Developmental Psychopathology Case Study Essay
Developmental Psychopathology Case Study Essay
Johnny’s Case Study
The DSM-5 Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure is important in assessing the mental health of an individual and performing an accurate diagnosis in psychotherapy (Dziegielewski, 2015). In this case, Johnny who is the patient has been assessed to provide an accurate diagnosis of the underlying medical condition that he may be suffering from. After analyzing the DSM-5 Parent/Guardian-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure chart, Johnny who is the patient has issues in engaging in the normal activities and has problems in controlling his behavior at a young age (Davis ; Suveg, 2014). This has affected his performance as well as interactions with the teachers and her mother. Based on this information, the next process will involve referring Johnny to a counselor since his behavior is a danger to those surrounding him (Dziegielewski, 2015).
The most dominant appropriate diagnosis for Johnny is disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD). This type of disorder is common in children and symptoms of this disorder include anger outburst, irritability, and mood swings, which may result in temper outbursts (Allely et al., 2012). These signs and symptoms are sometimes serious that a child may require medical attention, as is the case with Johnny. Johnny has had numerous visits to the principal all triggered by various disruptive behaviors. Johnny also impulsively stabbed a teacher in the arm with a pencil when the teacher grabbed him by the shoulders after he yelled at the teacher. Johnny has also issues in functioning while in school and at home. All these signs and symptoms have been present for over a year, which may be attributed to the disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (Allely et al., 2012).
Another dominant diagnosis for Johnny is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as the patient has issues in engaging in the normal activities and has problems in controlling his behavior at a young age (Davis ; Suveg, 2014). This type of disorder is common in children between the age of 7 and 13 years, which can last up to 6 months or even more depending on the patient and the steps taken to address the disorder (Davis ; Suveg, 2014). The disorder may negatively affect children in their school performance as well as interactions with the teachers or other pupils. Due to their inability to control their anger, they can have anger outburst, which may result to issues that are more serious with their supervisors (Davis ; Suveg, 2014).
After analyzing the DSM-5 Parent/Guardian-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure chart, John has several indications, which are attributed to this condition. These include problems in focusing on given tasks and problems in following directions given by his teachers and her mother (Davis ; Suveg, 2014). Another diagnosis, which is less dominant, is oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) which is a disorder, which may affect even the best-behaved children (Horga, Kaur, ; Peterson, 2014). This may result in challenging and difficult times for the child leading to uncommon behaviors. Some of the signs and symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder include persistent patterns of anger issues, being defiance to orders and instructions, and irritability (Horga, Kaur, ; Peterson, 2014). These signs are all present in Johnny after an analysis of the DSM-5 Parent/Guardian-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure scores.
Excluding Other Diagnosis
Although there are other diagnosis closely related and share symptoms of irritability and temper outbursts, a deeper analysis of Johnny’s symptoms have excluded certain diagnosis from the case study (Caplan, Neece, & Baker, 2015). Anxiety disorders, which have the same symptoms, have been excluded from the diagnosis. This is because being anxious is normal for everyone including young children because of certain circumstances and situations (Caplan, Neece, & Baker, 2015). Although Johnny has some of the signs and symptoms of anxiety disorders, anxiety disorders are serious issues, which may prevent an individual from carrying out the normal activities of life. Anxiety disorders are more common in older individuals, which is not the case for Johnny (Caplan, Neece, & Baker, 2015).
Johnny does not have constant worry and fear which is a symptom of anxiety disorders. Johnny is also able to carry out the normal life activities. This excludes an anxiety disorder diagnosis (Caplan, Neece, & Baker, 2015). Another excluded diagnosis that may be affecting Johnny is the major depressive disorder, which has close related symptoms to the present symptoms identified in Johnny (Caplan, Neece, & Baker, 2015). This disorder is common after individuals have experienced serious life issues like the loss of a loved one or when undergoing a challenging life situation which is not so for Johnny. Johnny has not had a history of any challenging situation as indicated in the DSM-5 Parent/Guardian-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure chart (Caplan, Neece, & Baker, 2015).
A Discussion Regarding If You Would Assess That “Johnny” Needs a Formal Referral to a Pediatric Psychiatrist/Psychologist/Counselor and Rationale for Your Choice
Johnny needs a formal referral to a pediatric psychiatrist/psychologist/counselor because the behavioral patterns have already caused negative effects in his life and those surrounding him (Dziegielewski, 2015). This issue has affected the patient by affecting his grades in school, which if not addressed, may continue to affect his performance in school, which will lead to a negative outcome. Johnny has also had numerous visits to the principal’s office for the past one year due to the disruptive behaviors that he is having. Regardless of the visits, Johnny’s issues have not been addressed which makes them a major concern (Dziegielewski, 2015).
Johnny’s behavior have also resulted to the use of vulgar language on his teachers and resulted in violence after he attacked a teacher. This happened after the teacher grabbed Johnny where he stabbed the teacher with a pencil on his arm prompting the teacher to call the police. This behavior is dangerous attributed to the fact that Johnny interacts with students in school (Dziegielewski, 2015). Johnny has also been stubborn repeatedly challenging his mother’s authority with Johnny opting to play instead of doing his homework. This has led to his mother becoming very worried seeking help that can help her son. All these negative results have been caused by Johnny’s behavior and must be addressed immediately to prevent more serious issues from arising (Dziegielewski, 2015).
Allely, C.S., Doolin, O., Gillberg, C., Puckering, C., Smillie, M., Golding, J., ; Wilson, P. (2012). Can Psychopathology at Age 7 Be Predicted from Clinical Observation at One Year? Evidence from the ALSPAC Cohort. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 33(6), 2292-2300.
Caplan, B., Neece, C. L., ; Baker, B. L. (2015). Developmental Level and Psychopathology: Comparing Children with Developmental Delays to Chronological and Mental Age Matched Controls. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 37, 143–151.
Davis, M. ; Suveg, C. (2014). Focusing on the Positive: A Review of the Role of Child Positive Affect in Developmental Psychopathology. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 17(2), 97-124.
Dziegielewski, S. F. (2015). DSM-5 in action. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley ; Sons.
Horga, G., Kaur, T., ; Peterson, B. S. (2014). Annual Research Review: Current limitations and future directions in MRI studies of child- and adult-onset developmental psychopathologies. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 55(6), 659-680.