FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECNOLOGY center13715900 BBRC4103 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

January 22, 2019 Critical Thinking

FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECNOLOGY
center13715900
BBRC4103
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
(ASSIGNMENT 2)
JANUARY 2017
01841500
MOHAMAD NAZARUL BIN ABDUL KAHAR
Matriculation No: 811021065129001
Identity Card No.: 811021-06-5129
Telephone No.: 019-9786154
E-Mail : [email protected]
Learning Centre: Kuantan, Pahang
CONTENTS
No. Page
INTRODUCTION 3-4
Introduction to the Employee’s Poor Attitudes to Work 4
Problem Statement 4
Objectives of the study 5
Research Design 6
Sampling Procedures 6
Data Collection Instruments 7
Survey Methodology 8-10
Data Analysis Technique 11-19
Analysis the Causes of Employee’s Poor Attitudes to Work 11-16
Nilai purata kepuasan pelancong17-18
The Causes of Employee’s Poor Attitudes to Work 19
RUJUKAN 20

1. Introduction to the Employee’s Poor Attitudes

Employees are essential for the productivity of organizations. Many writers have highlighted that workers are one of the primary element aspect that promotes organizational effectiveness. Attitudes that are presented by employees can directly affect the productivity of the organization. Eagly and Chaiken (1998) defined attitude as an expression of psychological tendency by estimating peculiar entity with some intensity of favor or disfavor. Workers have a moral attitude to play in an organization that discourage the overall organization goals and objectives. Workers should portray good attitude to their customers both within and outside the organization. Applying good attitude in workplace supposed to be the foundation towards higher performance in established settings. It is an investment as well as resources that can be used to achieve a higher financial profit, good reputation and goals of organization. However today poor attitude among workers has been such an extreme problems. DeSimione and Harris (1998) concurred that internal factors such as motivation, ability, attitude, knowledge and skills could influence the worker’s behavior. Employees today deals with more complicated work tasks, long hours working and teamwork (Lee, 2004). Poor attitude can have a harm effect on work, causing workers to become unconcern and discourage which would resulted to occurrence of mistakes more often, and output would likely be down. Hence, an employee’s negative attitude can become obvious with other actions, such as poor performance, absenteeism, filch, tardiness and poor business ethics.

1.1POOR MOTIVATION
Motivation is a crucial aspects in any organization in order to improve employees’ job performance. However, there are certain reasons that may affect the motivation among employee at workplace such as poor communication within management, absence of appreciation, poor job promotions and lack of non-technical skill training including communication skill training. Many study showed that employer should motivate employee by appreciation, increase their salary, and better trainings (Greenberg et al, 2010; Parker et al, 2010). Shahzad ; Bhatti (2008) where poorly motivated employees’ tend to be less productive and bring poor profit for organizations. Kakepoto et at. (2012) indicated that the poor motivation of workers affects their job performance as well as workplace productivity of organizations. The study done by Baker, Jensen & Murphy, 1988) showed that motivated employees contribute more financial benefits to the organizations. It can be concluded that motivation in form of appreciation, compensation and trainings could bring profitability for organizations.

1.2INADEQUATE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Training and Development is an important aspect that must take place in most of the organization for the purpose of achieving the desired goals and objectives. Training of workers is frequently used as a means to address negative attitude and increase performance. Cowin (2002) stated that the complexity of modern jobs requires the workers to be properly trained than in the past. In other words, training and retraining is quite often necessary for new and existing workers in order to adapt with their new skills or jobs that rapidly and consistently changing with influx of new technologies. Hence, all organization must have a training program to ensure that their workers are introduced to the higher level of skills and knowledge. An adequate training should be seen as an essential aspect of the organizational training system where motivating individuals could gain more knowledge, skills, abilities and have good moral values (Ismail & Bongogoh, 2007). Hence, these positive outcomes may lead employees to achieve and support the organizations’ strategies and goals. However, inadequate or denial of workers participation in training program might lead them to develop poor attitude and perceptions that are against the overall goals and objectives of the organization. In addition, the larger the gap between the skills required to perform a task and the actual skills available for performing a task, the greater the lack of job satisfaction and the greater the increase in employee turnover within the organization. Moreover, poor performance reviews due to inadequate job training can produce dissatisfaction among employees and negative attitude (Truitt D.L 2012). The importance of giving adequate training to workers should be given attention, emphasized and concerned upon. The participation of worker in training programs has been identified as the major learning avenue for workers to improve and address negative perceptions and attitude at workplace. Rudman (1999) suggested that trainings tends to wider the workers mental and physical attitudes.
1.3JOB INSECURITY
Job insecurity has been identified as one of the most influential factor that derives workers to develop poor attitude. Job insecurity can be said as a subjective phenomenon that based on the workers’ perception and interpretation of the immediate work environment where it is highly connected with job satisfaction. Bakan and Buyubese, (2004) mentioned that job insecurity is one of the most significant variable of worker satisfaction which express the general attitude of the workers towards their job. Negative perception of workers about the security of their job in both social and working life contributes to worry about their future, helps not to maintain labor peace, decrease organization’s productivity and unprotected social balance and values. In organizations where workers are threatening with job insecurity, it is difficult to talk about social order, positive attitude, peace and stability (Guzel, 2001). Nevertheless, job insecurity is possible to introduce workers into severe consequences that affect their overall life situation and their performance in the organization. In other words job insecurity has consistently been found to associate with poor attitude to work and could lead to a withdrawal of response as manifested in. The study done by Servke ; Hallgreen (2002) showed that the more the workers experienced job insecurity the more it caused job dissatisfaction and increased physical symptom thus job insecurity have more extreme effect on individual than employment security. It can be affirmed that job security alone can function as an important motivational tool in work atmospheres with high anxiety levels of job loss (?enol, 2011).

1.1.Problem Statement
Attitude is the way of thinking, acting and behaving of an individual. It has a very extreme effect on work or employee performance. It may affect their productivity in many ways and often without the consciousness of the employees themselves. . Some of the areas of attitudes that a person in the world of work is concerned with are superior, subordinates, peers, supervision, pay, benefits, promotions or anything that leads to trigger positive or negative reactions. These attitudes reflect a particular persons likes and dislikes towards other people, objects, events and activities in that persons surrounding environment. Some of the strong attitudes are likely to affect person’s behavior. When an employee feels good about the work he does and feels as though the work is essentially valued, he can feel a positive drive to complete work on time and to the best of his ability. In contrast, when employees are not satisfied, committed and engaged in their work may develop negative attitudes like lateness and absenteeism which have adverse effects on an employee’s productivity.
Triple Maju Company is one such organization whose productivity is affected by the employees’ attitude, particularly related to their lack of commitment in carrying out the duties. This problem may lead to the liquidation of this company in maybe next two or three years. This study was before to explore the causes of employee’s poor attitude.
1.2. Aim and Objectives of the Study
Aim of the study
To explore the causes of employees’ negative attitude and relationship with their job performance at Triple Maju Company.

Objectives of the study
To study the causes of employee’s negative attitude at Triple Maju Company.

To identify the employees’ attitude towards their work and organization.

To ascertain the relationship between employee’s attitude and job performance in Triple Maju Company.

2.Sampling Design
2.1. Sampling method
A quantitative research technique was adopted and a survey was selected as a method of data collection. The questionnaire comprises close-ended questions and is further divided into five sections which are respondent’s demographic characteristics, Poor Motivation, Inadequate Training and Development, Job Security and Attitude to Work are contained. The measurement scales that are used to measure those statements are ordinal in nature. Consequently, the format for these statements is based on Likert-type rating scales. An aggregate of 70 questionnaires were successfully filled and returned. The number of respondents was selected based on Table Size Determination of Krejcie and Morgan Sample (1970). The technique adapted for the sample was disproportionate stratified sampling as the selected samples from various department are chosen.

The data were analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The Cronbach’s alpha value for the entire instrument scores was above 0.70. Frankel and Wallen, (2001) pointed out that the instrument is reliable only if the alpha value is at least 0.70 or more for research purposes.

3. Data Collection Instruments
The main instrument for data collection of this study is in the form of questionnaire. For this purpose, a well-structured questionnaire was framed. The questionnaire was one part only, constituting the main items, which directly addressed the research questions. Seventy questionnaires were designed and administered to the respondents. Each questionnaire contains forty (40) questions. The first six items were expected to provide answers on demographics. Information on employee involvement at Triple Maju Company was categorized under items 1-6 in the questionnaire, their benefits to employees in the various departments. Items 7-12 sought information on poor motivation. Items 12-18 were to seek insight into training and development. Items 18-33 were basically on job insecurity. The remaining items were basically to throw more light on the the relationship between employee attitudes and job performance. The questionnaire significantly assisted the researcher in the data analysis.
Table 2. Scores and assessment on sections B, C, D, E
Score Assessment
1 Sangat Tidak Setuju/ Sangat Tidak Memuaskan Strongly disagree
2 Tidak Setuju/ Tidak Memuaskan Disagree
3 Setuju/ Memuaskan Neutral
4 Sangat Setuju/ Sangat Memuaskan Agree
5 Strongly agree
Source: Field Study 2018
4.1. Correlation between Causes of Poor Attitude to Work
This analysis is to study the relationship between Poor motivation, Inadequate Training and Development, Job Insecurity and Work. The Independent variables were Poor motivation, Inadequate Training and Development, Job Insecurity which were all ordinal variables, and Work is the Dependent Variable. Thus, the appropriate test to respond to hypothesis was Pearson correlation coefficient.

Table 4.1: Rule of Thumb for Interpreting the Size if a Correlation Coefficient
Size of Correlation Interpretation
.90 to 1,00 (-.90 to -1.00) Very high positive (negative) correlation
.70 to.90 (-.70 to -.90) High positive (negative) correlation
.50 to .70 (-.50 to -.70) Moderate positive (negative) correlation
.30 to .50 (-.30 to .50) Low positive (negative) correlation
.00 to .30 (.00 to -.30) Negligible correlation
4.1.1 Poor Motivation and Work
Ha1: There is significant relationship between poor-motivation and work
Independent Variables Pearson Correlation (r) Significant (2 tailed), p
Poor Motivation 0.781 0.000
Table 1: Pearson Correlation between Poor Motivation and Work
Preliminary analyses were performed to ensure no violation of the assumptions of normality linearity and reliability. It shows a very strong positive correlation between the two variables r=0.718, n=70, p=0.000 (p;0.05). Therefore, the First alternative Hypothesis is accepted. The positive correlation coefficient of 61% between the two variables display that proper reward programs to workers will lead the workers to develop positive attitudes to their work. This is in line with the findings of Kakepoto et al (2012) where there is a strong correlation between motivation and employee job performance. This is shown that employer should possess more motivational skill to encourage their workers to give more dedication in order to increase organizational’s productivity.

4.1.2 Inadequate Training and Development and Work
Ha2: There is significant relationship between inadequate Training and development and work
Table 4.1: Pearson Correlation between Training and Development and Attitude to Work
Independent Variables Pearson Correlation (r) Significant (2 tailed), p
Inadequate Training and Development 0.636 0.000
Preliminary analyses were performed to ensure no violation of the assumptions of normality, reliability and linearity. There was a strong positive correlation between the two variables r=0.6.36, n=70, p=0.000 (p<0.05). Therefore, the Second alternative Hypothesis is accepted. The positive strong correlation coefficient of 40% between the two variables indicates that providing staff with adequate training and development will increase positive attitude to work. Thus, training and retraining is quite often necessary for new and existing workers in order to adapt with their new skills or jobs that is rapidly and consistently changing with influx of new technologies. This is in the line with the findings of Ripley (2004) which supported the argument “effective training can be able to reflect in the workers attitude and behaviour in implementing their jobs through what they learned during the training program. With the transformation of knowledge society, training and development has been identified as a strategic tool for competitive positioning (Kamal M. A. and Normah binti Othman, 2012)
4.1.3. Job Insecurity and Work
Ha3: There is significant relationship between job insecurity and work
Independent Variables Pearson Correlation (r) Significant (2 tailed), p
Job Insecurity 0.496 0.000
Preliminary analyses were performed to ensure no violation of the assumptions of normality, reliability and linearity. There was a moderate positive correlation between the two variables r=0.496, n=70, p=0.000 (p<0.05). Therefore, the Third alternative Hypothesis is accepted. The positive moderate correlation coefficient of 24% between the two variables indicates that perception of job security among workers towards their work will increase will increase positive attitude to work. Thus, it is a known fact if staff perceived their jobs are secured, the tendency is an increase in productivity level. This is in line with the findings of Fatimah et al. (2012) found that if the workers perceived that their job security was threatened and in jeopardy, this will affect their job satisfaction and well-being, thus, affecting their job performance. Likewise, Burchell (2011) disclose that the more the workers experiences job insecurity, the more it caused job dissatisfaction and increased physical symptom thus job security have more extreme effect on individual than employment security.

Conclusion
The findings indicate that Poor Motivation, Inadequate Training and Development, and Job Insecurity are the possible causes of poor attitude to work. Employee’s involvement, consultations and participation were rarely used methods to motivate employees. Thus, this is one of the aspects that should be focused more by the employers. If workers are adequately given opportunity to participate in necessary trainings and they were not threatened with the security of their job, it will enhance their performance and will also be a means of increasing productivity which will further ensure the achievement of the overall goal and objectives of the organization. Ismail and Bongogoh, (2007) mentioned that the training program is a strategic function of human capital management which focuses on developing employee competencies in order to overcome daily, routine and short-term problems and will be more effective when it’s conducted to all employees in the organization.
From the analysis made, it can be concluded that an organization cannot prosper well, succeed, grow or even survive without adequately addressing the issues of poor attitude. Productivity of organizational could be increased if the workers are well trained, certain about the security of their job, promoted, and given a feeling of importance by management.