guardians should own no private property, should live and eat together at government expense, and should earn no salary greater than necessary to supply their most basic needs. Under this regime, no one will have any venal motive for seeking a position of leadership, and those who are chosen to be guardians will govern solely from a concern to seek the welfare of the state in what is best for all of its citizens. Since the ideal state comprises members of three distinct classes: rulers, soldiers, and the people.
They should work together for the common good, provide a ready account of the need to develop significant social qualities in the sense that the rulers are responsible for making decisions according to which the entire city will be governed, they must have the virtue of wisdom, the capacity to comprehend reality and to make impartial judgments about it. The soldiers are charged with the defense of the city against external and internal enemies, on the other hand, need the virtue of courage, the willingness to carry out their orders in the face of danger without regard for personal risk. The rest of the people in the city must follow its leaders instead of pursuing their private interests, so they must exhibit the virtue of moderation, the subordination of personal desires to a higher purpose. When each of these classes performs its own role appropriately and does not try to take over the function of any other class, the entire city as a whole will operate smoothly, exhibiting the harmony that is genuine justice.