Freedom and the material cannot produce the

Freedom and will Freedom, according to Following Christ In the World by Anne W. Carrol, is defined as the ‘absence of necessity’. The first kind of freedom is the intrinsic necessity of nature. This means a thing ‘is ‘or ‘does’ what it’s meant to do and nothing else. Meanwhile, extrinsic necessity is imposed by an outside cause which forces a being to do or be.

Now the will is free from intrinsic necessity. We can prove this by the will’s inclination to do good or that which is apparently good. There are many particular goods which are not important to one’s happiness and therefore the will does not have to will any of them.

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Yet the intellect being spiritual presents the good or the not good to the will and the will is free to choose. Thus, the will is exempt from intrinsic necessity. Extrinsic necessity cannot be imposed on the will by man’s material powers or by a material creature because the will is spiritual and the material cannot produce the spiritual. In the same way, the intellect is the act of knowledge and therefore cannot change what is known. Hence the intellect cannot impose extrinsic necessity on the will either.

Finally, extrinsic necessity is not imposed by God because He created the soul with free will and would not contradict Himself by forcing it to do something against its will. Thus, the soul is free from extrinsic as well as intrinsic necessity. Therefore, based on what we have presented one can clearly see that the will is free to choose what it wishes thus free from intrinsic and extrinsic necessity.


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