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EASTERN AND SOUTH AFRICAN MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE P.O. Box 3030 Tel 255 27250838/5/7/8 Arusha-Tanzania Fax 255 27 2508285 E-mail [email protected] ASSESSMENT OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION WITH SERVICE DELIVERY BY ZANZIBAR ELECTRICITY CORPORATION ACASE STUDY OF NORTHERN REGION OF UNGUJA ISLAND BY THABIT SALUM KHAMIS A Research Proposal Submitted to the State University of Zanzibar (SUZA) And Eastern and Southern Management Institute (ESAMI) In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Business Administration 2017 CHAPTER ONE Introduction to the study The study assesses customer satisfaction on services delivery by Zanzibar Electricity Corporation whereby Northern Region of Unguja Island will be used as a case study in this important assessment. This chapter focuses on the detailed background of the assessment, defining the problem (problem statement), stating the purpose of the study, research objectives, and significance of the study and scope of the study. This assessment will attempt to explore the factors affecting the performance of customer services delivery by ZECO for internal, external and other stakeholders. Among important indicators to prove that customers are satisfied with the services given by Zanzibar Electricity Corporation are Quality and reliability of the service delivered to the customer in real time Background and History of Electricity Sector In Zanzibar The development of the electricity sector in Zanzibar started in the beginning of the 20th century. In the year 1908, coal-fired generators were first installed to provide electricity in Unguja Island. In 1954 the coal technology was abandoned and diesel generators introduced and used until 1980, when Unguja Island was connected to the Tanzania National Grid, through a 132kV, 45MW sub-marine cable. In May 2013 the new sub-marine cable 132kV, 100MW was put in to use to replace the submarine cable which is currently used as an emergency back-up. Public electricity supply in Pemba Island was installed in 1958, with the commissioning of the Tibirinzi power station. Over the years additional small generating units were installed by the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar, in response to the growing demand. In 1985, the Government commissioned Wesha power station to replace Tibirinzi power station, with three diesel generators sets of 1.5MW each. To date, Pemba Island connected with national grid by Sub marine cable from Pangani via Majani Mapana Tanga to Ras Mkumbuu Pemba, with the capacity of 20MW, 33kV. The main functions of ZECO according to the Zanzibar Electricity Corporation Act No.3 of 2006 are The establishment, acquisition maintenance and operation of works and undertakings for the generation, transmission, transformation, distribution and supply of electricity to consumers in Zanzibar The investigation of new or additional facilities for the generation and supply of electricity within Zanzibar To construct or erect and to maintain or alter machinery and plant, electrical distribution lines and any other works To enter into agreements for purchase of electricity in bulk from independent power producers within or outside Zanzibar for resale to consumers Background of the Study Satisfaction of a service quality to a customer is determined in terms of functional quality and technical quality. Generally, most customers have few information or do not bother much on technical aspects of service or product, hence, functional quality becomes a fragile issue to be taken with great care due to the fact that, most customers consider it as a perception of service quality. Service quality might also be defined as a customer perception on how a given service or product delivered by service product whether meets or exceeds their expectation. Moreover, quality of service delivered to a customer can also be determined by considering a number of factors such as the attitude of customer, customer satisfaction, perception of customer and expectation of customer. The evaluation of service quality leads to customer satisfaction (Ekinci, 2003). Also (Oliver and Rsut, 1994) define satisfaction as the fulfillment of customer response The fulfillment of response is an evaluation as well as an emotional based response to given service delivered by service providers. Service quality is determined by the differences between customers expectations of service providers performance and their evaluation of the services they received. The association between customer satisfaction and quality of service is regarded as a big strategic concern of greater significance, (e.g. Bolton and Drew, 1991 Cronin and Taylor, 1992). As a matter of fact, conducting a research exercise in this area suggests that service quality is an important indicator of customer satisfaction. Service quality is also attractive to retail banks as a competitive differentiator (Newman, 2001) On the other hand, researchers also focused that there has been considerable debate regarding the basic dimensions of service quality as well as the measurement of these dimensions. A number of researchers have provided lists of quality determinants. Johnston (1997, p 111) also mentioned Definitely, the best-known determinants of service quality come from two groups of researchers, Parasuraman and colleagues in the USA and Johnston and colleagues in the UK. In this study, the assessment of factors affecting customer satisfactions in ZECO as a sole power utility in Zanzibar which, serves the Island of Unguja and Pemba will be carefully examined using different research approaches to achieve the desired goals.. Globally, the demand for reliable power supply which is affordable, environmentally friendly has been increased so drastically due to industrializations and modern way of life which necessitate the need for improving customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is an evaluation of the difference between prior expectations and the actual performance of a given service or product. In order to achieve business goals, satisfaction of customers with service delivered or product is inevitable and is considered as among important factor leading toward competitiveness and success (Herning-Thuram and Klee, 1997). Customer satisfaction is the evaluation conducted by customer for ongoing performance achieved by the service provider. According to Kim, Park and Jeeng, (2004), customer satisfaction is treated as customers reaction on the state of satisfaction, and his or her judgment on satisfaction level. Deng et al, (2009) the capability of service provider to deliver highest degree of satisfaction is very crucial success factor for product. So, in order to get success in business, we are reiterating that Customer satisfaction is utmost important factor in todays World of competitive business environment. Generally, the strong relationship between service provider and customer can be built through highest degree of customer satisfaction level. Example for the previous 7 years, in Zanzibar Electricity Corporation (ZECO) there was no formal call center that could be used by customers to report their complaints however recently, the Management of ZECO has established a calling center whereby customers report their complaints for quick solution and the way forward. In Tanzania, there are two State owned power utilities namely TANESCO and ZECO which operate in Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar respectively. Likewise many power utilities in Africa, TANESCO and ZECO are also facing a number of challenges related to unsatisfactory customer services, which to a greater extent affect both customer satisfactions and profitability of the Companies. Among factors affecting TANESCO and ZECO to provide quality customer services are – Energy losses both Commercial and Technical Losses Overloaded power distribution networks Vandalism of power infrastructures Non-cost reflective tariff structures Political intervention on electricity business operations Dependency on unreliable sources of power generations such as hydro Some Government Ministries do not pay their bills regularly Nonconductive working environment Leadership skills Huge debts from commercial banks Unaccountability and ignorance of workers Over the years, many ZECO customers have been struggling to get good quality of services whereby some of them think that, they have been treated so due to imperfect competition caused by monopolistic nature of electricity business. However, some customers are on the opinion that, the power utilities should be privatized to increase level of commitment as far as customer satisfaction and profitability are concerned. Despite several efforts made by ZECO to address the issue of customer satisfaction, they are still a lot to be done to reach the acceptable range which will satisfy todays customer. Among the important approach in addressing quality issue is to replace post-paid meters to prepaid meters to help customers avoid suspicious/over billing, incorrect readings and etc. Previously, all customers used to go to the vending stations to recharge their meters but row thank to the new technology, customers can use their mobile phone to buy electricity without queuing at the vending stations. ZECO has also inaugurating call center to enable customers making direct call to the center to ask for customer services for their particular problem Purpose of the study The purpose of the study is to conduct an assessment of customer satisfaction with services delivery by Zanzibar Electricity Corporation. The study will cover NORTHERN REGION OF UNGJA ISLAND whereby tourism activities are growing very rapidly. So, in order to support Government initiatives to promote tourism industry in Zanzibar, it is utmost important to investigate the quality of customer services delivery particularly supplying of reliable power to the luxurious hotels scattered everywhere in the Northern Region. In this study, it has been decided to pin-point Northern-region of Unguja due to its potential in revenue collection as well as its growth in power sector. Statement of the Problem Due to rapid increase of power demand in Zanzibar, it is necessary to expand the power distribution networks, customer service centers and new reliable sources of power generations to cater for the requirements. In order to convince International investors to invest in our Country for tourism, small and large scale industries, health care and etc, the reliable power supply shall be treated as inevitable issue. So, the term reliable power supply is very complex due to its nature, it consist of electricity service on 24/7 modality, easiest means of recharging the meters for prepaid systems, correct bills for post paid customers, receiving correct bills on timely manner, easy way for paying bills whether at cash collecting points or using electronic means such as banking systems or mobile payments. The reliability of supply also refers to how quick ZECO shall restore power to the customers having breakdown whether planned or unplanned outage, how customer queries are handling by ZECO staff, how call center clerk talk to incoming calls from the customers having small or big problem, what will be the welcoming remarks received by customer from customer care clerk, is it warm, harsh or else As a matter of fact, researcher cannot conduct effective research work on customer satisfactions in the power sector without consider the reliability of services in real time. The reliability of services also refer to how quick ZECO electrify new customers who have already made the payment for new power connection at their premises including domestic usage, small business , factories or hotel To avoid unnecessary delays, ZECO has formulated a Customer charter to be used as guidance to provide better customer services in real time as an effort to meet customer satisfactions. Despite the fact that, ZECO in collaboration with her parent Ministry of Energy have made tremendous effort in addressing these shortfalls which are beyond reasonable doughty, affect the customer satisfactions, more work should be done to attain acceptable level. In view of that, this research proposal aim at making carefully investigation on how Customers satisfy with the services delivery by ZECO and recommend extensive measures to be taken in order to rectify the problems for the betterment of ZECO, stakeholders and the sole share holder The Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar. Research Objectives The research objective will be divided into two categories namely, General Objective and Specific Objectives 1.5.1 General Objectives The general objective of this research is to assess customer satisfaction with Zanzibar Electricity Corporation 1.5.2 Specific Objectives To assess the level of customer satisfaction with service delivery by Zanzibar Electricity Corporation To examine the impact of unsatisfactory customer services to tourism industry in Northern Region of Unguja whereby most big hotels are located To examine the strategies applied by Zanzibar Electricity Corporation to increase revenue collection as an important initiative to improve customer satisfaction To propose areas of improvement to enable ZECO achieve her business vision 1.6 Research Questions The study will be guided by the following research questions – What is the level of Customer satisfaction in Zanzibar Electricity Corporation What is the effect of unsatisfactory customer service to hotels corporate customers and others in the research area What are the strategies used by Zanzibar Electricity Corporation to increase revenue collection as a tool to improve customer satisfaction level What to be done to improve customer satisfaction 1.7 Significance of the study Confidently, the study will be of the high benefit to ZECO staff, Management, Board of Directors, Ministry responsible for energy, Stakeholders including the Government of Zanzibar and other researchers which will use this study as primary study for the continuation of the remaining uncovered part of Unguja Island and even beyond. The study will help ZECO management to point out vulnerable areas to be improved, when, how, to what extent the resources should be utilized more economically to achieve the best possible outcome. Specifically, the results and recommendations of this study will be used by ZECO Management as guidance for the improvement of all weak areas within the corporation. The study will also help ZECO northern zonal office which handles customer complaints received mainly from hotels to enable customer service personnel to solve the problems more professionally in real time. The study will also provide valuable information to the customer care department to identify areas to be improved and best approaches to be used for that improvement. The study results will not be limited to benefit ZECO, but the stakeholders and policy makers will also use the study to change policies which seem to hinder the implementations of new findings for the improvement. Example, ZECO has been directed by The Government to electrify rural areas using her own funds regardless of return of investment for the fulfillment of the political will. 1.8 Scope of the study Generally, the study will require a large amount of empirical data collected from many organizations and institutions however, this exercise will be carried out in Zanzibar particularly in Northern Region. The study will involve many people such as ZECO staff of different ranks, Hotels Managers, Government officials and other ZECO customers. 1.8.1 Geographical Scope This study will be conducted in Zanzibar Electricity Corporation especially Northern Region of Unguja Island. 1.8.2 Content Scope This study will mainly focus on assessing factors affecting customer service satisfaction for ZECO customers, examine the impact of unsatisfactory customer service to tourism industry specifically in Northern region of Unguja Island whereby most big hotels located and also examine the strategies applied by Zanzibar Electricity Corporation in addressing challenges which drawbacks the effort to increase revenue collection. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Customer service satisfaction is a concept which many business organizations are working on it for necessary improvement. As far as new technology for power industry is concerned, the electricity sector has been faced many technological changes whereby quality and reliability of services are vital issue to the customer satisfaction. In service delivery, quality customer service is crucial and it will be maintained by understanding and meeting clients needs. Businesses, having highest ability to provide excellent service to their customers, yield many benefits to both customers and business stakeholders and shareholders. Organizations which provide best services may only rely on word of mouth to boost a number of customers instead of spending a lot of financial resources in advertisement. On the other hand, dissatisfied customers have ability to seriously damage the reputation of an organization and disappoint future customers. A customer is the one who makes business organizations to exist. This chapter aims at discussing literatures which are relevant to customer satisfaction as a main topic for this important study. It will include the discussion on current theories and practices that are relevant to this study. In this paper, the literature review will be sub divided into several sections. First, we will provide the analyst an overview of models of customer satisfaction. Second, a brief review of main concepts of customer satisfaction will be discussed. The chapter will also include the literature review on customer satisfaction models including Micro and Macro models. Definition of Key terms Customer A customer (sometimes known as buyer, client or purchaser) is a recipient of goods, service, product, or idea, obtained from a seller, vender or supplier for a monitory or other valuable consideration. Customer Satisfaction Customer satisfaction is a common topic in marketing management and academic research since Cardozos (1965) conducted a first study on customer effort, satisfaction and expectation. In spite of several attempts to measure and describe on satisfaction of customer, the effort has not reached a consensus on the real definition of the term customer satisfaction. Satisfaction on customer service is defined as a post consumption concerning on the judgment of a specific service or product (Olisson, 1996). The conceptualization which is most accepted on the customer satisfaction concept is a disconfirmation expectancy theory elaborated by (McQuity, Firm and Wiley, 2000). Customer satisfaction is evaluative process result derived from pre-purchase expectations having performance perceptions during and after getting experience from consumption (Oliver, 1980) Customer Satisfaction Models Marketing research discipline is among the major source of customer satisfaction models in which researchers could rely on to get detailed literature review. The research pool incorporates different models that can integrate the customer satisfaction models into a network of interrelated concepts including nature of most complaints, quality and reliability of services, value and loyalty. In this study, the application of Macro-models will be considered. Macro-models is of greater importance for an organization like ZECO for policy level implications regarding to customer satisfaction. The models (Macro) is widely used by researchers to obtain the strategic design context for successful study on customer satisfaction. The concept of customer satisfaction through marketing literature research is mainly covers those elements concerning macro-models such as disconfirmation expectancy, attribution, regret, and attribution. The macro-models relate with customer satisfaction in ZECO due to the fact that customers have their own expectations regarding to services delivered to them in terms power reliability whereby customer satisfaction depend on quality of power supply on 24/7 basis. Any departure from this expectation shall result in dissatisfaction. The theory is also relevant to this study in the sense that among ZECO customers have expectations in terms of sorts of services from what they have purchased, example from pre-paid meters what amount of units (kWh) they received Are they relevant to amount of money spent So, ZECO customer satisfaction ranges from technical, functional, customer care whenever face customer care clerk to report anything related to service 2.2.1 Macro-models Figure 1 illustrates research conducted previously on customer satisfaction Source (Researcher 2015) Figure 1 Traditional Macro-Model of Customer Satisfaction 1. Performance on technical and objective aspects normally differ from perceived performance aspect particularly on an intangible, complex and mostly when a user of that particular product or service is not familiar with it. 2. The product/service type, individual, and situational analysis can widely very by individual comparison standards from various sources. 3. According to JOURNAL OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND INNOVATION, Page 97 Perceived disconfirmation is defined as the difference between the customers initial expectation and observed actual performance. According to literature on that journal, disconfirmation is divided to three types including positive disconfirmation, negative disconfirmation and simple disconfirmation Schitz, 1989. When actual performance of a specific product or service differs from customers expectation, this is called negative disconfirmation which resulted into customers dissatisfaction. Positive disconfirmation leads to the customers satisfaction, if perceived performance of a specific product or service is able to exceed customers satisfaction Research 2013. Finally, when there isnt any difference between customers expectation and actual performance of specific product or service, means perceived performance equals to expectation, thus simple confirmation is occurred 5,12. There is some argument and disagreement in the literature over definition of simple confirmation. While some researchers believe satisfaction is the result of simple confirmation 30, others suggested that state of neither satisfaction nor dissatisfaction lead to simple satisfaction 31. 4. Satisfaction feeling occurs in the customers mind or his/her attitude. This is due to the fact that a customer might have different satisfaction level on certain product or service. Moreover, the level of satisfaction also differs from one customer to another due to self-esteemed. Example, the needs for reliable power differs from one customer to another, two hours power interruption could have a small impact on domestic customer A who will not consider it as a big problem compared to another domestic customer B who will lounge a serious complain to defaulted power utility and may ask for compensation due to such disturbance 2.2.2 Micro-Model Disconfirmation Model According to Ekinci et al (2004) disconfirmation theory argues that Satisfaction is related to the size direction of the disconfirmation experience that occurs as a result of comparing service performance against expected performance. Petrick (2004) 10 commented that the disconfirmation paradigm is the best predictor of customer satisfaction. Olivers (1980) updated definition on the disconfirmation theory, which states that satisfaction is the guests fulfillment response. It is a judgment that a product or service feature, or the product or service itself, provided (or is providing) a pleasurable level of consumption-related fulfillment, including levels of under- or over-fulfillment. In this research the introduction of Expectancy Disconfirmation Theory EDT will be considered due to its relevancy on measuring customer satisfaction derived from perceived quality of services or product. As per literature review, EDT is focused on three different variables namely positive disconfirmation, negative disconfirmation as well as simple disconfirmation. Positive disconfirmation occurs when perceived performance exceeds the customers expectation, so, in this situation customer enjoys with satisfaction of product or service. Example In ZECO, there is a planned power outage which has been organized to take place within estimated number of hours, say 7 hours. In this situation if ZECO manage to restore power back sooner than expected say 6 hours, then the customer exceeds his or her expectation and become positive disconfirm, hence the customer become more satisfied. Negative disconfirmation is obtained when actual performance of service or product did not meet the expected results as needed by a customer. The use of disconfirmation theory is relevant in this study due to the fact that the theory involves the aspects of comparison between customer expectations and actual performance which highlights the relationship between quality/reliability and customer satisfaction. Figure 2 Disconfirmation Theory Model Source HYPERLINK http//shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in8080//13_customersatisfactiontheories http//shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in8080//13_customersatisfactiontheories Conceptual Frame work. A conceptual framework is a conceptual model of how theories makes logical sense on the relationships between different factors that have been identified to be used in the research problem, A conceptual framework is also a tool that help researcher to understand the direction of his/her study. Figure 3 Conceptual Framework (Source Researcher 2015) CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLGY 3.0 Introduction Research methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study. It comprises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principle associated with a branch of knowledge. This chapter describes the methods that will be applied for conducting this research work in order to achieve the expected research outcome. The discussion will account for the research design, research approach, study area and selection criteria, target population, sample and sampling procedures, methods to be used for data collection and administration. 3.1 Research Design According to Kothari, (2002) research design is the plan showing the approach and strategy of investigation aimed at obtaining relevant data which fulfills the research objectives and answer questions. This study will be descriptive research conducted through a case study design since such design has proven to be useful in describing and explaining answers to questions such as how and why. It is expected that the data from the sample and case study would be relevant and accurate enough to provide findings capable of covering the research gap. 3.2 Research Approach This study will use both qualitative and quantitative approaches due to the nature and objectives of the study. Quantitative research design is the one based on principles and measurements which use statistical data analysis. The quantitative approach will be used with simple measures such as age of respondents and the level of customers satisfaction of the services delivered by ZECO. Qualitative approach will be used because it gives the researcher an opportunity to study in depth a particular aspect of interest related to the problem to enable collection of facts relevant in establishing causes relationships and solutions to the problem. The qualitative research enabled the researcher to get an insight in assessing customer service satisfaction on services delivery by ZECO. The approach will allow the usage of methods such as interviews, observations and surveys in achieving the intended objectives. 3.3 Area of the Study and selection criteria According to Hesse-Biber and Leavy, (2004), study area is an institution or place where a particular population to whom a researcher intends to conduct the study resides. The study will be conducted in Northern Region of Unguja whereby most big hotels are located. Considering the significance of tourism industry to the economy of Zanzibar and the United Republic of Tanzania as a whole, it necessitates that, quality and reliability of power supply are of paramount importance for the sustainability of hotels industry. This is the reason why this study have been designed to be conducted in this tourism area due to availability of relevant information related to the perceived quality of service delivery and how corporate and small customers are satisfied with the service offered. Unguja Island consists of 3 Regions namely Urban west, South and North Region. All regions are equipped with customer care office handling all customer queries including technical support, registration for new customers, metering solutions, and etc Another criteria considered for the selection of this study is customer base, apart from big hotels, the Northern Region is also leading in terms of new customer connection rate which has already surpassed other regions. 3.4 Target Population Sample frame is a complete list of all the cases in the population from which the sample is drawn (Saunders et al, 2009). In this study the sample frame will be the customers of ZECO. The study will be conducted in Northern Region of Unguja Island having an area of 614 sq. km with a population of 342,890. The population growth rate of round 4.2 per annum. The number of ZECO customers in the Region is 35,890 of which 234 are hotels. Sources of information are ZECO customer data base and Regional office 3.5 Sample size and sampling procedures A sample according to sample is a segment of population in which researcher is interested in gaining information and drawing conclusion (Barbie, 1992). Sampling on the other hand involves process or technique of selecting representative part of population for the purpose of determining parameters of characteristics of the whole population. Ideally, a sample size should be large enough to serve as adequate representatives of the population and small enough to be selected economically in terms of subject availability. For the purpose of this study the sample size will include respondents from ZECO head office, respondents from hotels and other Customers located in the study area. A sample of 30 hotels, 5 other customers and 7 ZECO staff will be selected to achieve the goal of study. For the purpose of maximizing the benefit of having quality data collection, sampling process will be adopted due to the fact that not all responded will be in a better position to reveal useful information on customer service satisfaction. 3. 6 Data Collection Techniques To maximize the benefit of this study, the research is intended to use two sources of data collection namely primary and secondary sources of data. The secondary data will be obtained from various data sources and not limited to text books, unpublished as well as published information, recognized websites and journals. The primary data are intended to be gathered by interviewing targeted respondent, questionnaires and observation will also be used for the study data collection 3.6.1 Secondary Data. According to Kothari (2004), secondary data are those already collected data which are available from other sources such as published and unpublished data. This involves the process of gathering related useful information which are either already published or unpublished documents including statistics, letters or diaries owned by individuals, academic institutions, public and private firms, research reports and also manuscript. For the sake of conducting this study, the most appropriate method to be used for gathering secondary data is the reviewing of documents and reports which are directly related to this topic. Through the literature review, it has been observed that this method is very useful since it would help the researchers to have ability to gather much more data very quickly and more convenient. Further, it will improve the reliability and accuracy of the data collected for this study. 3.2.2 Primary Data Primary data are those data to be collected from the field in the first place which are original (Kothari, 2004). In this research work, primary data will be gathered using different data collection methods namely questionnaires, key informants interview and observation. According to Duval (2005) these methods will be used because of the nature of sample used and targeted population who will be involved in this study. 3.6.3 Questionnaires. Questionnaires are regarded to be efficient data collection technique if and only researcher has enough knowledge on what is required and how to measure the concerned variable of interest. The self-administered questionnaire will be used because it will enable the researcher to collect data from relatively large sample, limit bias from the interviewer and protect the privacy of respondent (Kothari, 2004). Normally, questionnaires will involve closed-ended and open-ended types of questions. The open-ended questions will be designed to provide enough opportunity for the respondents to deeply express their opinion freely without any intervention by the researcher or any other interested party. So, questions will be distributed to the designated respondents in the area of study, in this particular research work will be Northern part of Unguja Island. Due to the fact that some respondent will not much bother to provide useful research information, so the sampling technique will be used in the effort to fill the gap. 3. 7 Data Analysis. Data analysis is the method of inspecting, transforming and modeling of data with the goal of weight useful information and providing information (Adler, 2008). It is the way of summarizing balk data into manageable form. Hence this section describes the ways on how the collected data will be treated and manipulated by the researcher. Lincoln, (1994) has also described data analysis as being a systematic process involving working with data, organizing and dividing them into manageable parts. The data will be analyzed in relation to the particular research objectives and questions to find out whether the findings give the results of the research study. The data will also be analyzed using quantitative interpretation of descriptive statistics. The responses received from the questionnaires and interview will be organized, tabulated and analyzed using simple frequencies and percentages. 3.7.1 Quantitative data The information collected through questionnaires administration will be thoroughly examined and coded. The data base for analysis then will be established through a computer software program namely Statistical Packages for social science (SPSS version 16). In addition to that The Microsoft Office Excel (MS Excel 2007) will be used for the production of figures. 3.7.2 Qualitative data The data collected from interview will be qualitative in nature which will not have one way of analysis. This data will be grouped into class/categories and summarized into meaningful form. Descriptive and explanatory analysis will be used to analyze data collected from the respondents to understand the perception of customer satisfaction on service provided by Zanzibar Electricity Corporation. 3. 8 Time Scope The study has been organized to be done within the period of 6 months to give researchers a pretty good time for completion of the exercise. Tentative Time Schedule S/NActivity2017/2018SEPTOCTNOVDECJANFEBWriting research proposalLiterature reviewingSubmission of the ProposalData CollectionData Analysis and discussion of findingReport writingSubmission 3.9 Resources Plan This study will require the following resources for efficient implementation Research staff skills, equipment, computers, vehicle, and budget References Customer satisfaction. European Journal of Marketing, 36(7/8), 811828. Dall M. B (2004). Service this Winning the war against customer disservice (1st ed.). Last Chapter First. HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number o International Standard Book NumberISBNHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SpecialBookSources/0-9753719-0-8 o SpecialBookSources/0-9753719-0-80-9753719-0-8. Daniel, D (2003). Zanzibars mobile revolution GMT 1753 UK. David, C (2005). 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J-B SIOP Professional Practice Series 20.John Wiley and Sons.HYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number o International Standard Book NumberISBNHYPERLINK http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SpecialBookSources/978-0-7879-8310-9 o SpecialBookSources/978-0-7879-8310-9978-0-7879-8310-9. Khalifa M. Liu V. (2002) Satisfaction with Internet- Based Services The role of role of Expectations and Desires. Journal of ElectronicCommerce, 7(2), pp 31-35 Perceived Performance Outcomes Perceived Performance Perceived Disconfirm Comparison Standard Perceived Performance Expected Performance Negative Disconfirmation P-E Dissatisfaction Neutral Satisfaction Confirmation Positive Disconfirmation PE PE Comparison CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Price Satisfaction Determinants Loyal Retention Timelines Dependent Independent Empathy Responsiveness Service Reliability CP3_xYE-K.KMUyqYrmo 70nkjqD7WwrL_O97c_ cZYiv_EY9cg 4IN7fjxK7Q/(ubnARXoOQ.oM62VirCapyunlEqpt9dSlcoT/xrO)xNkL kRfE,TnL [email protected] 4FFF0klHcZFN(PgyU5nSEcYrxVic
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