De Grauwe, (2001) named this kind of organization as “Classical model’. According to this model, a supervision service in the Ministry is responsible for the definition of policies and training.
Zonal offices organize supervision in their zone, supervise secondary schools and supervise the operation of the district office. At a level closest to the school are Ward Education Officers who are helping inspectors in particular with the control of school management. The school inspection structure has been changing overtime to fit the changes which occurs in education sectors. However, the major changes were noted in 2009 where ward education coordinators as supervisors at grass root level were involved in matters pertain school inspection particularly looking at administrative issues.
Even with the changes of the structure, still there are challenges noted. Mmbando et al, (2010, p.14) challenge this top-down educational management, administrative and planning to be inefficient towards delivering educational services in Tanzania. According to Mmbando et al (2010.
ibid) school inspectorate system in Tanzania is highly bureaucratic and of a top-down hierarchical, character. Inspectors on the ground cannot take decisions on matters regarding inspection of schools before consulting the higher authorities who may have little or no knowledge about the situation on the ground. This has implications for the delivery of quality education. Wanga (1988) added that the hierarchical set up of the education system has created communication problems between school inspectors and the higher education authorities. In conclusion Kasanda (2015) recommended that in order to bring positive impact of school inspection there is a need of changing behavior of school inspectors from that of top down to that of horizontal.1.2.
6. Statement of the ProblemAgainst this complex background, Tanzania has since 2009 has witnessed continuous improvement and reforms of school information from the goals and purpose, as well as processes her school monitoring systems in the supervision service. This educational reform has taken place within a political and ideological context characterized, on the one hand, by doubts about the effectiveness of the then school inspectorate especially as an evaluator of its own action and, on the other hand, by a conviction that a more effective national demands a new public management, characterized by a greater level of decentralization and local autonomy, but also by more stringent external evaluation and an emphasis on public accountability. Despite the changes made in terms of name, the scope, core functions and structure, and the government’s efforts to strengthen quality assurance division by providing vehicles, motor bikes, and additional funds, still Quality Assurance Division is viewed the same as school inspection in terms of functions and responsibilities. In addition, since inception of the reform , there is no major changes in the quality of education in Tanzanian secondary schools. In that regards, this study thought to assess the effectiveness of transforming school inspection to quality assurance to improve quality of secondary education in Tanzania.
1.3. Purpose of the Study The overall purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of transforming school inspection to quality assurance so as to improve the quality of secondary education in Tanzania.
1.4. Objectives of the studyBased on the purpose of the study, the objectives of the study are to:a. identify the differences between quality assurance and school inspection in terms of roles and responsibilities;b. identify strategies designed and implemented to make quality assurance policy more effective in improving quality of secondary education after the reforms;c. evaluate policy strategies designed and implemented to make quality assurance policy more effective in improving quality of secondary education; d.
examine the perceptions of micro level stakeholders towards school quality assurance policy reforms made.1.5.
Research QuestionsIn the light of the foregoing objectives, the following research questions will guide this study.a. How do Quality assurance differ from school inspection in terms of roles and responsibilities and which system is expected to be most realistic in promoting quality education?b. What are the strategies designed and implemented to make quality assurance policy more effective in improving the quality of secondary education after the reforms?c. How do policy strategies designed and implemented to make quality assurance policy reforms more effective in improving quality of secondary education? d. What are the perceptions of micro level education stakeholders towards reforms made?1.
6. Significance of the StudyA study Transforming School Inspection to quality assurance to improve quality of secondary education in Tanzania is important for several reasons. First, it will be a main source informing policy and decision makers on what improvement is needed for quality assurance to have a positive impact on improving quality of secondary education. Second, it will enable the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology to see the importance of facilitating the new system so as to make sure it reaches its goals of improving quality of secondary education.
As for school Quality Assurance Division the study will enable them to see the implication of the reforms which require them to perform their duties differently from that of school inspection in order to improve quality of secondary education in Tanzania. Third, the knowledge from this study would bridge the research gap in this field and provide useful information for different stakeholders in education.