INITIALS AND SURNAME: BM MOTSWIANE
STUDENT NO: 63548178
IDENTITY NO: 931005 1261 083
ASSIGNMENT NO: 02
CONTENT: HISTORY OF EDUCATION
DUE DATE: 20 JULY 2018
UNIQUE ASSIGNMENT NO: 679390
Why is it essential for a researcher to formulate and explicitly state the research problem – often in the form of research questions – as indicated in Phase A of the diagram? Although this question can be answered on the basis of the prescribed text book only, you would be well-advised to consult a book specifically dealing with research methodology too. (5)
Research questions are essential because they usually
? guide the literature research
? guide decisions about the type of research design that has to be employed
? guide decisions about what data to collect
? guide the analysis of data
? guide the writing up of the data
? prevent the researcher from going off in unnecessary directions
? provide readers of the final report with a clearer sense of what the research is about
? assist the researcher in deciding which data is important and which is unrelated
IDENTIFY THIS (“MISSING”) PHASE AND EXPLAIN WHY THIS PHASE IS SO IMPORTANT IN HISTORICAL-EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH. (5)
The missing phase is “a thorough investigation of the topic / theme / problem as it exists in the present” or
“a review of relevant literature”. This should be done in order to
determine the current standing and opinions regarding the research theme
motivate and justify why the topic warrants further research
determine the nature, breadth and depth of the data that have to be collected from the past
determine which other aspects related to education need to be investigated to develop a fuller understanding of the research topic
put the research on a sounder footing
determine what concepts and theories have been applied to the topic
see what research methods have been applied to the topic
become acquainted with controversies about the topic and how it is studied
ascertain what clashes of evidence (if any) exists
get to know who the key contributors to research on the topic are
BOTH PHASES C AND D MENTION AN EVALUATION OF DATA. THIS INCLUDES THE ASSESSMENT OF, FOR EXAMPLE, THE LOGIC AND CREDIBILITY OF A DOCUMENT BY IDENTIFYING STATEMENTS IN WHICH THE AUTHOR:
Which two concepts describes these types of unacceptable statements best? (2)
Tries to persuade the reader to accept his/her claim, but whose claims are irrelevant
Expects the reader to believe something, without providing proof
PHASE D REFERS TO A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF DATA. THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA MENTIONS THAT “HISTORIANS … HAVE TO ASSESS THEIR EVIDENCE WITH A CRITICAL EYE”. NAME AND BRIEFLY DISCUSS TWO TYPES OF CRITICISM, WHICH A HISTORIAN OF EDUCATION USUALLY USES TO DO JUST THIS, NAMELY TO AUTHENTICATE HIS/HER SOURCES. (6)
External and internal criticism can be used to establish that the source is genuine.
External criticism seeks to determine whether the source is what it claims to be. It establishes why, where, when, how and by whom the document was written. It may even include the testing of the physical qualities of the document. If other examples exist, an effort could be made to compare style of writing.
Internal criticism involves an analysis of the meaning of statements within the document (already verified as genuine) in terms of accuracy and trustworthiness.
Note that you are requested to “name and briefly discuss”. It means that you need to provide the name of something and then to say something more about that particular name.
IN PHASE E, F AND G REFERENCE IS MADE TO FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS RESPECTIVELY. EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THESE THREE CONCEPTS. USE ANY GOOD DICTIONARY TO FIND THE MEANING OF THESE WORDS. (3)
? Findings refer to facts that that were ascertained; a discovery; that which is found out. Conclusions comprise the deductions or inferences that were made; the propositions inferred from premises; substantiated consequences; deduction reached by reasoning. Recommendations are representations in favour of a certain point of view; statements that serve to induce acceptance; that which is advisable; act of recommending something as worthy.
THROUGHOUT THE RESEARCH PROCESS, BUT ESPECIALLY WHEN COMPILING A RESEARCH REPORT (PHASE H), IT IS ESSENTIAL TO KEEP IN MIND THAT OTHER RESEARCHERS WILL BE USING OUR RESULTS AND BE DEPENDING ON THE ACCURACY AND HONESTY OF THE DATA. CONSEQUENTLY WE SHOULD CONSISTENTLY BE AWARE OF THE ETHICAL PRINCIPLES WHICH APPLY TO RESEARCH. WRITE DOWN FOUR ETHICAL PRINCIPLES THAT APPLY WHEN THE HISTORIAN OF EDUCATION WORKS WITH TEXTS AND BRIEFLY EXPLAIN THE MEANING / IMPLICATIONS THEREOF. (4) Plagiarism: using someone’s ideas or words without appropriately acknowledging the source, either through citation, the use of inverted commas or a block quotation; an infringement of the right to intellectual property.
Falsification of data: the distortion of data (for example, by exaggeration).
Fabrication of data: the act of creating data that never existed.
Misrepresentation of data: the selective reporting of data; omission of data that conflicts with other data in order to make one’s story seem better; wilfully suppressing data (not revealing relevant information.
Biased writing: distortion of data to prove the researcher’s bias.
It is important to note that there are also ethical principles that apply when a researcher work with people. These are different from the principles mentioned above. In an examination you should make sure which principles are being asked.
WHAT DOES THE ORAL HISTORY PROCESS COMPRISE? (WRITE DOWN THE STEPS RESEARCHERS WHO INTEND COLLECTING ORAL HISTORIES, USUALLY FOLLOW.) (10)
Oral histories is the collection and study of historical information using tape recordings of interviews with people having personal knowledge of past events.
To obtain information where little documentary evidence exists or where documentation is doubtful
To supplement other types of data, including where records are erratic or information from underrepresented or marginalized groups is fragmented or inadequate
To revise history where its conclusions are questioned
To protect information from loss or oblivion
To gather phenomenological data, where most appropriate, to illuminate the holistic nature of the subject’s bio-psychosocial functioning
IN HISTORICAL EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, THE ANALYSIS OF VISUAL IMAGES USUALLY OCCURS ON TWO LEVELS: THE VISIBLE AND THE INVISIBLE. WRITE DOWN THREE QUESTIONS WHICH A RESEARCHER NEED TO ASK CONCERNING THE VISIBLE ASPECTS OF THE IMAGE, AND TWO QUESTIONS THAT HAVE TO BE ASKED CONCERNING THE INVISIBLE. (5)
QUESTION 2 15 MARKS
This question focuses on Chapter 3 of your prescribed text.
2.1 Informal education during the precolonial period was provided through language learning, art education, as well as music and dance education. Briefly explain what music and dance education comprised. (15)
The provision of informal education during the pre-colonial period through music and dance
Informal education during the pre-colonial period was provided through language learning, art education, as well as music and dance education. Music and dance education comprised of:
Social norms and beliefs of communities were passed on to the youth through music and dance
They were taught to express joy or sadness and to reinforce cultural beliefs and values through song and dance
Song and dance were regarded as living records of the past and present events and traditions
San recognized tow kinds of music: vocal and instrumental
Vocal predominantely associated with trace dances. Religion centred on this trance dance
Men and older shaman women dance while young women sat, clapped and sang traditional songs. This sent dancers into an altered state of consciousness
Link of trance dance activities with education had to do with San spirituality
Young San males who wished to become shaman had to dance with and imitate and experience shaman (become his apprentice) until he had learned to master altered consciousness and control the level of his trance state
Through instrumental music and dance the young were taught how to participate in one of the predominant cultural and traditional dances
In history of Bantu-speaking people, singing and dancing were used during initiation ceremonies, especially girls’ initiation schools
Different songs marked different stages of the initiation and, for the Pedi, every song had a link with their social practices
The Venda (Domba:python dance) provided social, religious and sexual instruction through the medium of song and dance. This happened especially when girls were crossing the bridge between childhood and adulthood
Moral lessons on desirable social skills were taught and reinforced this way
In indigenous communities coexistence of different and simultaneous rhythms was a highly interactive mode of learning
Music and dance relied entirely on an oral tradition of transmitting musical knowledge. It was the most important means of communication.
QUESTION 4 15 MARKS
This question focuses on Chapter 5 of your prescribed text.
4.1 Give an overview of the contribution of mission societies to the provision of education in the Cape Colony and Natal between 1807 and 1899 and express a substantiated opinion on the successes or failures of these attempts. (15)
Contribution of mission societies to education, Cape and Natal, 1807 to 1899, and substantiated view on successes or failures:
No references to Transvaal and/or the Orange Free State should have been included. The time period should also have been respected. No marks were allocated for facts not related to this specific period.
In an effort to spread Christianity, missionaries established schools all over the country during the early 19th century (i.e. 1830s and 1840s).
The South African Mission Society was the first indigenous society established in the Cape by two ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church. They provided general education and religious instruction.
The Moravian Brothers, London, and Paris Evangelical Mission Societies were active among the coloured people in the Cape.
The Wesleyan Methodist Church pioneered mission work among slaves in the Cape and together with the London Mission Society worked primarily on the Eastern Frontier among the Xhosas.
Later the London Mission Society commenced work among the Griquas at Griquatown, about 168 km south of Kimberley in the Northern Cape. At the mission stations they established schools where learners were trained to become teachers and evangelists. They also created opportunities for learners to be prepared for industrial occupations like masons, carpenters, blacksmiths and wagon- builders.
The benchmark of mission stations was Genadendal (translated as Valley of Grace – originally known as Baviaanskloof – about 90 km north of Cape Town) established by the Moravian Brothers. The missionaries generally became acquainted with vernacular languages of the local people and eventually translated the Bible into the various local languages. They used both Dutch and the local language as medium of instruction.
The Rhenish Mission Society from Germany commenced with its work in the Cape and achieved so much success that soon thereafter they extended their activities to various other regions too. The Rhenish stations were characterised by the establishment of a communal life system. Agricultural villages that had the potential of becoming self-supporting were established and provided with small industries like tanneries. The dignity of labour was emphasised. Day schools came into being and also catered for the education of adults.
The Glasgow Mission Society set up the well-known Lovedale institution in the Eastern Province. Lovedale became an important centre for the training of African intellectuals.
By the middle of the 19th century missionaries had brought the gospel to practically every community in the Cape and Natal. At that stage the number of mission schools providing education for black children outnumbered schools set up for white children. The Cape government started providing grants for mission schools.
The American Board Mission and Anglican Church focused on Natal where the first-mentioned organisation established the Adams College. Mission education in Natal developed along more or less the same lines as in the Cape: mission schools increased, religious literature was translated into the dominant local language (Zulu), printing presses were set up and the government provided grants to support the schooling of black children. However, mission schools were not subject to government control as in the Cape. Different types of mission schools were established: industrial, agricultural and “academic” schools (i.e. schools that provided education other than industrial and agricultural).
Successes or failures:
The settlement of missionaries in black communities occurred with mixed expectations and a measure of misgiving among the indigenous groups.
The missionaries established schools and provided valuable training; established communal systems; helped black people to become self-supporting; created small industries; promoted the local languages; discovered the Euphonic Concord (i.e. the way a language is grammatically constructed); provided a valuable guide to transcription of oral work to literature; set up printing presses that enabled a spread of literature.
However, the missionaries’ ways confronted indigenous people with choices relating to culture, religion and lifestyle options.
The practices and culture of Christianity threatened the traditional structures of the local people.
10 marks for key events; 5 for substantiated view on success / failures.QUESTION 5 15 MARKS
This question focuses on Chapter 6 of your prescribed text.
5.2 Evaluate the role that Mr John Brebner played in the development of the Free State education system. (15)
An evaluation of the role that John Brebner played in the development of the Free State education system:
In 1874 John Brebner, an ordained Presbyterian minister of Scottish decent, was appointed as inspector of education in the Free State in terms of Ordinance 5 of 1872. State required someone to introduce secular education (i.e. “scale down” on religious education). He immediately undertook a tour of the country to acquaint himself with the social and educational circumstances in the Free State. He submitted a report which took into account both private and government provided education. He emphasised deficiencies regarding medium of instruction, irregular school attendance, and deplorable state of infrastructure. His recommendations focused on four priorities: judicious use of limited funds, provision of aids for education, training of own teachers, efficient teaching particularly in rural areas and small towns. This led to amendment of Ordinance 5. Occupied position for 25 years.
As a result of great powers which the state afforded Brebner, system became the product of a single man and was characterised by its Scottish traits. Brebner took huge responsibilities on himself: establishment of schools, appointment of teachers, administration of exams and quality of instruction. He also drafted education ordinances (steered change in education), set papers for prospective teachers’ exams, managed school requisites, scrutinised reports from schools and inspecting all schools once per annum. After about ten years provided with assistance.
Brebner’s structure of education included the establishment of various types of school (district, ward, itinerant, private, specialised). Although he regarded schools as government property and teachers as civil servants, he allowed management by school committees. Intended obviating church influence and consolidating state control.
Brebner established special fund for education and planted the seed of free and compulsory school attendance. He introduced mild form of compulsory school attendance: white children aged 14 to 16 living within two miles from a school were compelled to attend school if they failed to pass admission exam. All schools that received state funding had to be inspected and to answer for the financial support.
Brebner’s intervention in examinations led to establishment of examining body for all public examinations.
He tried to recruit teachers from abroad, but due to language issues achieved little success. Then recruited teachers from the Cape Province. Eventually established a teachers training college.
Brebner also contributed significantly to general public life.
Brebner approached his task in a sensible manner by first familiarising himself with the conditions. He departed from the problems the Free State experienced; he followed a problem-centred approach. Acted in gentlemanly fashion.
Had a proven track record.
Because he identified himself with country and its people, he enjoyed the confidence and respect of all stakeholders.
Played a cardinal role in bringing stability to the education system He achieved state’s aim of introducing secular education.
QUESTION 6 15 MARKS
This question focuses on Chapter 7 of your prescribed text.
6.2 Briefly describe the emergence of a separate system of education for coloured people in the Cape Colony between 1918 and 1930. (15)
The emergence of a system of education for coloured people in the Cape prior to 1930
During 1918 to 1930, the coloured population of SA was concentrated in the western districts of the Cape ColonyBecause of the relatively small numbers, Indian people were grouped with coloured people
Promulgated of Ordinance 12 of 1918 made provision for and increase in teachers’ salaries in coloured schools
Provincial Council also rented school building initially erected by missionary societies
In 1920 the Cape provincial administration agreed to pay salaries of coloured teachers in full
In 1922 the superintendent-general of education, Dr WJ Viljoen, expressed concern about education of coloured children were receiving in mission schools
Children often housed in building unsuitable for use as classrooms
School life of coloured children was very short
Viljoen advocated investigation into coloured education and for State to allocate more funds to coloured education
In 1923 this led to special curriculum for coloured schools and funding of R24000 from Union government
New curriculum focused on industrial work, nature study and horticulture. Geography and history adapted to the specific needs of the coloured community
In 1925, as a result of findings of Baxter Commission of Enquiry, teachers’ salaries as well as subsidies to schools raised
Milestone events was opening of the first secondary school for coloureds: Trafalgar High School in Cape Town in 1925- The school provided standard 7 to matric and compared well with to best-equipped schools for whites
The number of school going coloured children increased gradually between 1925 and 1930. Schools increased to more than 600
In 1928 all school fees for primary school children completely abolished
Central government paid all costs except capital cost of buildings
In 1930 the Education Department introduced free education and instituted system of boarding and transport grants for all white and coloured children up to age 15
Coloured parents very much valued education and were prepared to make sacrifices to keep children at school as long as possible
Took too many tasks for his own account.
Brebner was extremely dedicated.
Made Free State unique in South Africa as concerns financing of education and compulsory school attendance
Emphasised accountability: all schools receiving state funding had to be inspected.
Made significant contributions to the promotion of teacher training.
Brebner succeeded in making the Free State system the best of its time.
He brought about major changes and succeeded in implementing these changes because he made sure that it did not violate the deepest religious and political convictions of the stakeholders (especially the parents).
Brebner developed a system of education strongly resembling that of Scotland – the Free State system was not a spontaneous expression of the ethos of the people.
Introductory details: 5 marks. Evaluation: 10 marks. As stated earlier, there are many more facts that can be provided. More facts than marks allocated. This gives you a better chance to pass.