Dr

Dr. Oriet
06-85-118
September 28th, 2018
Total Cost Minimization
The world today is a very technologically advanced planet. From laptops getting smaller and their processors getting faster to automobiles soon turning completely electric. All these innovations are made possible by engineers. However, engineers are also the reason why these expensive products have only decreased in price while the technology has been improving. The decrease in price is because engineers help companies find ways to achieve total cost minimization even in high cost economies. Engineers help these companies by designing production methods that increase efficiency. The most common method is the practice of the assembly line, which was designed by a man named Henry Ford and is widely known as the greatest technological advancement of the twentieth century.
Total cost minimization is very important to engineers in high cost economies because over the last century, all aspects of the manufacturing process have drastically increased in price. From labour, rent, insurance and other factors. The prices of labour in todays society have sky rocketed with the minimum wage in Canada currently at fourteen dollars per hour (Ontario.gov.ca). Due to this, the risk of many products increasing in price is at large. The price of transporting goods from factories to stores has also increased in price due to the cost of fuel growing. Due to these factors it is common for companies to move their production out of high cost economies and into third world countries. The reason for this is the profit margin being made in these expensive areas is much too low, to cover the large cost companies have to pay out. The main issue engineers have with the outsourcing of production is that it often leads to workers in other countries being treated poorly due to unfair pay, unsafe working conditions and many other negative factors. As well, often the safety standards in the manufacturing process in other countries are not equivalent to safety standards in first world countries making safety a large concern for infant toys and certain foods that are manufactured over seas.
Mass production by the use of an assembly line was first introduced by a man named Henry Ford. He used manufacturing engineering to reduce the prices of cars in the early 1900’s. Ford had a vision to creating automobiles that were more affordable to the average American in the early 1900’s. This was because the cost of owning and buying an automobile at those times was extremely expensive due to the amount of inefficiencies in the building process. The automotive factories at that time relied heavily on skilled labour, because there was not much of a need for unskilled workers at that time due to the fact there was not much technology behind the production, meaning each bolt had to be put on with the specific specifications by a skilled mechanic. In those days there was not yet precise machines that could tighten bolts with the specific torque needed to correctly build the vehicle. Due to the need for skilled labour, the salaries for the people working on the production was very high. The high salaries for the skilled workers reflected directly in the price of the cars. However, Ford saw that there had to be a better way to make the manufacturing process much more efficient and require less skilled labour. After using the trial and error method, Henry concluded that when people are working in a line with each other, much more can get done. Ford’s company operated with people working in a line with each other for a few months until, it was realized that the major inefficiency in production was that workers were walking much to far of a distance to get parts from one station of assembly to the next, and this was taking a lot of time. The way Henry reacted to this issue would be how lives would forever change. Henry innovated the method of people just working in a line to assemble parts, with a conveyor belt. The purpose of the conveyor belt was to have the parts come to the workers instead of the workers going to pick up the individual parts. The use of the conveyor belt proved that each worker had no excuse to leave their work station because all the parts that were needed would come directly to them. When Henry implemented the conveyor along the assembly line in “1913 the price for the Model T plummeted from $825 to just $290.” (history.com) This was obviously a drastic price reduction, which made for people all over the world to be able to finally afford to drive.
The assembly line first used by Henry Ford in the early 1900’s never lost its significance. In fact, the idea of mass production by using assembly lines is used more than ever in todays age. From vehicles to computers and cell phones, all these items are mass produced and therefore become affordable to people in society. The practice of mass production has allowed the way people learn and store information extremely easier by making laptops, computers and cellphones much cheaper. The way society relies on technology is very important, without affordable computers and cell phones many would not be able to afford attending school because the use of technology is relied on heavily in todays curriculum. The way engineers have been able to innovate so many products are using different assembly line procedure to mass produce objects. For example, in the auto manufacturing industry the use of automated welding and specialty tools than can tighten bolts to the exact torque spec have come into play cutting overall cost of production down. As well along production lines that make cell phones and computers, engineers have designed machines that can accurately wire and assemble items at a much faster and more accurate rate than humans ever could.
The assembly line is the most significant technological innovation of the twentieth century, with the increasing price in most economies around the world. The cost of production is set to rise, due to the increase in economies, the price of labour, materials and location costs. Due to the increase in the cost of production, the price in which consumers purchase these products will increase as well. If prices go too high, consumers will not be able to to afford everyday essentials or extra luxuries. This problem can have a direct effect on the companies and people of society because companies will not be able to produce the consumer demands for these products. The assembly line allows companies to produce large amount of quantities at a faster rate, using less human labour therefore decreasing the overall price of the product. Due to the increase in human labour in the past few years, companies have had to rely heavily on the use of robotic technologies. The robotic technologies allow for better accuracy than humans due to the natural occurrence of human error. Also, the robots/machines can be programmed to work when companies want, and don’t require wages and labour laws do not apply for machines. Therefore, if a company automates most of their production methods they can produce products cheaper making the amount they sell for in store significantly less. The assembly line is very important to society today because with the current population growing, we need access to large quantities of products at reasonable prices. If this were not the case, poverty would be an even larger problem then it currently is in todays society because most people will not be able to afford to support their families if products were exponentially increasing.
However, a problem most people in the twentieth century society have with factories turning to automated production methods is the decrease in jobs due to the machines being able to produce much more than humans could produce and with greater accuracy. Though, the total opposite is the outcome of automated production. This is because the machines require maintenance teams to ensure they run efficiently without the risk of a breakdown which would stop or reduce production. This means skilled technicians are needed to look after the machines which requires a certification, leading to better pay and benefits. In todays society there is no shortage of work for factory machine technicians. As well, people with technician certifications are much more employable in todays every growing society that requires some sort of education to get a good stable job, ensuring a better life for their families giving them more opportunities. The rise in pay and increase in opportunity is all thanks to the innovation of the assembly line, making it the most significant technological advancement of the twentieth century.
The importance of mass production and the assembly line is crucial to society in the coming years, especially with the increase in population the world will be faced with by twenty-fifty. The rate at which companies will be expected to produce at will be exponential, however to keep up with the demand and keep the costs of these products reasonable will be a challenge. Engineers must continue to innovate current procedures in the way companies produce items, with a goal that with the more items produced the less the items will cost.
In conclusion, the invention and innovation of the assembly line has changed the lives of society forever. Without the implementation of the assembly line it is not for sure cars would have become so popular. As well, without the use of automation in todays expensive society there would not be enough quantity of products for the prices they can be purchased for. With the cost in economies worldwide set to increase in the coming years, the use and innovation of assembly lines will prove crucial to society having access to products in the needed quantity and desired price, achieving total cost minimization.

Works Cited

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Dr

Dr. King was an inspiration, courageous African-American individual who was known for making an impact during the Civil Rights Movement. Dr. King is a great example of the people of the world going beyond the narrow concerns of themselves and embracing humanity. King says the human individual are all-equal no matter the tribe, class or nation. On page 24 in Strength to love King mention how the real tragedy of such narrow provincialism is that we see people as entitles or merely as things. In this same chapter King uses a story about a man who went down from Jerusalem to Jericho and robbers beat him and left him to die. It was only the Samaritan who was moved with compassion to help the wounded man. He used this example from the bible to explain that a neighbor is anyone who is in need and we should look beyond his or her race. I am a Christian so I can relate to this passage in the bible very well. I believe this passage is a great example to reflect on because if a Samaritan could be a neighbor to a Jew then we can be a neighbor to others. The Samaritans in the bible had no dealings with the Jews because they had different religion views. In spite of their different views, this man decided to break the barriers and bring peace by helping the certain man. The story Dr. King told about the three members of a Negro college basketball team who were injured in a car accident was saddening. These men were injured but when the driver arrives he wanted nothing to do with them because of their color. I have never been the person to deny someone based on his or her skin color. We area all made from the image of God and all made of dust. I know this event probably occurred because of the time period it happened it but this type of act is egotistical. Although these kinds of stories are tragic, they teach us good lessons: to treat everybody as equal, no matter their race, culture, etc.

Dr

Dr. Dunja Degmecic, Ivan Pozgain and Pavo Filakovic’s article Music as Therapy introduces their thoughts regarding the significance of communicating thoughts in various courses through music, as part as any experience we have managed in our youth. It investigates the individual’s emotions and helpful issues. The authors assign music therapy as a structured use of music to assist people of all ages in times of need. Throughout the article, music is utilized as a medium for contact, communication and experience. The central role of music activities is to achieve mental peace. The doctors summarize that in order to seek out their relaxations through music, the musical expressions that lie in inner psychic tensions, must be released, ultimately forming healthy feelings and many more outcomes. Without a meaning in life, the doctors imply the possible experience of emptiness and loneliness that lead to apathy and despair in certain times. Furthermore, the doctors insist that this need for meaning discloses the individual who is forming, achieving or receiving music can thus use eloquent musical structures to create his or her own world into a meaningful sum. The doctors focus on the process of receiving, performing and creating music, as there is always a continuous movement between the past, present, and future. Overall, it means that we can find it in some of our own meaningful structures of experience. I fully support the doctors who found meaning to accept and bear the concept of music as therapy. However, I slightly disagree that doctors found that this theory of meaning held true for all people. Overall, they have had great success in working with patients by helping them locate in their own lives meanings of love, work, and suffering.

I particularly chose this article because of its interesting concepts along with the relevant events of stress and anxiety that occur in anyone’s daily life especially mine. This leads to one of my reactions of the relationship I saw between music and the unconscious, which I found very interesting. The ideas given by the author is a reliable approach to understanding how my unconscious mind is regulated by music. Listening to the right type music immediately makes things better as the music spontaneously brings to my mind meaningful memories, wiping out the pain and anxiety. . This appeals to the ideas about anxiety, standards, and aggression discussed later in the article. One of the agreement points is when music is exposed into our ears, our unconscious thought work accelerates, and one way we may respond is with unwinding — on the grounds that our dream or mental pictures are stirred. Dr. Dunja Degmecic, Ivan Pozgain and Pavo Filakovic implied that ” utilization of music and music treatment is profoundly compelling in creating adapting methodologies, including understanding and communicating sentiments of tension and defenselessness… impartial condition for unwinding”. (Music as Therapy). The symbolic material introduced amid the sessions of serious music treatment is in association with dream work and dream pictures since they have comparative oblivious structures. They remarked the words that came frequently to mind by the founder of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud, that “dreams are the royal road to the unconscious”. If humans are driven by the aggressive or pleasant impulses buried deep in the unconscious minds, between the conflict of society’s demands and early childhood memories, then the condensation of thoughts carry on similar unconscious structures to understanding the human unconscious symbolic processes. In the article, From the Music and the Unconscious Mind: A Proposed Study Examining the Autonomic Nervous System in Response to Basic Musical Rhythms, Sarah Schwanz, states how the music techniques allow the cerebrum and body assimilate unconscious internal rhythm procedures that can synchronize to beats, ultimately forming rhythm (Grahn 2012). The unconscious process buried deep in the brain can be heavily influenced by the type of music I listen to and actually has the ability to change my perception of the world. In further agreement, the opportunities gained by the music therapy has a wide set of positive effects. The article states how music may decrease pain, increase our social skills, and how movement, pitch and rhythm can be used to reinforce emotional learning of other important information. Hillecke T, Nickel A, Bolay HV mentions how “given that music connects with an assortment of mind regions associated with feeling, inspiration, cognizance, and engine capacities, melodic intercessions have been utilized to expand socialization and psychological, enthusiastic, and neuromotor working” 33-38. The effects are fully supported by article “Effects of music and music therapy on mood in neurological patients”. I clearly view the causing and effecting factor, making me gain a better knowledge of how music can change the way I feel, which is also crucial to understanding how my thoughts and anxiety are released from my stream of consciousness. From the moment music is being played, it builds up these grasping feelings, creating a unique perspective in the environment, which is significantly effective. Nonetheless, the article’s profound details with its valid and striking examples of our everyday lives makes the doctors’ article worth agreeing to me.

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Although I didn’t find any disagreement points in the article, there is only one concept in the article that discusses music therapy being applied to various patients with illness. The doctors specify how the sick individuals who contain a particular psycho-neuroimmunology, for example, nervousness issue, depressive issue, maniacal scatters, and so on, will have a significant impact of music treatment. I can only acknowledge that brains of the general population with a disorder can be enhanced but not rehabilitate. Maratos AS, Gold C, Wang X, Crawford MJ imply the possibility of the music therapy effectiveness for most patients but do not verify its incredibility for all . “To the degree regard neurological disperses, MT may progress viable recovery and moreover upgrade social and mental outcomes, for instance, socialization, motivation, perspective, and despairing” Maratos AS, Gold C, Wang X, Crawford MJ 56. While reading throughout the article’s passage, I would have to slightly disagree that the therapy would turn out to be staggeringly relieved by the melodic treatment, mainly because the complexity of disorder is wide and difficult to study, which has impeded development of drug treatments for mental illnesses. Also due to absence of providing any contemporary statistics in the article, the authors fail to provide support for their claim. In addition, without given any statistics of this treatment improvement, variety of questions arose in my head such as: How can we certainly guarantee that music therapy is the utter benefit of ill individuals from music expose? The effectiveness is surely there, but is it really that powerful to cure the intricate way the mental person’s mind is designed? Wouldn’t the absence of music cause more uncertainty to the ill person , returning the depressive or anxiety disorder thoughts back into the mind? Of course, the mental person can’t rely on music for the rest of his or her life. Without any up- to date critical contrasts in social measures among solid and rationally sick people, the examination does not support the utilization of improvisational music treatment for side effect decrease in youngsters with range issue.

Throughout the article, the practices of music classes, in which the music specialists have incorporated into their treatment, haven mentioned the positive or optimistic effects of the individuals. Having to include negative effects such as possible hearing damage or failure to rehabilitate through music therapy, could leave the readers more knowledgeable about the general aspects of music therapy. However, speaking nearby the shared trait, consistency and suppositions of security related with it, music shapes an imaginable affectation that animate responses .Thus, I strongly recommend Dr. Dunja Degmecic, Ivan Pozgain and Pavo Filakovic’s article to persons who are going through a difficult time can prompt constructive development on the individual’s characteristics by expanding its chances to: receive positive types of conduct which would resolve clashes, instigating more grounded family and companion connections. Many people in no doubt, have many ways on how to achieve it or know how to handle the feelings of anxiety subjectively. However, this is an efficacious treatment for humans, and can be hopefully applied to whom are affiliated with cognitive and communication needs. Music is everywhere and will always affect us in its own special way. In the meantime, let music allow our flow of unconscious thoughts to release a new kind of environment in our minds. We all may be dealing a particular problem in a certain way, but we are all going through similar unique experiences under the influence of music together.

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