There are two types of stroke namely ischemic – at which the coagulation of the blood occurs and the hemorrhagic – at which the bleeding of blood occurs. Hemorrhagic strokes are often called as the brain hemorrhage. Approximately, 70-80% is ischemic and 20-30% is of hemorrhagic stroke.
Thus, hemorrhagic stroke is defined as an acute neurologic injury resulting from bleeding in the brain i.e. the blood vessels in the brain either leaks or burst. Causes for the brain hemorrhage includes several disorders such as the chronic, uncontrolled hypertension and a weak part in the walls of blood vessel called as the aneurysms.
There are two main types of hemorrhagic stroke:
• Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) – which is characterized by the rupture of blood vessels inside the brain that causes brain cell damage.
• Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) – caused usually from a ruptured brain aneurysm and is bleeding in between the two layers of thin membrane ( the arachnoid and the pia), around the brain, that leads to high pressure in brain, cell damage and the blood moves on to the protective fluids and gets contaminated.
• The major sign of hemorrhagic stroke is sudden severe head ache that is localized in one certain area. Loss of balance or coordination, difficulty in swallowing or vision.
• Other symptom includes nausea, vomiting, dizziness, confusion, and neck stiffness.
• At chronic stage, sudden numbness, weakness or paralysis of the face, arm or leg, tingling effects are seen particularly at one side of the body is also noticed . Change in level of consciousness, difficulty understanding and speaking.
ICH causes 10 – 15% of total hemorrhagic stroke with a mortality rate of almost 35 – 52 % per month.