Due to the rapidgrowth of world population after World War II, there has been a dramaticincrease in the demand for all kind of natural resources such as fresh water,wood, land and energy. A range of environmental crises such as climate change,global warming, overfishing, deforestation and water pollution, have arisenassociated with increasing human activities and resources consumption ,andthose problems can have severe ramifications both on the ecosystem and ourlives. Therefore, many countries and organizations have adopted measures inassisting on environmental protection. This essay is going to reviews fivedifferent approaches that taken by governments in order to tackle environmentalchallenges: renewable energy utilization, driving restriction policies, fishingrules, reforestation programs and wastewater recycling.
One effectivemeasure that help our planet reduce global carbon dioxide emissions isrenewable energy utilization. It is well known that burning of fossil fuels andcoal can emit a number of air pollutants to the atmosphere, which is one ofmain causes to global warming and climate change. In order to minimize thenegative impacts, many countries nowadays use renewable energy such as biomassenergy, wind and solar energy instead of fossil fuels to produce electricityfor industrial processes and home heating. Germany is one example of economicdevelopment based on renewable energy. In 2016, Germany government has invested26 billion euros on their renewable energy production programs, and so far,these huge investment has pay off (Ball, 2017). According GermanRenewable Energy federation (BEE),Germany were able to produce more than 35percent of their total electricity power in the first six months of 2017 byusing wind turbines, solar panels ,and which means by using green power,Germany would avoid the release of million tons of carbon dioxide emissionsever year (Lorraine, 2017). Drivingrestriction is another practical approach that taken by the Chinese governmentfor reduction of air pollution. As household incomes in China have risensubstantially in the last three decades, many families could afford to switchtheir bikes to private cars.
However, this rapid increase in private vehicleson the roads have caused immediate and long term effects on urban air qualitydue to vehicular emissions. In order to address air pollution and trafficcongestion in Beijing, the local government has implemented a series of drivingrestriction policy. To be more specific, all private automobiles are put intofive groups based on their last digit number of license plate number and thecars in each group cannot be driven on a designated week day (Gu, Deakin, & Long, 2015). The governmentintroduced that driving restriction policy in hopes that people would ditchtheir private vehicles and take public transportation such as subway and a buson that day.
This was in hopes to help alleviate some of the air pollution and thetraffic problems in Beijing. As a result of the driving restriction policy, ithelps take one fifth of the city’s cars off the road and reduce severalhundreds of tons of vehicular emissions each weekday (Lanlan, Jintao, Xinye, & Ping, 2014). Many countriesimpose very strict fishing regulations and rules to help control and reduce theeffects of overfishing. Take New Zealand as an example, fishing has always beena way to connect with nature and tradition for Kiwis. However, concerns aboutthe sustainability of certain fish stocks could be raised because of continualincreases in the demand for recreational fishing, along with competition withcommercial fishing.
In order to conserve these important marine resource forcurrent and future generation, the government of New Zealand have applied aseries of fishing rules and restrictions that people need to be follow whenfishing in New Zealand. For example, according to Ministry for PrimaryIndustries New Zealand (2017), no matter it is commercial fishing orrecreational fishing, people can only catch a certain number of fish andshellfish daily. In addition, there are additional restrictions on size limits,season, fishing areas, type of species and type of tools used for fishing (Ministry for Primary Industries New Zealand, 2017).
Furthermore,offenders will receive a big fines up to $250,000 in a result of offencesagainst the fisheries Act. Those rules not only help protect and sustain thecountry’s natural resource, but also the marine environment. Reforestation isan effective mitigation strategy which commonly used by many countries to fightwith deforestation. It is true that deforestation has numerous of negativeeffects on the environment .
For instance, the most immediate impact ofdeforestation is habitat destruction which could lead to the extinction ofhundreds of species in forests. Furthermore, deforestation is considered to bea contributing factor to global warming. In order to relieve the effects ofdeforestation on the Amazon rainforests and climate change, a new reforestationproject which support by the Brazilian government is activated in 2017.Thisproject will use a new technique to plant trees, and 73 million tress areexpecting to plant over the next six years (Townsend, 2017). Townsend (2017)also mentioned that this project is the largest tropical forest restorationproject in the world, which would help Brazil meet its Paris Agreementobjective of reforesting 12 million hectares of land by 2030 (Townsend, 2017).Moreover, thislarge-scale reforestation could help rebuild the ecosystem of the Amazonforests, and absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) in the air. In other words, the benefitsof this replanting project are not only locally, but accrue globally. Wastewaterrecycling is one of practical method that utilized for reducing eliminating, orpreventing water pollution.
Water is one of most vital resources in theplanet because not only do humans dependent on clean water to live but so doesour ecosystem. However, billions of tons of industrial wastes are produceddumped into rivers, lakes and oceans around the world each year, whichpoisoning water resources and threatening the environment. Pulp and paper mill,for example, is a major industrial sector that utilize a huge amountof bleaching chemicals and water during the manufacturing process (National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council, 1999). If these chemical and toxiceffluent directly goes into rivers without suitable treatment, this can largelyharm human health and the local ecosystem.
In order to eliminate unnecessarypollution from industrial processes, many industries use wastewater treatmentand recycling systems to remove a variety of contaminants from water to make itusable again (Dooley, n.d.) .This practice helpsreduce industrial pollution output and maintain a balanced ecosystem.