard. This example stresses the association between the word blackboard and the action of looking at it, cleaning it or writing on it. Audio-lingual/ audio visual method Most audio-lingual methods consisted of short dialogues and sets of recorded drills. Method is based on a behaviourist approach, which held that language is acquired by habit formation. The students are easy to understand the material because they are not only listen, but also see the presentation. This method enhance student to learning and create a more inviting atmosphere. This method is intended for teaching everyday language at the early stage of target language learning. Ex Using any piece of paragraph at the students reading level, read the paragraph aloud several times. Have the students write down what they hear. The idea is to write what they have heard as literally as possible. Audio lingual method does not focus on vocabulary. Instead, the teacher focuses on grammar through drill and practice. Bilingual method bilingual means the ability to speak two languages fluently. This method establishes meaning immediately through the mother tongue and, in the initials stages, the printed word. The understanding of words and sentences in target language can be made easier by the use of mother tongue. There is no need to create artificial situations or environments for explaining the meaning of words and sentences of the target language. Ex first the teacher reads a dialogue to the students when they closed the books. The students repeat the sentence with the teacher with their books opened in the second reading time. The teacher gives some sentences wise or meaningful parts first language equivalents. The teacher says each sentence of the dialogue twice with L1 version. Communicative language teaching this approach is based on the idea that learning language successfully comes through having to communicate real meaning. When students are involved in real communication, their natural strategies for language acquisition will be used, and this will allow them to learn to use the language. lays emphasis on oral method of teaching. It aims to develop communicative competence in students. Ex practicing question forms by asking students to find out personal information about their partners, friends is a good example of the communicative approach, as it involves meaningful communication. Total physical response this method based up on the way that students learn their mother tongue. Teacher has language body conversation with their students. The teacher instructs and the student physically respond to this. Such as stand up, clean the board, clapping the three times, touch the head. Ex the teacher command the student to look at the board, and the students all do the actions. After repeating a few times it is possible to extend this by asking the students repeat the word as they do the action. This method is more effective learn the language. It is lot of fun, very memorable, good for kinaesthetic learners to need to be active in the class room, can works well with the mixed ability classes and it involves both left and write brained learning. The silent way in this method based on the idea that teachers should be as silent as possible during a class but students should be encouraged to speak as much as possible. Silence makes students to concentrate on what is to be learned. The teacher is silent. The teachers presence in the classroom is limited to providing a model of the language that the students are going to work on. Uses a combination of silence and gestures to focus students attention. With the silent way students are engaged in the learning process, discovering words and sounds instead of having this drilled in to them. Students become more engage and tasks have more relevance. Limited input from the teacher means almost no criticism, students feel that it is safe to make mistakes, a necessary step in language learning. Advantages Eclectic method is very useful to teaching foreign language to the students. In general understanding aspects. Firstly, with this theory, it becomes easier and more possible for the learners understand the language of the text in the context of culture. Secondly, it blends the practice of listening, speaking, reading and writing into an organic whole. It is obvious that any one method does not serve the right purpose of teaching English. This is how teaching English by combination of various methods and approaches will help the teacher to teach English effectively. Teaching of English should be made easy by bringing into realistic situation, the best way of teaching English is by creating situations. The situation makes the language easily comprehensible. It connects a closer link between an expression and usage by coordinating meaning. It is also important that creating situations should be appropriate to the students level and their context of culture. Teachers of English themselves are not very efficient in many cases. This is why Eclectic method may be appropriate in many situations. It advocates that number of methods can be used based on the selection of a particular method which depends on the level of students. However, basic principle learning is simplicity. Eclectic method of learning is an integral part of the total learning process. 03. Explain how you might introduce the present simple to a class of beginners. Before planning our lesson we need to consider the level of class for need to be a successful lesson plan. A beginner is someone who has just started learning to do something and cannot do it very well yet. Beginners bring a different set of characteristics to the class. Such as They usually come without any previously learn bad habits. Can often make rapid progress. Start with the clean sheet. May disappear from our class. (Interest lost) Not always able to express true needs and intentions. Can be easily discouraged Easy to make incorrect assumptions about anything. Little experience sometimes to draw upon some things (familiars things). Lots of enthusiasm. Will often form a homogeneous group. When teaching the present simple the ultimate goal is to make sure students understand that its used to describe daily routines, daily activity habits and general truths. Also important in the contrast between the present simple and present progressive. This step will guide to teaching present simple and covers function, conjugation and form. See below the procedure for teaching present simple for beginners level 01. Introduce and presentation. Most English learners are false beginners. In the other words, they have already studied English at some point. Setting the context by introducing some habitual actions. The simple present tense in English is used to describe an action that is regular, true or normal. For repeated or regular actions in the present time period. Ex I always go to school by bus. For habits Ex I get up early in the morning Teena brushes her teeth twice a day. Presenting them with sentence on the board with the first person subject and the third person subject (I, he, she, it) Eliciting the answers asked questions for the students as well. When do you have a lunch I have lunch at one oclock. When do you go to school I go to school at 7.30. Continue by asking students the same questions. Students will be able to follow the lead and answer appropriately. Once the students comfortable speaking about their own basic daily activities, also introduce the third person as singular for he and she which will prove the most difficult for students. 02. Practice stage Making them drill the sentences. Giving them a task sheet with different activities. Those are jumbled sentences, rearrange sentences by interrogative form and negative form. The teacher explain negative form and interrogative form through the task sheet as follow. Explain difference between Do and Does. Explain them the negative form as difference between Dont and Doesnt Exchange the answer sheet by partner and check the answers through the discussion with the teacher. Let them to drill the sentences trough the answer sheet. This will help students memorize this difference. Once students are comfortable with do, does, dont and doesnt. 03. Production stage Students will now recognize the present simple tense and be able to respond to simple questions. Its time to introduce the grammar. Use a present simple tense on the board to stress the fact that this tense is used to express routines. Students will be asked to prepare 05 sentences through discussion in their groups. Following lesson plan for the above present simple for a class of beginners. Name of Teacher Achini Weeratunge Date 23rd April 2018Level of Learners beginnerTime Duration 40 minutesName of the Lesson Grammar- Present Simple Tense Aim At the end of the lesson, students should be able to know what the present simple tense is, to identify sentences in simple present tense, to form sentences with the help of the pictureSub Aim to learn that they should add s with the verb when the subject of the sentence is the third person singular. Know a new vocabulary.Personal Aim To give clear instructions with check their understanding by the studentstAssumption students have knowledge about their habitual actions. Anticipated Problem Students may have confusion in identifying the tense of simple present.Material used Chart of the daily activities, Whiteboard, Marker Pen, Task SheetStageProcedureTimeInteractionWarm up activityStudents will be given a chance to pick up a picture from upside down on the picture chart. While keeping their eyes closed. They have to match the most suitable activity pasted chart on the board.05 MinutesT-SSPresentationSetting the context through the describing the present tense used for daily routines and habitual actions. Give them to pictures and introduce the present simple tense ask some Questions of them. Eliciting the target language students will be asked to drill through the given pictures. 10 MinutesT-SSPracticeGiven them a task sheet that consist of a variety of activities and asking them to answer them by working in pairs. The teacher will be guiding them through observation. 15 MinutesT-SSProductionLet them to prepare a list of their daily routine through discussing in their groups10 MinutesSS-SS Warm up activity for beginner level – (05 minutes) Task Sheet Activity 01. Make below sentences as interrogative form and negative form. The first one is done for you. He goes to school every day. Interrogative Does he go to school every day Negative He doesnt go to school every day. I like swimming. Interrogative . Negative . You play badminton on Saturdays. Interrogative .. Negative . The class begins at 9.00 am Interrogative . Negative . They sometimes go to the cinema. Interrogative . Negative She loves chocolate. Interrogative . Negative We study French. Interrogative . Negative They live in Sri Lanka. Interrogative . Negative He works in a restaurant. Interrogative . Negative Teena plays a guitar. Interrogative . Negative Activity 02. Rewrite following sentences use present simple tense. My father /drive/ a Toyota car. .. I /live/ in Sri Lanka. They /go/ by bus. Teena /play/ for the national team. She /wake/ up early in the morning. . The train leave at 1.00 Activity 03. Write about your daily routines. (Use present tense.) ——————————————————– ——————————————————— ——————————————————— 4. ——————————————————— 5. ——————————————————– 04. Explain how you contrast the past simple and present perfect to the class of intermediate learners. We use the past simple tense to talk about single past completed actions. Just reporting what I did in the past. The present perfect tense refers to an action or state that either occurred at an indefinite time in the past. Present perfect tense is combined with the present tense and the perfect aspect used to express an event that happened in the past that has present consequences. This tense is used to show a link between the present and past and is commonly used in everyday conversations, in the news, on the radio and when writing letters. For example I bought a new car just reporting what I bought in the past. I have bought a new car expressing that I have a new car now. Sometimes students have a knowledge of the present perfect tense, but we have to explain the above both tenses through timelines. The past tense we use with finished actions, states or habits in the past when we have finished time word. Example yesterday, last month, last week, in 2014 I went to the market yesterday. We spend a lot of time Malaysia in 2014. The past tense we use with the finished actions, state or habits in the past when we know from general knowledge that the time period has finished. This includes when the person we are talking about is dead. Example Leonardo painted the Mona Lisa The Vikings invaded Britain. The past tense we used for finished actions, states or habits in the past that we have introduced with the present perfect or another tense. Example I have been on holiday. I went to Australia. The past tense we use for express unreal things or imaginary things in the present or future. Example I wish I had more time. Then we have to explain to students the uses of the simple present perfect tense as below. Describe an action that is being repeated between the past and present. Example we have gone to the temple many times. Describe an action that start in the past and it is still continuing in the future. Example I have lived in the Australia since 2014. Describe an action that has not yet been finished Example it has rained a lot of this month. Describe an action that was completed in the recent past. Example I have just cooked two dishes. Describe an action when time was not an important aspect. Example she has lost her wedding ring. As above now the student has got the idea about the simple past tense and the present perfect tense. See below the procedure for contrasting the past simple and the present perfect tense for class of intermediate level students. 01. Introduce and presentation. Most English learners are false beginners. In the other words, they have already studied English at some point. Setting the context by introducing the two famous people and their biographies. Where one member is living and the other is dead, so that students can clearly understand the time difference we are talking about. Give them to some examples and explain the difference between the simple past tense and the present perfect tense. He used to play table tennis. This sentence can explain to the students as the past simple tense, and this time he played table tennis in the past time. It is the best time to introduce the tense through timeline. CCQ Did he play table tennis in the past Yes Does he play table tennis now No Is this happen in the past future of present Past xxxxPastNowFuture And explain them to the present perfect tense as below. He has played table tennis for 2 years CCQ Does he still play table tennis Yes Do we know when the action started (Yes) for 2 years2 years agoPastNowFuture Eliciting the target language by the students through explain the differences between the subjected sentences. Asked some question regarding the following chart Present perfect tense Simple past tenseLinks the passed to the person Ex I have cooked two dishes (At some point, happened before now) Does not talk about a specific time in the past. Ex have you read the textbook (At some time, happened before now) Uses time expressions that show the time period is unfinished. Ex I have read three letters this week. (The particular week is now finished)Only talks about the past. Ex I cooked two dishes. (When I did the washing plates and I have finished cooking two dishes) States a specific past time, or the time is understood. Ex I read the textbook when I was in the library. (Im not in the library now, and the reading is finished.) Uses time expressions that show the time is finished. Ex I read three letters last week. (The last week has finished time)Note the specific time expression that occur with the present perfect tense. Between the auxiliary and main verb (recently, already, always, ever, just, never) Ex I have already cooked two dishes I have just finished my homework. Ever is generally used with questions or negative forms. Ex Have you ever been to America After the main verb (all my life, every day, yet, before, for ages, for weeks, since 2014, since I was a child etc.) Ex I have felt fever for weeks. ( I havent flown before) If there is an object clause, the time expression comes at the end. Ex I have gone to bed every night since then. I have written more than four letters since I started this job Now explain the differences between the present perfect tense and the simple past tense to the student as above chart. And eliciting the target language to the student through the above chart. Ask some question. First of all the teacher should be a model the task as follow. She passed her driving test yesterday. Explaining to the student the simple past tense and the present perfect tense. Yesterday is the finished time and now not happening this again now. And she can drive now. May be she got her driving license also. She has passed her driving test. The present perfect time, she just passed her driving test and she can drive to work now. She recently passes her driving test also. Students will be able to follow the above and will be clearer the differences between the subjected tenses. Once the students comfortable speaking about their own past activities and recently finished activities. 02. Practice stage Again, this is the best time for drill, give them to 04 sentences for each subjected tenses and let them to drilling three times as below. The teacher will be model the first one and the other sentences will continue by the students. And help them to practice with the time lines through concept questions as follow. Simple past tense I saw three movies last Saturday. (Last Saturday is finished now) CCQ Is the action finished (Yes) Is the action in the past (Yes) Is there any connection with the present tense (No) X saw filmsLast SaturdayNowFuture Jo1hn bought a new house last year. (Giving some older information.) I worked in Australia for five years. (Now I dont work there) I read the newspaper when I was in the library. (Now I am not in the library) Present perfect tense I have seen three movies this week. (This week has not finished yet) John has bought a new house again. (When giving the recently happened news) I have worked in Australia for five years. (I still work there) Have you read the newspaper (At some time, before now.) Ask them to drill the above sentences for three times. Giving them a task sheet that consist of a variety of activities and asking them to answer them by working in pairs. The teacher will be observing and move around the class and explain some difficulties to them. (The task sheet will be attached here end of this lesson) 03. Production stage Students will now recognize the present perfect tense and simple past tense, be able to respond to simple questions. Its time to introduce the grammar. Use the two tenses on the board to stress the fact that this tenses used to express time range. Students will be asked to prepare 05 sentences with the timelines and CCQ through discussion in their groups. Task sheet Activity 01. Fill in the blanks using the present perfect tense. I ________________ finished the work. (have/ has/ am) Have you_________________ your breakfast. (eat /ate/eaten) She__________________________ yet. (has not return/ is not return/ has not returned) I____________________ such a mess. (never saw/ have never seen/ have never saw) ___________________ he brought his car (is/ has/ have) Have you ever __________________to Australia (be/ being/ been) I___________________ all the books of Sherlock Holmes. (read/ am read/ have read) My parents ____________________ me. (has never hurt/ have never hurt/ have never hurted) He____________________ always wanted to be an engineer. (is/ has/ have) She ____________________ to anybody. (never apologized/ has never apologized/ have never apologized.) Activity 02. Let them to make 05 meaningful sentences in the each tense using time lines and CCQ. Simple past tense Present perfect tense 1.. 1 2… 2 3… 3 4 4 5. 5…….. Explain in your own words the difference between an error and a mistake. Error and mistake are two of these words. Both of the word meaning A wrong action attributable to bad judgment, or ignorance or inattention. Many use these words interchangeably, which can be write about certain situations, but some would deem a particular word as more appropriate than the other. The context will dictate the proper usage. Error and mistake fall in to the same category. That error is more serve, it is due to miscalculation and wrong judgment, that mistake on the other hand is less in gravity, as people normally make mistakes. However, there are also many people discuss differences and similarities of the word mistake and the error. The word error is we can heard from the technical environment. Normally this word use by the people who engage with making and programming some software of the computer. Error is very helpful to find and indicate the mistake, or the problem or issue of the relevant process. The word Mistake is we can heard in the real life situations and conversations. Such as the conversation bet ween the teacher and the students, the student with their colleagues, the discussion between the father and the mother, the conversation between girl and her boyfriend. This word is very casual to verbal conversation as I explained. Ex it was all an error, I am sorry The most natural sounding statement would be it was all a mistake, I am sorry Some may consider error to be much more server than mistake. The term error is more suitable for more formal contexts, while mistake is used more extensively in casual conversation. According to the Merriam Webster an Error is An act or condition of ignorant or impudent deviation from a code of behaviour. An act involving an unintentional deviation from truth or accuracy. An act that through ignorance, deficiency, or accident departs from failing to achieve what. A mistake in proceedings of a court of record in matters of law or of facts. The quality of state of erring. An instant of false belief. The difference between an observed or calculated value specially variation in measurements, calculations or observations of a quantity due to mistakes or to uncontrollable factors. Examples of error I made an error when measuring the dimensions. The computer produces an error when the data was incorrect. His speech contained several factual errors. I made an error in my calculations. The paper contains a numerous spelling errors. I saw a documentary of horrifying cases of hospital error. The shortstop was charged with an error. According to the Merriam Webster Mistake is To blunder in the choice of To misunderstand the meaning of intention of misinterpret To make a wrong judgment of the character or ability of To identify wrongly confuse with another. The term mistake is more commonly used when dealing with humans. Mistakes are not always terms as bad, as the saying goes Human makes mistakes Example for mistakes I mistook him for his brother Dont mistake me, I mean exactly what I said I was no mistaken about him. I made a mistake, when I married him. Explain why it is useful to have a rough guide to which structures are suited to which level. Planning, designing, and implementing a teaching curriculum are precise process. We have to pay attention to the elements and factors as well. Such as learners age and level, social and cultural background, length and duration of the lesson and individual abilities and differences of the learners. Thats why we have to use and lead the rough guide for the teaching some topics. As well as the rough guide is very useful to teachers in that instruction and methods of teaching for the students. Students can understand what the teacher is going to teach. Different ages referring different knowledge and different experiences. The motivation and discourage is easy to lose students. We have to keep the rough guide or manual structure is very important to teaching effectively to the students. What are the levels of the students.. Teachers use differentiated teaching to cater to diverse learning needs. All students are different in terms of their achievement, ability, learning and cognitive styles as well as attitudes, pace of learning, personality and motivation. There are different ages and categories false in to the different level. It depends on their ages, experiences, level of the knowledge, and below the small description of the different levels. Beginners. Beginners can talk about the present, give their name, age, living place and some simple conversations. False beginners or students who have had perhaps some exposure to English and have a very limited of the knowledge about the English language. They have either learned English many years before at school or any other place, and coming back to the classroom later in their studying period. Sometimes they have some familiarities of the English speakers, but no formal or clear training. False beginners often learn faster than the total beginner level students who may well know nothing at all about English. Otherwise false beginners may well imperfect in English in their minds and this can take some work to correct. Above level student familiar with the internet, computers, pizza, taxi, mobile phones, computer games, burger king, etc. Sometimes difficult to find and divide the students are complete beginners by false beginners. Intermediate These intermediate level students can talk and read about a wide number of subjects using vocabulary and those are fairly correct. If basic of grammar. They can confidently use all the main tenses, and beginning to use phrasal verbs, modal verbs etc. Pronunciation tone and a spelling little bit confused. All intermediate level students have, generally, enough knowledge of the language, because follow some specific English courses as well. Such as business English, spoken English, academic English etc. When speaking with the intermediate level students, we can find some mistakes by using grammar, verbs and tenses, but generally can have extended the conversation with them. Advance Advance students are very different the other students. They use the language as informal English and formal English. They make some occasional mistakes. Their pronunciation and way of the speaking is obviously not like a native speaker. They have little difficulty in communicating on everyday topic, popular things as well as specified subjects. According to the Association of Testers of Europe (ALTE) they describe those levels as follow. Elementary level need some basic command of subjected topic. Need some hints for the familiar topic. They can understand the simple massages also. Lower intermediate level limited but effective command of the language in familiar situations. Can give some hints to take part in a routine meeting on familiar topics. Particularly, it can be exchanged the simple factual information. Upper intermediate level generally this level students commanding of the language in arrange of situations. Can make to contribute to discussion on practical matters. Advance level these level students can hold the extended conversation and write extended texts. Lower advance level good operational command by using the language well. They can discuss wide range of the topic, which are real life situations and they can provide their knowledge with participating the meeting and discussions. Upper advance level fully operational command of the language at a high level in most of the incidents. Can conducting some arguments, debates confidently. Justifying and, making points with them. According to the above level of the students, we have to teach them for the several structures as below. 01. Always build a new language onto language which is already known. If make some lesson plan for the above, first of all we should understand and studying their knowledge well. Understand to what are the past activities, previously learning habits, etc. Using some aids should be familiar with their level. Example If we need to teach the present continuous tense, use the verbs which are already familiar to the learners. They should learn present tense before learn to the present continuous tense. When we are going to teach about the present perfect tense to the students, they have already learned about the simple past tense also. Use natural pronunciation. If words are stressed unnaturally, learners will imitate them. And some learners unable to understand what the teacher is talking about. The student will be demotivated the lesson. Example I am going to have a party. Above sentence the teacher is making this clear and the learner will start to produce sentences which sound very strange, which would seem to indicate an unnecessary determination by the learner or speaker. 03. Use appropriate and interesting materials to introduce the structure. When we are teaching to the students, the teacher should arrange the different teaching materials for help to students remember their target language. Those materials should be visual materials and audio materials. Those are pictures, realia, overhead projectors, feely bags, flash cards and tape recorders, video etc. Especially those materials engage with the method of the teaching. It meanings the material should be use with the relevant structure and the relevant level of the students. . Example When we use feely bags for teach to beginner level students, the material should be suitable with their level, lesson and the structure. Those materials should be familiar with the students level. And the students can understand and the motivate with the lesson. 04. Put a new language or structure into a clear context. Learners can understand the meaning of the lesson or structure as well as learning the correct form. If the lesson is taught without the meaning learners will be able to say a correct sentence, but not understand what they are saying. If learners are taught the meaning without the correct form they will know what they are trying to say, but not be able to communicate very accurately. 05. Should be speak naturally and at a natural pace. If the teacher speaks slowly and communicate the language slowly, learners will copy the pattern. Some points can speak slowly and not at all. Because we are learning an everyday practical language. Example when we are using havent, cant, wont it will be contrasting the word as have not, cannot, were not. They will continue the unnatural speech patterns and pronunciations well. Dont give lectures to the learners. The teachers role is to give some guidelines to the students, the teacher should be a facilitator, not an instructor. Should be able to involve the students to the task and activities based on the lesson. Example when teaching to the beginners, if given some lectures to the beginner level students, it will be bored easily and they are frustrated about the lesson. When we give lectures to the advance learners, they will be understanding some points, they are keeping some points to their mind. It will depend the lesson. Duration of the lesson The teacher will be plan the lesson, if it will be take more time, need to include some activities based on the lesson. Otherwise, they will be bored and demotivated to students. The lesson plan or structure should be suitable with their levels. We have to plan the lesson for suitable to their age level, knowledge and previous experiences. Easy to understand to learners. Students will easy to demotivate with the lesson. Example the teacher going to plan a lesson of phonetics, it will be very difficult to understand beginner level students. It should be better for advance learner level students. Plan a same structure with the different task. When we plan a lesson for reading activity, students read a passage and teacher will asks for students for list out the name of people, name of places, numbers and classify them into groups. And it will very useful to beginner level students. Example If the teacher going to teach a reading activity for intermediate level learners or advanced level learners, the lesson should be less advance than the lower level or beginner level students. Students read the passage and answer detailed questions. And they can guess unknown words and look up their meanings in a dictionary. The structure should be suitable with their specific cultural issues. What kind of things are generally unacceptable in the culture in which teach Whatever the teacher will do Do not use the structure solely based on own cultural norms. Consider the audience and their sensibilities Above every each point provide a better idea for the useful rough guide suited to a different level. 07. Set out your ideas on how a). Realia b). Magazine Pictures Can be used within a lesson Realia The use of realia is commonplace in the English language classroom and is widely considered to have great value in fostering and active teaching-learning environment. By presenting information through diverse media, realia helps to make English language input as comprehensive as possible and to build an associative bridge between the classroom and the world. (Heaton-1979) Here are some great ways to take full advantage of the possibilities offered by the use of realia in the classroom. Location To teach prepositions of place take common classroom objects like pens, pencils, books etc. And place them on or under desks, and around the classroom then have students simply tell you where each item is, or take turns asking each other where their own personal items are. This also works great for teaching this, that, these, and those, as the perspective of having items near and far from you clearly illustrates the differences between thedemonstrative pronouns. Asking for directions Get some real city maps for the local tourist office and give one to each pair of students. Have them take turns asking and giving directions to popular city sights. Describing about family Real family photos are great for not only learning about relationships, but also physical descriptions. Have student bring one family photo each and describe family members. Students may also take turns asking classmates questions. The Job Interview Do you have students who will be applying for jobs in English Try to get your hands on some real job applications and have students practice filling them out in class. Also conduct job interviews using real life interview questions. This type of practice will not only teach them the vocabulary they should know, it will give students the boost of confidence they need. Whats the weather like today It is as easy as starting each class by having students comment on what its like out outside. Can get as basic or as complex as like simply saying its raining to its drizzling and pouring. Probably realized by now that including realia in the classroom involves a great deal of preparation in some cases. Absolutely And students faces will be living proof. Advantages of using realia in the lesson. The use of realia brings a welcome in the change in the class, a break from typical class activities like reading and writing. Students have the chance to practice real life situations like using maps and asking for directions in a foreign language, but with the guidance of someone who speaks fluently and will help them get it right. Once they hit the street, they will feel more confident in speaking the language with the locals. Students will clearly understand the reason theyre learning particular ESL component. Instead of wondering when and where they might have use for particular language element, they will know the reason. The unexpectedness of having to suddenly interact with real objects will keep students on their toes it will create excitement and theyll have fun. Kinesthetic learning is the type of learning that students will most effectively acquire, mostly because they will have hands-on experience. When it comes to using realia in the classroom the skys the limit The best part is that students will learn, have fun, but also enjoy the class all the more. Magazine Pictures The magazine picture is much more than an image, especially when teaching English. Pictures are essential when it comes to engaging students who are learning a new language at any level. Students can be successful study aids during lessons, and they can act as useful prompts to help students when they are practicing speaking. So how can we use magazine pictures in the lesson Here are seven ways to bringing visual aids into the lesson, each starting with the one of the letters in picture to help you remember them. Predict Students can look at pictures or watch the first part of the picture in order to predict what the topic of the lesson or the activity will be about. Interact The game Pictionary, in which players have to guess specific words based on their teammates drawings, and other, mingling games with pictures are fun activities that can be used with children and adults to review the vocabulary they have learnt. In order to engage students, teachers can show a picture only to half their class, and ask them to describe to the other half what they can see. This second group will then have to try to report what the other students have seen, as accurately as they can. Everyone can see something slightly different from the others, and the activity will strengthen their rapport. Create Students can write or tell a story by using a sequence of pictures, or, if the teacher wants to really fire their imagination, the student can create a story based on just a single picture. This exercise can be particularly interesting and productive if the teacher encourages students to use specific tenses (past simple vs past continuous) vocabulary or functional language in their story. Example describing a conversation of the train station. Talk At the beginner level, some students faces go blank when they are asked to answer a question. Teachers can avoid prolonged silence and prevent their students from feeling embarrassed by providing them with a picture. They can break the ice by asking the Students describe what they can see in the picture. Understand Whats the easiest way to explain the meaning of a word Show it. Classrooms may be fully equipped, but they cant hold everything if there is an item or object that want to show your students to help them remember the word for it, try showing them a picture. Reflect The picture gives you a chance to reflect on what you can see, but it also represents the opportunity to develop your other senses by considering what you can hear, smell and touch. This is a useful exercise for teachers who are preparing their students for a speaking exam. Most of the time, speaking exams are in pairs and student worry that they may run out of words because their partner will have already said everything about the picture they have been shown. By using their other senses, students can add new information and will be able to avoid repetition. Enact In any class, there is usually someone who is shy or quiet. So how can you draw them out of themselves and encourage them to practice speaking If you ask your students it doesnt matter how old they are -to draw a mask, put it on and pretend to be someone else, they may feel less self-conscious.Putting themselves into somebody elses shoes can give students the chance to express themselves in a more forthright way. 08. Transcribe the sentences below into phonetic script a). It had been a hot summer and I was expected a bumper crop of raspberries and gooseberries. One could know thousands of vocabulary words, but if they arent pronounced correctly nobody will understand what is trying to be said. Communication is based on speaking and receiving feedback through speaking. Without the correct use of phonology communication is impossible. When considering how English sounds are made, the most significant parts of the mouth are the lips, teeth, tongue, and different parts of the top of the mouth.The sounds of English can be organized by consonants and vowels.Consonantsdepend on the place of articulation (where the sound is made in the vocal tract), the manner of articulation (how close the articulators or parts of the mouth get to change airflow to make a sound), and voicing (whether vocal chords produce sound or not). With different combinations of these 3 factors, English speakers produce stop sounds (i.e. /p/, /b/, /d/), fricatives (i.e. /f/, /v/, /h/), affricates (i.e. ch, j), nasals (i.e. /m/, ng), and liquids and glides (i.e. /l/, /r/.Vowelsare all voiced (vocal chords producing sound) and rely on the placement of the tongue in the oral cavity, affected by the height, fronts, and tenseness of the tongue. Phonological rules explain what happens when sounds change in different contexts of words, including the teacher should be understanding the phonology. Assimilation A sound in a word becomes more similar to the surrounding sounds Ex the different pronunciation of Ed based on the sound preceding it. Deletion Sounds are excluded from words Ex labratory for laboratory An for and Insertion sounds are added to words, most commonly an affix Ex sumpthing for something Metathesis sounds are reversed in order Ex aks for ask The teacher should pay attention to below points. Pronunciation When teaching English, our own and students pronunciations and identification of sounds can be heavily influenced by the variety of English spoken or other languages spoken. How English sounds are made Characteristics of sound creation (consonants and vowels) can be helpful when understanding mispronunciations and when teaching new distinct sounds for English Language Learners. Consider the different parts of the vocal tract used to make sounds in English and the different sounds of other languages in relation to English. Teaches letter sounds clearly In the classroom, insertion issues may be noticed in students writing. When sounding out words, especially with ELLs, sound insertions become more apparent when students are stretching out the word to hear all the sounds to write down the sounds they hear. Extra vowels and consonants may be added, depending on how they are learning English sounds and/or native language influence. When teaching sounds, clear and distinctly pronounce each consonant sound, without any added vowel sounds Ext instead of tuu Prioritize pronunciation as needed Our overall goal as teachers is to make sure that students can produce clear speech that can be understood by others, for successful communication. Mispronunciation, due to phonological rules or differences from a native language or variant of English, may alter or hinder a message, having an effect on the greater meaning of their message. As teachers, we must prioritize and focus on pronunciation skills as needed, to best support the student so they are understood and comprehended. walk-ed or walk-t English language learners may have particular difficulty with the correct pronunciation of the -ed sound. 10. Choose a picture of your own and build a 15 minute activity around that picture for a class of intermediate students. Pictures are often neglected or used in a very predictable way in the classroom, usually as a starting point for a narrative speaking and ultimately writing activity, but they can also be of key importance in the communicative and interactive classroom. As well as enjoying pictures they also form a key resource for accessing the different learning styles that each student has. Using pictures really appeals to visual learners who may suffer in a speaking and listening based classroom. They also offer an opportunity for movement and a multi-dimensional perspective which will reach our kinaesthetic learners. The pictures arent based on level. Of course we can choose certain pictures to access a certain area of vocabulary if we wish, but any picture can be the base of any kind of activity at any level. Reading stories can restrict our students, but an elementary learner can access the most complex story through pictures so lower levels dont miss out on the exciting stories that the higher levels are looking at. Below the lesson plan for the intermediate level students. Pre-Listening/ Speaking Set the context by paste the following picture on the board and other copies give to the class. Eliciting the target language. Ask them what you can see in the picture. What is in the background What is in the foreground What is on the left side He is wearing. He is facing to left the camera. He looks happy or sad. Describe the picture properly within 04 minutes. While Listening/ Speaking Provide them to another picture and for draw by pairs. One student describe and other one is drawing the picture. The teacher will observe the class and explain the difficult words through observation. Difficult words left/right Next to Above Near In front Behind Background Foreground Post Listening/ Speaking Invite each student in the front and let them to describe the drawing picture and real one. See below the lesson plan for describing the picture Name of Teacher Achini Weeratunge Date 23rd April 2018Level of Learners IntermediateTime Duration 15 minutesName of the Lesson The bridge Listening Activity Speaking Activity Aim At the end of the lesson, student should be able to describe the picture.Sub Aim to learn that new vocabulary.Personal Aim Give students time for discuss in pairs after a listening activity before feedback.Assumption students know what a bridge Anticipated Problem Students may not have an interest in speaking Material used Picture of the bridge, Whiteboard, Marker Pen, another picture storeStageProcedureTimeInteractionPre-Listening/ SpeakingSet the context by, Showing a picture of a bridge. Ask from students, What they can see in the picture What is in the background Eliciting the target language.04 MinutesT-SSWhile listening/ SpeakingPut students in pairs and one student is describing provided picture and another one is drawn quickly. The teacher will be guiding them through observation. Explain the new difficult words to the students05 MinutesT-SSPost listening/ SpeakingInvite to students for comments and let them to describe differences the drawing one and the real picture. 06 minutesSS-SS 11. Explain some of the ways that video and DVD clips can be used in the ELT classroom. The video is the new textbook, offering reality and language modelling like a book never could. A great companion of ideas to go with the using video or DVD in the classroom. Language teachers have been using video technologies for at least the past twenty years. From videotapes to DVDs and streaming video from the Internet, the visual mode is still powerful and popular.Far from being mere entertainment, carefully chosen films can be a useful and extremely motivational teaching tool for both practicing listening skills and stimulating speaking and writing. Here are some of the best ways to use video in teaching. Vocabulary building The videos provide extraordinary context and reality for learning vocabulary. It is like the students are right there. List important words from a video and explain them. To Learning history Video captures past reality and makes it objectively available to us as classroom content. Even better than a book, it can bring you there. Use history as content to help students learn English and understand the world. Video brings the outside world into the classroom. Now have more access than ever to video. Newscasts, advertisements, comedy routines, documentaries, dramas, and even academic lectures are available on DVD, via the internet, or even as student-produced projects. Most of whats out there wasnt originally produced as teaching material, which means it serves an authentic real-world communicative purpose. As learning grammar Videos are packed with grammatical language. Choose a video which highlights the grammar you want to focus on and design activities around it. Grammar is not just something that comes with a textbook – it is living/alive To learn verbs Loads of videos out there that allow students to describe actions and practice/learn English verbs. Cartoons are great for this, full of action. As a comprehension activity Video is great, but much greater if you check student comprehension and keep them engaged so they view for language meaning. Prepare a list of comprehension check questions for students and you are set As a listening tool In some listening exercises we must concentrate on specific dialogue to enable our students to learn. It is necessary to challenge them to listen when dealing with features of pronunciation. The videos provide a good source of authentic listening material for the practice of pronunciation and use them accordingly. This particular video exercise deals with connected speech, in particular prominence (or sentence stress). Without going into too much detail here, English is a stressed-timed language, meaning that certain syllables in a sentence have prominence therefore create a beat, other syllables tend to be said quickly making it difficult for our students to hear. Prominence, which is the speakers choice, is used to convey meaning. As a speaking tool A great advantage of video is that it provides authentic language input.Movies and TV programs are made for native speakers, so in that sense video provides authentic linguistic input.Students in East Asia in particular have traditionally been taught to memorize grammar rules and vocabulary actual ability to use the language may or may not follow.When faced with a real native speaker, they panic.Where the friendly native speaker who is patient and willing to use foreigner talk is unavailable, as in many EFL contexts, the film/TV show can be a substitute. Provides a good model for learner output After we thoroughly exploited a video as a language input, we can then use it as a model for learner output. Many teachers have had great success with student-produced newscasts, interviews, documentaries, and so on. Having seen the model on video, learners can then produce their own version of the original. In situations where learners have access to video cameras the result can be an actual video. However, students can also perform videos live in the classroom, focussing on the content rather than the medium. The video provides motivations for classroom activities. Academic skills such as summarizing, paraphrasing, and giving an opinion are often linked with reading as a source of input. However, as mentioned earlier, a video is also an information-rich text that can provide students with the ideas and concepts that they must learn to manipulate successful. Many teachers successfully use video in the flipped classroom, where learners are given input (for example a YouTube video) outside of the classroom to feed into output, which can be done during class time. Video can also provide a good reference point for critical thinking for example, in considering advertisements, learners can develop the skills of considering motivation, whether or not supporting details are valid, and so on. 12. Accuracy is more important than fluency Discuss this statement. Accuracy and fluency are two key words of second language acquisition. In todays world, it seems that learning the usage of grammar and focusing on accuracy are emphasized by many language students over than fluency. The accuracy and fluency have been a controversial topic that has been discussed for many years. Some formalists argue that learning a language means learning rules and forms, some activists take a different view and claim that learning a language means learning how to use a language. The accuracy is the ability to speak or write without making any grammatical vocabulary, punctuations and other errors. The teacher who believes accuracy is the key help their students to produce written and spoken English with zero mistakes. The ability to speak and write easily in English. Those two factors can determine the success of English language in the future. Below the description for accuracy more important than fluency. The accuracy is very important because, the grammar taught in school is most widely acceptable, perhaps later on, just the rules which general public accepts. But the fluency will be part of our official grammar. Both accuracy and fluency, language can function fully in communications. A speaker who speaks erroneous gibberish very fluently. We can understand what accurate, but speakers say. The accuracy enables the speech or writing to carry what the speaker or writer want to say. If someone can have a good fluency and speak very fast, but pronounce and accuracy are not good, neither will understand what he/she trying to say and put all efforts trying to be accurate, could sound so boring an uninteresting person. If a person can speak fluently, but not accurate in the language may be his/her county people can understand them, but it will be difficult for others specially foreigners who are the native English speakers. The language has been used to communicate, meaning is really important for successful communication. Grammatically correct speaking needs accuracy than fluency to expression someones real meaning. 13. Describe an activity that might be used to improve the learners writing skills Writing is using symbols, letters of the alphabet to represent the sounds or put sounds into a code to communicate thoughts and ideas in a readable form. Writing starts with training the hand to write in the directions in which the letters are formed. First, it will be lined patterns and then they should lead on to swing, bumps and curls. After sufficient practice has been given in patterns, drawing, lead on to students to the writing of the letters relating to each pattern. Below are some activities which would help learners prepare and develop for writing skill. Learners brainstorm their ideas and put them in the order in which they will appear in the text Gap fill activities where the learner fills in the missing words, are not provided. Study of linking phrases and words. Comparison of different styles of writing- newspaper talk, formal letter etc. Preparing a draft text as homework or class work. Rewriting a paragraph using linking words/expressions. Writing the missing half of a dialogue. Writing stories based on picture cues. Composition to be written from notes. Rewriting the dialogue from other perspectives. See below the activity for improving their creative writing skill. Collaborative story writing This method can help students to develop their communicative competence by forcing the negotiation of meaning. As learners try to express their ideas to each other, they will have to clarify, rephrase and so on. This process should also help them to actually develop their ideas. Working with others can provide the opportunity for learners to work at a level slightly above their usual capacity. As so operating with others who know a little more can boost achievement. Collaborative writing has been shown to lower anxiety and foster self-confidence, compared with completing tasks individually. This method can also be a lot of fun. See below the activity for the students for improving their creative writing skill. Writing starts to take on greater significance, and as students learn to express themselves through the written words theres no end to the possibilities. The fun writing activity takes a regular task- writing a story and transform into a collaborative writing experience thats sure to reveal hilarious results. Here is how to get started on this activity, which makes for a great group. Procedure The first person should write a story. Do not reveal what you are writing about with anyone else. Use students imagination. When the students written about two three lines, fold the paper down so that only the last line can be seen. Pass the paper to the next person. The second person should read the visible line, and then continue the story, when he/she finished folding the paper over again so that only the last line of the paragraph is visible to the next person. Repeat until everyone has participated, then unfold the paper and read the silly and funny story aloud to the whole class. In this activity, the student can write their creative ideas properly can be get some motivation, method for writing is a boring students. As discuss above, we can understand the importance of the writing activity. 14. Set out the difference between intensive and extensive listening Listening is receiving language through the ears. Listening involves identifying the sounds of speech and processing them into words and sentences. When we listen, we use our ears to receive individual sounds. Those are letters, stress, rhythm and pauses. We use our brain to convert these into messages that mean something to us. Listening in any language requires focus and attention. It is a skill that some people need to work at harder than others. People who have difficulty concentrating are typically poor listeners. Listening in a second language requires even greater focus. The listening is usually the first language skill that we learn. To become a fluent speaker in English, need to develop strong listening skills. Listening not only helps understand what people are saying. It also helps to speak clearer to the others. T helps learn how to pronounce words properly, how to use intonation, and where to place stress in words and sentences. This makes speech easier for other people listening to us to understand. There are two different types of listening skills called intensive listening and extensive listening. Students need to listen to both kinds of listening materials. Whats intensive listening.. Intensive listening focuses primarily on brief listening exercises. While they usually only take a few minutes, they offer focused, intense practice. Intensive listening focuses mostly on the form. When we do intensive listening practice, we are paying more attention to pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary, rather than overall meaning. Example when we are listening to an announcement of the railway station. A person listens for a short period of time to extract certain facts that needs. Here a person listens for a very specific purpose and listens to the facts several times. Intensive listening particularly important for beginning level and intermediate level students. Whats extensive listening.. Extensive listening focuses on longer activities. Focuses on overall understanding. With extensive listening dont want to translate each word of grammar rules and simply have to try to understand the whole idea. Extensive listening helps students understand spoken language in real-world context. A person listens for general understanding and pleasure in a more relaxed manner. It is of longer duration. Example listening to a song on the radio will need extensive listening skill. Extensive listening particularly important for intermediate level and advance students. Difference between intensive listening and extensive listening skills. 1 .Intensive listening is a listening teaching method that often used inside of classes. Extensive listening is a listening teaching method that best to conduct outside the class. Intensive listening is directly focusses only one sound. They must identify and learn about the structure of the language which is usually practiced in the language. Extensive listening needs to learn real life listening. Real life is listening when we are listening to someones speaking with the real condition that condition may be in the crowded area also. In Intensive listening, the student is expected to analyze and criticize the language aspect, grammatically. In extensive listening task is usually the oral skill. Those are record their responses to what they have heard in a personal journal, fill in preparing report forms and summarize the content of the tape. The intensive listening is especially very important for beginner level students and intermediate level students. The extensive listening is especially very important for advance students. When we use audio, cassette recorder or downloaded for intensive listening, the main purpose is making the student more sensitive to the language itself, not the real meaning. When we use audio, cassette recorder or downloaded for extensive listening, the main purposes is for general understanding and pleasure in a more relaxed manner. In intensive listening, a person or student listens for a short period of time to extract certain facts that needs. In extensive listening, it is of longer duration. 15. Select a text of 150 words suitable for class of upper intermediate learners and devise and activity to improve the leaners skills at skimming a text. Reading is a means of language acquisition, communication, and of sharing information and ideas. Like all the languages, it is building up a complex interaction between the reader and the text. And the reader is shaped contents by his prior knowledge, experiences, attitudes and language community which are culturally and socially situated. The reading process requires continuous practice and development. In the other hand, reading requires creativity and critical analysis. Readers use a variety of reading strategies to assist with decoding and comprehension. Readers may use context clues to identify the meaning of unknown words. See below the few approaches to making class room reading more communicative, by which means integrating it with other skills, so that students can see its value. Can reading be communicated The strategies I use for communicative reading. Pre-reading tasks While-reading tasks While-reading tasks leading into post reading tasks Post reading tasks Conclusion Skimming means passing or glance over lightly or in a superficial manner. Many students probably consider that their main problem in reading is not having a big enough vocabulary. A student who meet a word they cannot interpret are first likely to ask what it means, which is fine as long as an important is available, but not practical as the basis for interdependency study. After that, most of the student turn on to dictionaries. This is very natural and someone circumstances advisable. In addition, skimming allows subconscious the chance to absorb the main ideas of a text. These are helpful to speed reading of the contents. The combination of these two methods allows greater comprehension of what you are reading. Having ascertained that skimming will increase out reading speed, we now need to know how to skim read, whilst there are many different methods adopted to skim reading like to read the index of a text means note that it is essential that you do this so that you get the general idea of what the next is about. Moreover, when skimming, try using your peripheral eye vision to identify the main idea of the text, the main dates in the text and any illustrations/graphs. Finally, when you are skimming, start at the beginning and over what you have already read before you have completed the whole text as this will defeat the purpose of your skim reading. In any event, you are going to speed read the text once more after you have completed your skim read. Now, have the students check the rest of the paragraph to see how accurate they were. The student can model how they extracted key information from the text. Go through the text, showing them how to focus on key parts and phrases, skipping some of the less important details. See below the activity for improving the learners skills of skimming a text for upper intermediate level students. The winter Olympic games The Winter Olympic Games is a major international sporting event that occurs once every four years. The first Winter Olympics, the 1924 Winter Olympics, were held in Chamonix, France. The originalsports werealpineandcross-country skiing,figure skating,ice hockey,Nordic combined,ski jumpingandspeed skating. The Games were held every four years from 1924 until 1936, after which they were interrupted by World War II. The Olympics resumed in 1948 and was again held every four years. Until 1992, the winter and Summer Olympic Games were held in the same years, but in accordance with a 1986 decision by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to place the summer and Winter Games on separate four-year cycles in alternating even-numbered years, the next Winter Olympics after 1992 was in 1994. The Winter Olympics has been hosted on three continents by eleven different countries, but never in a country in the southern hemisphere. Read the passage carefully and write the answers. 1. Where the place of the first winter Olympic game was held in According to the above question, the student can find the answer from reading at once. 2. List out what are the original sports of winter Olympic Games The learner doesnt want to read every each word of the passage. The reader can get the gist of what is being written about. Without all the details thats when knowing how to skim text can be helpful. 3. Contrast the word IOC Skimming stage, taking the most important information from the page without reading all the words. 4. Which year was the first winter Olympic game held in Skimming refers to looking only for the general of main ideas. Takes place while reading and allows students to look for details in addition to the main ideas. At the end of the each paragraph, looking for important pieces of information, such as special names, dates, numbers and events also. 16. What are the main reasons that we make use of learner interaction (pair and group work) in the classroom The interaction is how well students communicate with one another in the classroom. Students have opportunities to communicate with each other help students effectively sharing their knowledge. Students share responsibility for learning to each student, discussing matters, understanding matters, and grow up with their knowledge and experience with other students. Having an element of pair and group work is essential in most lessons. It provides to learners with the opportunity for increasing their talking time, involves them in genuine reason for using the language, gives valuable practice and allows the teacher to assess the success or otherwise of the learning and teaching process as well as the chance to diagnose and plan for future work to be done. Pair work and group work best for collaborative or project based learning for example where students can solve more complex problems together, not something like a straight forward worksheet. Pair work is learners or students working together in pairs. Pair work is a one of the motivations to encourage to increase their opportunities to use English language in the classroom. The teacher may like to put learners with others whom they do not usually have the chance to talk to. In group work, there will be need to negotiate and put forward ideas, Persuade etc. Activities such as producing an advertisement/ designing a poster or producing a newsletter, make a forecasting a news program, presentation of the cooking activities are all good activities to promote the need for communication. Main reasons for using pair works and group works in the classroom. Give more opportunities to speak and practice what they have learned In the last decades there has been a major shift towards the communicative approach and student centred learning in education, reducing the amount of teacher talk time. Thats one of the great reasons to choose pair and group work in the ESL classroom. It gives our students more opportunities to speak and practice what they have learned. Can be change the pace of the lesson. The student doesnt like to do the same thing at all the time, and breaking the students up into either groups or pairs will also change the pace of the lesson. This can often be a great way to add more energy to the classroom. Example The next topic is considered heavier or more difficult for the students, the lesson can start with the suitable group or pair work. Especially the grammar lesson can use group activity or pair work. Can manage and monitor the classroom as well. When the groups or pairs are working together, it is very useful time to monitoring and managing the classroom well. The teacher observes the students and be able to move around the classroom with ease, with a good opportunity to listen what they are talking and how they use the language. Stronger students can feed on the weaker students. When the teacher teaches in ESL classrooms, can have students of mixed abilities and their levels. The teacher may like to put learners with others whom they do not usually have the chance to talk. Let them give a chance to collaborate in pairs or group works. Different nationalities may be put together so that no two speakers of the same language are in a pair. Or the teacher may decide to put strong students with weaker ones. Can be used as a part of the motivation. There is always a sense of achievement attached to pair and group work. When a pair or particular group finishes their roll successfully through collaborating with each other member/member, theres a greater feeling of pride upon reaching a team goal. As a method of the volume control. To reduce any foreseeable noise problems is by spreading the groups or pairs out around the classroom and out of the classroom. This way they can hear their other group members without having to shout, thus keeping the general noise level noise of the class down to and acceptable volume level. Can use a language as a communicative purpose. This is where each of the learners in the pair has differing information that the other needs. Example The discussion between the doctor and the patient. The discussion with interviewer and the interview board. The dialogue between policeman and the passenger. The conversation between waiter and the guest. Can build up and improving their competitive mind. 17. Write a full lesson plan to practice asking for directions for a class of elementary learners for a 60 minute lesson. This lesson is very use full to understanding the day to day activities. When someone asks about the place or location or rough idea about the banks, school, and railway stations the students have to answering to the question. Students should understand how to express the directions. See below the lesson for asking directions for elementary level students. Warm up stage- Get students interested in learning how to give directions. The teacher is going to draw a rough map on the board, of the neighbourhood. Just a few streets and lanes with schools will draw. The teacher passed the ball to some student and asked the question whom catch the ball first. Where is the school, again passed the ball to some student and asked where is the post office, Where is the playground, Where is the police station, Where is the bank The students will be labelled on the map. Its taken 7 minutes in the warm up activity for the students. 1. Introducing- Pre speaking/ listening Setting the context by talking about the directions in the classroom objects. Example John, seated on the left side of the Teenas seat. The teacher is seated in front of the class. The dustbin is put under the table We can see the flower vase on the table The stand fan in keeping the right side of the white board. The library is in around the classroom. The canteen is next to the lunch room. The music room near the lunch room. The laboratory is in the opposite of the library Introducing as above highlighted words using express the directions. 1.). Left side 2.) In front of 3.) Under 4.) On 5.) Right side 6.) Next to 7.) Near 8.) Opposite Eliciting the target language by the teacher ask some question from the students as below. Did you see the flower vase Yes, it is on the table. Where the white board The white board is held on the wall. Is there any dustbin here Yes. It is under the table. How can I get the water bottle You have to turn the left side in your classroom and go straight away. Where the music room It is next to your classroom How can find the laboratory You can find opposite the music room. Within 15 minutes the teacher has to elicit the target language. While Speaking/ Listening The teacher will be model the above questions and answers one by one. After the students will be drilling together by three times. Next the teacher will be going to ask the drilling one student can ask questions and other one have to give the answers. Let them do as pair work. The teacher is going to observe and moving the class and listen carefully how to pronounce the words of direction. The time for explaining the difficult words to the students. Such as Post office, dustbin, music room, laboratory, canteen, next to, near, opposite, in front of. Can improving their vocabulary skill and the speaking level. After giving those to the list of reading sheet which the students practiced one. Let them to record the difficult words and important points. The suitable time duration is 20 minutes. Post speaking/ Listening Students will now recognize the directions and uses of the directions. The teacher is going to provide some task sheet for answering through discussion with their groups and pair works. It will take 18 minutes for the lesson. The task sheet will attach to the end of the lesson. See below the lesson plan for asking directions for a class of elementary level students. Name of Teacher Achini Weeratunge Date 23rd April 2018Level of Learners Elementary level studentsTime Duration 60 minutesName of the Lesson Asking directions Aim At the end of the lesson, students should be able to understanding the meaning of the directions and how to express the directions, Sub Aim to learn that they should understand about key words for using directions and new vocabulary.Personal Aim To motivate students to participate and work with each other with friendly. Assumption students have knowledge about express the directions. Anticipated Problem Students may have confused in identifying words (vocabulary)Material used The ball, Whiteboard, Marker Pen, Task SheetStageProcedureTimeInteractionWarm up activityThrow the ball to the every each student and ask them to mark the locations the driven map on the board. Try to give some idea about the directions.07 minutesT-SSPre speaking/ ListeningSetting the context through the describing the directions. Eliciting the target language by objects in the classroom the places of the school. Such as music room, library, canteen, laboratory and the lunchroom. Provide them to the sheet for writing locations in the school. The teacher will be model the sentences one by one and ask to students read them properly in three times. Lead them to ask a question from their partner answer of the other one as a pair work. 15 minutesT-SSWhile Speaking/ ListeningGiven them a task sheet that consist of a variety of activities and asking them to answer them by working in pairs. The teacher will be guiding them through observation. Explaining them in the difficult words, Such as Post office, dustbin, music room, laboratory, canteen, next to, near, opposite, in front of. Can improving their vocabulary skill and the speaking level. Provide some task sheet to students and let them to answers by pair and group works.20 MinutesT-SSPost Speaking/ ListeningNow teacher will be checking answers through exchange the answer sheet with their partner. Ask some difficulties from the student end of the lesson.18 MinutesSS-SS Task sheet Activity 01 (A.) Fill in the blanks given the answers below 1. Excuse me Where can I ___________________________ (Find a supermarket/go to a supermarket) 2. Excuse me How can I _____________________________ (Find the railway station/go to the railway station) 3. Excuse me How__________i get to the center of town (Do/will) 4. Excuse me Is this the __________________way for the railway station (Good/right) 5. Excuse me ___________where the town museum is please (Could you say me/could you tell me) 6. Excuse me _____________for the swimming pool (I look/ Im looking) 7. Excuse me Is there a bank ________________ (Near here/right here) 8. Excuse me, where the ____________________post office, please (Nearer/nearest) 9. Excuse me Do you know ___________________ (Where is the town hall/ where the town hall is) 10. Excuse me Could you _________________me directions for the motorways (Give/tell) Activity 02. (B.) Write 05 sentences of the directions, places in your school. First one is done for you. 1. The school main hall is on the opposite side of the playground. 2. .. 3 .. 4.. 5.. 6. 18. Take a song and devise a lesson plan using that song for a 45 minute lesson to 15/16 years old. Music is a great teaching tool is its universal appeal, connecting all cultures and languages. This makes it one of the best and most motivating resources in the classroom. Its not depending on their age or background of the learner. When we select a song for the classroom, it is a very difficult task. The song will be focusing the target language and help to developing their other skills also. Such as vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation, listening skill. The language level of the students, will determine not only which song we can select, but also what other activities, such as games, written exercises will use to improve the lesson. Beginner or lower levels will become extremely frustrated with fast delivered lyrics, for instance, while simple, repetitive lyrics might not be interesting for more advance level students. When we teach for young learners, want to use a song that is repetitive and very easy to understand. For teenager level students, the selected song should be fairly recent pop and rock song. Its often best to ask them whats cool. For adults, the selected song will be a more open approach to classes. Use song that is interesting and suitable their age group. Pre-listening stage Ask from students, their personal idea about the feeling of falling love with someone. And discuss with them how they feel about the situation about the breaking their heart. And now the time to play a song. A song is I dont want to talk about it. Ask for students if they have heard it before, and dont overload them with tasks at this point simply let them enjoy the music. It will take 13 minutes for discussion and play a song. The lyrics will be attached to the end of the lesson. While listening stage Give them to the simple task for first listening. Give three words from the song ask them to listen out for the words that rhythm with them. Can possible to brainstorm before listening. See below the words for them. Shadow Blue for the tears How you broke my heart Then provide a task sheet to the students with few activities. Again play a song and ask them to answer the questions for giving sheet. The task sheet will be attached to the end of the lesson. Post listening stage The time to check the answers of the students. Explain some difficult words to the students. And a third time, let them to listening to the song for clarifying their answers. Finally, give them to the sheet with the song lyrics. The lyrics will be attached here to end of the lesson. Estimated time duration will 14 minutes See below the lesson plan for teenagers of grade 15 16 level students. Name of Teacher Achini Weeratunge Date 23rd April 2018Level of Learners IntermediateTime Duration 45 minutesName of the Lesson Listening Activity- play a song I dont want to talk about it Aim At the end of the lesson, students should be able to get specific information through the song.Sub Aim to learn that new vocabulary.Personal Aim Promote interest in and motivation for music and music related activities.Assumption students familiar with the English songs.Anticipated Problem Students may not have an interest in the English songs mother tongue intemperance.Material used Audio player to play a song, Whiteboard and marker, Task sheetStageProcedureTimeInteractionprePre-listening Ask some question from the students, their personal idea about feeling of falling love with someone. And discuss, how their feeling about heart breaking situation. And play a song to the students now. Ask for students if they have heard it before, and dont overload them with tasks at this point simply let them enjoy the music.13 minutesT-SSWhile- listeningDescribe the meaning of this song. Give them to the simple task for first listening. Give three words from the song ask them to listen out for the words that rhythm with them. Can possibly to brainstorm before listening. Again play a song. B) Give them to a task sheet and let them to answer the question while play a song again. The teacher will be moveable and observing around the class. 18 MinutesT-SSPost listeningNow teacher will be checking the answers and explain some difficult words to the students. Play a song from the third time to clarifying their answers. Finally, give them to the sheet with the song lyrics.14 MinutesSS-SS The lyrics of the song I dont want to talk about it I can tell by your eyes that youve probably been crying forever,and the stars in the sky dont mean nothing to you, theyre a Mirror. I dont want to talk about it, How you broke my heart.If I stay here just a little bit longer,If I stay here, wont you listen to my heart Oh my heartIf I stand all alone, will the shadow hide the colour of my heartBlue for the tears, Black for the nights fears.The star in the sky dont mean nothing to you, theyre a mirror. I dont want to talk about it, How you broke my heart.If I stay here just a little bit longer,if I stay here, wont you listen to . Ooh heart I dont want to talk about it, How you broke this old heart.If I stay here just a little bit longer,if I stay here, wont you listen to my heart Oh my heart My heart Oh my heart. Reference Written by Danny Whitten Produced by Tom Down Album Atlantic Crossing Sing by Rod Stewart Recorded at Muscle shoals sound studio, Sheffield, AL Task sheet Activity 01. Filling the blanks while listening to the song. 1. And the _____________________ dont mean nothing to you. 2. If I stay here, just a _______________ longer. 3. If I stand all alone _________________hide the ____________ my heart. 4. Blue _________________________ black____________________ fears. 5. The star _____________dont ______________________________ mirror. Activity 02. B). Describe following words of the song. 1. Broke my heart ___________________________________________ 2. Mirror _______________________________ 3. Shadow________________________________________ 4. Tears___________________________ Reference Mwanza, D., 2017, International Journal of Humanities Social Sciences and Education (IJHSSE), PP.53-54 Merriam -Webster Dictionary Encyclopaedia Britannica online.(2015 Retrieved June 24 2015) Larissa, A.,2013, British Council English club PAGE PAGE 53 London Teacher Training College Certificate in TEFL 120 Hours Course Code TEFL120 Partner School Lanka TEFL Training Institute, Sri Lanka No 144, Sir D.B.Jayathillake Mawatha, Dehiwela, Sri Lanka. 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