Every now and then, we do hear of several developments which are as a result oftremendous works by many researchers to make our natural environment a comfortablehabitat for living organisms. These organisms are found being exposed to radiation fromthe environment since our natural environment is made up of radiative materials thatemits radiation.
Radiations to which these organisms are exposed to may sometimes beuseful as well being hazardous. Radiation is the emission or transmission of energy inthe form of waves or particles through a space or a material medium.Although there are several types of radiation, this thesis is mostly concerned withionized radiation. It is produced by unstable atoms with contains excess energy or mass.The most commonly known types of ionizing radiation include alpha, beta, gamma, X-rays and neutron rays. Radioactive materials emits ionizing radiation without havingbeen subjected to an external influence.
The type of radiation emitted and its associated2energy is characteristic of the kind of radioactive substance. The importance of detectingand measuring radiation is due to the fact that, certain radiations are very dangerous tothe environment.In this concern, we are only able to assess such a dangerous environmentfor people who work within and around by implementing a monitoring system that willbe used to describe the process and activities that characterise the quality of suchan environment. Interestingly, an efficient and robust system can be used to monitorunaccessible areas for good safety. Some of the usefulness of ionized energy that arein balance with its hazardousness include diagnosis of diseases, medical and scientificresearches and generation of electricity from nuclear power plants11.Again, quite a number of incredible preventive measures are considered whenbuilding nuclear facilities but still there is a possibility that an uncertainty may occurduring its operation.
It is for this reason that one has to put in place measures that willenable him/her to manage nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies effectively. Oneof the key factors for managing such an emergency is the ability to alert and adequatelyasses the need for protective actions making a good use of the relevant informationavailabledragusin2014radiation. In this manuscript, an effective design strategy to de-tect and monitor nuclear radiation at a low cost has been focused on. A Geiger Muller(GM) counter is the instrument used for measuring and detecting the ionizing energy.