Epithelial tissues are made from cells that cover the surface of the body

January 22, 2019 Critical Thinking

Epithelial tissues are made from cells that cover the surface of the body. The tissue forms the skin, secretory glands and the inner lining of the mouth. The tissue also forms the lining of every organ in the hollow parts for example heart, ears, eyes and lungs. In the tissue, there is a specialized structure called tight junctions. This is when the cells making up the tissue are closely connected to each other to make layers of cells that forms the tissue. The tissue lack from blood vessels and nerves. They are also getting support from a connective tissue called the basement membrane. Epithelial tissue has lots of function. They provide protection from abrasion, invasion of pathogens, radiation damage and chemical stress. Also, the tissue is involved in movement of substances, absorption and secretion. These epithelia are often made from one layer of cells that contains cilia or microvilli.

Epithelial Tissue


Nervous tissue is made out from organized cells in the nervous system. The nervous system controls the body movements. It also carries and send electrical impulses from different parts of the body. Also, the nervous system can control bodily functions for example digestion. There are two main categories of nervous tissue: neurons and neuroglia. Neurons carries and sends electrical impulses however, neuroglia don’t send or carry electrical impulses they have other functions that includes protecting and supporting neurons. Nervous tissue can be found at the Central Nervous System (CNS) and throughout the body.

Nervous Tissue


Muscle tissue have fibres of muscle cells that are connected to each other in layers. These layers control movement of an organism and they also apply forces to different parts of the body. There are different types of muscle tissue they function in a similar way. For example, the muscle surrounding the digestive tract helps to move food along the digestive system, Muscles that are between bones and tendons are to help the skeleton to move.

Muscle Tissue


Connective tissue is one of the main four groups of tissues that is used in the body. Connective tissue has different types of fibre tissue. The different types of connective tissue are cartilage, bone and blood vessels. The function of connective tissue is transporting substances in the body, protecting, insulating, binding and supporting.

Connective Tissue


Tissue types Common location Structure enabling them to carry out their function Features
Epithelial

They are found in the exocrine glands, pancreas, lining of the kidney tubules and in the duct of the glands. The tight packed cells that are in layers help the body and protecting it from abrasion, chemical stress, invasion of pathogens and radiation damage. They form lining of the hollow parts of organs. Cells are tightly close together and are in layers.
Nervous

They are found in peripheral nerves though the body also in the organs of the CNS (Central Nervous System) Nervous tissue is made up of nerve cells which can carry and send electrical impulses to different parts of the body. They also protect and supports the neurons. Nervous tissue is made from nerve cells and neuroglial cells. They send and carry electrical impulses and protect the neurons.
Muscular

Cardiac muscle cells are in the walls of the heart. Smooth muscle fibres are in walls of hollow organs except from the heart. Skeletal fibres are in the muscles which are attached to the skeleton. Muscle tissue have fibres of muscle cells that are connected to each other in layers. These layers control movement of an organism and they also apply forces to different parts of the body. The muscles have fibres that are connected in layers. They control movement and can make contractions.
Connective

Connective tissue is found in tendons and ligaments The cells, fibres and ground substance help the connective tissue to bind bones together and attach muscle to bone. The cells, fibres and ground substance binds bone and attaches muscles to bones. The tissue can transport substances in the body, protecting, insulating, binding and supporting.

Stem cells are cells that aren’t which can divide under a specific condition to become a specialised cell. Embryonic stem cells are cells that are from the embryo. Embryonic stem cells can differentiate into any type of cell that are important for growth. Adult stem cells can differentiate into a cell that’s needs to be replaced. This means they the adult stem cells can’t differentiate into any type of cells. When the cell has been under the process of cell division called mitosis. Some cells will change its structure and shape to do certain functions in the body. This is called cell differentiation. The information that is needed to produce any of the specialised cells is from the genes inside the chromosomes. The genes control the information of a certain cell is used in cell differentiation.
When the muscle cells are going through differentiation the gene will be switched on. Whilst the genes for nerve cells, skin cell, etc… will be switched off as it is irrelevant to the development of the muscle tissue. The muscle tissue has cells that can contract this allows the limbs to move. In the muscle tissue the cells are provided with mitochondria. Mitochondria is a type of organelle that allows ATP to happen. The main function of the muscle tissue is that it can move limbs by contracting and releasing the muscle. To do this the muscle will need ATP produces by mitochondria during aerobic respiration. Without the mitochondria and the ATP, the muscle won’t be able to contract. This means the muscles won’t be able to their function.
https://tutorhub.com/question/why-do-muscle-cells-need-a-lot-of-mitochondria
During differentiation in the epithelial tissue all the genes for the tissue will be switched on whilst the rest of the of the genes will be switched off as they are irrelevant to the tissue. In the tissue the cells are tightly together and joined together by these specialised structures called tight junctions. The tight junctions make the cells to stay in place and creates layers in the tissue. In epithelial tissue it has lots of mitochondria. The mitochondria has a double membrane. The outer membrane controls what goes in and out whilst the inner membrane is folded to form cristae. The mitochondria also has a cristae and a matrix. Epithelial tissue has mitochondria, so it can respire and can function properly.
When the cells in the connective tissue are being differentiated the genes to the connective cells are switched on whilst the rest of the genes are switched off as they are need for this process of cell differentiation. Connective tissue provides support and joins different types of tissue. The connective tissue offers protection, support, binding and insulation. Connective tissue binds bone to the muscle. Connective tissue is provided with elastic fibres. The elastic fibres are made up of elastin which is a type of protein and a glycoprotein framework called fibrillin. The elastic fibres are very stretchy. They branch out and join to other networks. Also, it can stretch up to 150 times as its original size. The elastic fibres allow the tissue to be flexible and provide strength to the tissue as the tissue will need to strength to bin he bone to the muscle.
There are four main types of tissue. They are muscle, connective, epithelial and nervous. When the nervous tissue had to undergo cell differentiation the genes for the nervous tissue will be switched on as it is relevant however, the irrelevant genes will be switched off as it won’t be needed. The nervous tissue rapidly carries and sends messages between the brain, nerve cells and the muscle. The nervous tissue also forms a network thought out of the body. For a nervous tissue to carry out any function it will need lots of mitochondria because the neurons will need lots of energy. The brain is the most metabolic active tissue in the body. This means the brain will need lots of ATP. Most of the biochemical reaction in the neurons will need the chemical energy that is stored in ATP.
https://slideplayer.com/slide/7385183/
http://www.cerebromente.org.br/n07/fundamentos/neuron/parts_i.htm
An organelle are little organs inside the cell that are specialised living inside the cell. This allows the cells to function and do their jobs properly. There many organelles they are mitochondria which is responsible for cellular respiration, rough endoplasmic reticulum which is responsible for transport and storage proteins, ribosomes which creates proteins, smooth endoplasmic reticulum which creates lipids, chloroplast which creates glucose and cytoplasm is where the chemical reaction takes place. Organelles are important for cells because they carry out function that is needed for the cells to live and for the cells to do their jobs.
https://quizlet.com/410483/cell-organelles-and-their-functions-flash-cards/
https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/499-cell-organelles
Cells are microscopic small functional and structural unit of an organism that has a cytoplasm and a nucleus inside a membrane. The function of a cell is to the nutrients from the food into energy and do specialised functions. They also provide structure for the body. Cells are important for the body as it provides structure for the body and they take in nutrient and convert it into energy. Cells combine and form into different tissue types for example muscle tissue, nervous tissue, connective tissue and epithelial tissue and bone tissue. Cells also make up the organs you have inside the body for example the heart, lungs and kidney. The cells are located throughout of the body. Examples of cells are skin cells, plant cells, bacterial cells, animal cells, stem cells, platelets …etc
https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/primer/basics/cell
http://sciencenetlinks.com/student-teacher-sheets/cells-your-body/
Tissue inside the human body are made up of cells. Also, the tissue makes up the organs inside the body and other body parts. Tissue is when cells are grouped together with similar structures and function. For example, in epithelial tissue all the cells are similar to each other and have the same function. There are four main types of tissue muscular, epithelial, nervous and connective. The function of muscular tissue is to contact the muscle making the limbs move, the function of epitheca tissue is they provide protection from abrasion, invasion of pathogens, radiation damage and chemical stress. The function of nervous tissue is that they can send electrical impulses to the central nervous system and the function of the connective tissue is it can transport substances in the body, protecting, insulating, binding and supporting. Tisue in the human body is important because they can protect us from many things for example they can protect us from radiation and invasion of pathogens. They also do functions for us for example sending and carrying electrical impulses. Tissue is found throughout the human body. Epithelial tissue is found in the inner lining of the mouth, nervous tissue is found throughout the body, muscular tissue is found in hollow organs and connective tissue is found between bones.
https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-human-body-tissue-definition-types-examples.html
An organ is parts of the human body internally which has an important specific function. In the human body there are five vital organs which are the lungs, heart, kidney, liver and brain. The lungs are responsible for gas exchange. This is when oxygen comes enters in to the blood and the waste, carbon dioxide, leaves the blood and released into the atmosphere. The function of the heart is to pump blood around the body. The blood will carry oxygenated blood to the organs and carry deoxygenated blood to the heart. The function of the kidney is to filter the blood and maintaining the overall fluid balance. The function of liver is to detoxify chemicals. It also releases bile that end up back in to the intestines. The function of the brain to control our speech, movement, thoughts and memories. It is also the central nervous system as well as the spinal cord. The organs are important for the human body because they help us to survive. Without them t would be difficult to survive, and we may die. Organs are located in the human body.
https://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/air/air-quality/resources/glossary/lung-function
http://ww2.wkrg.com/story/9526191/functions-of-the-heart-lungs-and-blood-vessels
https://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/picture-of-the-liver#1
The organ system is a group of different structure that work together and do their function. The human body can’t function without its organ system. Even with one organ that doesn’t work you could end up dying. There are eleven organ systems they are lymphatic, endocrine, cardiovascular, skeletal, digestive, integumentary, muscular, nervous, respiratory, urinary and reproductive. The function of the lymphatic system is to get rid of body toxins and waste. The function of the endocrine system is to produce and release hormones. The function of cardiovascular system is to transport oxygen, nutrients, and hormones throughout the body. The function of skeletal system is to store calcium, movement and provides protection. In the male reproductive system, the function is to produce the egg cells and to provide protection to the fetus until birth. The function of the male reproductive system is to produce sperm. The organ system is important because without the organ system it would be difficult to survive. The organ system is found inside the human body.