Depression Yulianna Ortiz Gonzalez HSC 4501 – Section A002 June 11, 2018 1Depression 1.Definition and Symptoms Depression is classified as a mental disorder than a disease. The scientific names for depression is Major Depressive Disorder or Clinical Depression.
This disorder is one of the most common disorders but with more serious mood pertaining to depression. For a person to be diagnosed with having depression, symptoms must be present for every day for at least two weeks. Some of the symptoms include persistently sad, anxious, or feeling emptiness, pessimism, loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies, fatigue, difficulty concentrating or remembering, difficulty sleeping.
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However, people who are diagnosed with depression won’t have every single symptom. The symptoms depend on how long they last depending on the individual. 2. Prevalence / Incidence and Mortality 2.1 Prevalence Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the United States. In 2016, there was an estimated 16.
2 million adults in the United States with at least one depressive episode. Studies have shown that the prevalence of the episode was 8.5% higher in adult females than males. In that prevalence, it kept climbing when compared to those adults being of two or more races. Also in 2016, there was an estimated 2.
2 million adolescents aged 12 to 17 in the United States that had one depressive episode 2with a severe impairment. In total, it was about 70% of adolescents with at least one severe impairment. 2.2 Incidence Studies have shown that depressions more common with people who have least access to any health care. Those people living below poverty level were nearly two and a half times more likely to have depression than those at or above the poverty level. Despite the growing numbers of depression among adolescents, there has not been enough treatment and they’re more and more people suffering from untreated depression.
Less than 20% of all Americans with moderate symptoms of depression went to go see a mental health professional in the past year. Depressive episodes can also include stressful difficulty with work, home, school, or social activities. Those rates have increased from 3.9% to 15.8% with moderate symptoms compared to those 42.8% with people severe symptoms. 2.
3 Mortality With the increasing rates of untreated depression, it has been present in at least 50% of all suicides. There was been 6% increase of people that have been diagnosed with depression and have lead to commit suicide. Today, people suffering from depression are at a 25% greater risk for committing suicide in the future. Untreated Depression is the number one risk for suicide in adolescents.
It is the third leading case of death for 15 to 24 year olds and the fourth for 10 to 14 year olds. The death rate for suicide is 11.3 3per 100,000 in the population which remains higher than the death rate of other chronic diseases such as, liver disease, Alzheimer’s, homicide, or hypertension. 3. Distribution of Depression by Person, Place, and Time Factors 3.
1 Person Factor – Gender, Age, and Race/ Ethnicity The different aspects of the person factor including, gender, age, race or ethnicity or social status can play a role in putting together why depression is at a higher rate than ever before. For age distribution, it has shown that 7.6% of Americans aged 12 and over had depression. Depression includes moderate or severe depressive symptoms every day in the past two weeks. In table 1, it shows the distribution of all age groups from 12-17, 18-39 , 40-59, 60 – over years old. The rate of depression from youth aged 12-17 has increased to 9.8% among adults from the age of 40-59 years old. In conclusion, Adults who were 60 and over had an overall lower rate of depression than those two other age groups combined.
The highest rate of depression was women aged 40-59 ( Table 1. ) 4years old at 12.3%. The lowest rates were found in men in the age groups 12-17 (4.0%) and 60-over (3.
4%). For race/ethnicity, it was shown that non-hispanic black persons had a higher rate of severe depression than non-hispanic white persons at 4.1% to 2.6%. Those non-hispanic white persons were more likely to have no depression symptoms than both non-hispanic black persons and hispanic persons. In Table 2, it shows the percentages for people aged 12 and older by depression severity, race and Hispanic origin. ( Table 2. ) 3.
2 Place Factor 5With any disease or disorder, it comes with treatment or medication. However, when certain areas in the United States or in different countries, people of different economical and social status have difficulty in receiving health care or seeing a mental health professional. Those people living below poverty live is twice more likely to have depression than those living above poverty line. In Table 3, it shows the poverty percentages of the top races living in poverty. ( Table 3. )Place factors can include work, home, and social activities.
The rates of stressful work, home, and social activities have increased the severity of depression from 45.7% to 88.0% from mild to severe symptoms. In Table 4, it shows the percentages of persons 612 and older reporting difficulty with work, home, or social events due to depressive symptoms. ( Table 4. )Depression is a global problem. In 2015, it was shown that more than 80% of low and middle income countries had depression. For example, 640 per 100,000 of the population in the Western Pacific countries is compared to the 850 per population in the low and income countries in the European countries.
In Table 5, it shows the comparison of depressive disorders of different low and middle income countries compared to the high income countries. 7( Table 5. ) 3.3 Time Factors It is noted that the elderly rates now are lower than those of adolescents and adults. However, those elderly rates now are higher than they were in the 1980s.
This is because the elderly nowadays have a longer time period at risk for forming a depressive disorder. In Table 6, it shows the a time trend of birth to 34 years old and showing a increasing cumulative incidence of major depressive episodes after the age of 14. 8The graph above is showing the youth generation now is not getting the proper education about mental disorder and how to get treated when feeling serious depressive symptoms.
Also, the pressure of society nowadays shaming people who have mental illnesses. 4. Summary of Potential Hypothesis 4.1 Hypothesis for “Person” Factor As shown, gender is the highest risk factor for depression. Women are at two times more at risk from suffering from depression than men.
This is including men in different cultures and most age groups. One hypothesis is a women being unmarried or losing their partners through separation or death can lead to increased risk for severe depressive episodes. Younger adults have a higher rate than older adults because the stressors they have with school and social support involving threat and danger from others.
4.2 Hypothesis for “Place” Factor This hypothesis is due to the lower and middle income parts of the world where those people have a harder time acquiring the proper treatments and medications for their depression. Lower and middle income groups are also more prone to increase of drug use and suicide for not receiving the proper treatment for their depression.
However, depression is one of the most treatable mental disorders in the world. 4.3 Hypothesis for “Time” Factor It was noted that the younger generation is harsher to kids now then ever before.
With new technology arising and different ways to bully someone through different social media, there is an increase risk for youth to have depression or depressive symptoms 9now. Most adolescents these days feel like they do not have the social support and parental support in their life so they are left untreated and every day is a struggle to live every day. This leads to the rate of mortality rates of suicides among adolescents having depression. 5. Suggested Areas for Further Epidemiological Research I believe the researchers need to start focusing on how we can implement more education for youth about depression and showing them the signs in someone who could be showing depressive symptoms. As being one of the most treatable mental disorders, most people around the world remain undiagnosed. I believe trying to identify subgroups in each person, place, and time factor that have the increased rate of depression could help try to find the correct resources for each of those individuals and reduce the number of suicides in our youth. 10References: 1.
Definition: Depression. (2018, February). Retrieved June 10, 2018, from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/depression/index.shtml 2.Prevalence: Depression in the U.
S. Household Population, 2009-2012. (2014, December 03). Retrieved June 10, 2018, from https://www.
Incidence: Depression in the U.S. Household Population, 2009-2012. (2014, December 03). Retrieved June 10, 2018, from https://www.
cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db172.htm 4.Mortality: 5.
Factors: Harvard Health Publishing. (2009, June). What causes depression? – Harvard Health. Retrieved June 10, 2018, from https://www.
health.harvard.edu/mind-and-mood/what-causes-depression 1.Person Factor: Depression in the U.S. Household Population, 2009-2012. (2014, December 03).
Retrieved June 10, 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db172.
htm 2.Place Factor: Depression in the U.S. Household Population, 2009-2012. (2014, December 03).
Retrieved June 10, 2018, from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db172.htm 3.Time Factor: Wittchen, H. U., PhD, ; Uhmann, S. (2010, October 04).
The timing of depression: An epidemiological perspective. Retrieved June 10, 2018, from https://www.medicographia.
com/2010/10/the-timing-of-depression-an-epidemiological-perspective/ 116. Hypothesis: Wittchen, H. U., PhD, ; Uhmann, S. (2010, October 04). The timing of depression: An epidemiological perspective. Retrieved June 10, 2018, from https://www.medicographia.
com/2010/10/the-timing-of-depression-an-epidemiological-perspective/ 7. Further Research: Depression Is on the Rise in the U.S.
, Especially Among Young Teens. (2017, October 30). Retrieved June 10, 2018, from https://www.mailman.columbia.edu/public-health-now/news/depression-rise-us-especially-among-young-teens 12