Historical Security CouncilThe Situation in the Western Sahara (1979)The Republic of ZambiaThe Republic of Zambia’s Position on the Conflict in the Western SaharaTopic Background Conflict in Western Sahara started in 1975 between the Polisario Front and Morocco. It was a violent struggle that began following Spain’s withdrawal from Spanish Sahara. This prompted control over the territory to be switched to Moroccan rule but the sovereign powers were not given to the moroccan rulers. A march was organized by the Moroccans with upwards of 18,000 troops and 300,000 citizens who entered Western Sahara in the attempt to establish themselves as an important and large force in the area. This is where they met resistance by the Polisario people. The Polisario Front is a Sahrawi rebel group that is staging movement to end Moroccan presence in Western Sahara. The UN recognizes them as the representation of the Sahrawi people and they have right to self-determination within the international community. Their liberation movement is backed by a multitude of rebel forces and violent causes.
This is not only in Western Sahara but their rebel force has had a presence in a variety of other areas. However, it has never reached the extent that is now has in Western Sahara. When the group’s first crossed into the territory, resistance was minimal but as time went on and the desires of both parties were increased violence began and differing parties became more investing in obtaining control over the land. Guerrilla warfare was most commonly used which is a violent type of fighting that include military tactics such as ambushes, sabotage, raids, and much more. As time went on violence was only increasing which was leading to more death of the citizens and troops of both parties.
We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!
Morocco believed that they deserves complete control and sovereignty over the entire territory. Similarly, the Polisario believed the land was rightfully theirs and had the ultimate goal to establish an independent state without any representation from the Moroccan people. Since Morocco annexed the territory in 1975 the conflict between the Moroccan and Saharawi people, which are led by the Polisario Force, has only become more intense. Following the Polisarios claim of representation over the sahrawi people the Moroccan King, Hassan, took the dispute over the lang to the World Court in Hague. After days in court and varying opinions on the claims at hand the court found out that Muktople Tribes had strict allegiance to Moroccan rulers. However, there are multiple guidelines that state that people are allowed to use self-determination to deal with sovereign problems so the court chooses to allow spain to organize a referendum. Following disputes both on land and in court, King Hassan of Morocco organizes what became known as the Green March, which was the name for the Moroccan forces that crossed the territory.
This march prompted Spain to transfer the territory and Morocco then sent in forces to occupy the area. Later, in 1976 all Spanish troops were withdrawn. Algeria and Libya began to team up with the Polisario and established the SADR, the Saharan Arab Democratic Republic. This was based out of Algeria. With the continued allied support from varying nations the Polisario forces gained more power and established a stronger presence in in the territory that Mexico had already made claims to. With all Spanish troops out of the area, there were now only a power struggle between the Morocco and Polisario people.
This lead to even more violent and head on conflict without the fear of firing on the Spanish Allies. Immediately following these events in 1976, the Polisario Front declared war against the Moroccan people which, even after years of conflict, marked the official start to the Western Sahara War. Recently, the idea of peace is prioritized in both parties but the lack of compromise is leading to more violence and hatred for leaders of the opposing groups. Treaties have been attempted and failed in the past due to the size of the territory and immediate resort to violence from the citizens the attempt at peace has not been successful.
With ongoing attempts to have peace talks between leaders their may be increased relations and communications in the future however both sides are set on obtaining all the land at theirs and are not willing to split the territory. Citizen involvement is extremely strong and casualties are increasing in number but patriotism and morale is notably high on both sides. The leaders of each force have been using more advanced technology and violent tactics in order to do anything possible to keep the opposing side out of what they claim to be their land. Going forward, the forces have continued to use violent tactics while simultaneously attempting to reach peace through the writing of a treaty.
Country Policy The Republic of Zambia has experienced similar issues in regards to the rights of colonized states and peoples. In fact, for several centuries, Zambia had been under the colonial rule of Britain, except it was considered Northern Rhodesia. It wasn’t until 1962 when the Barotseland Agreement relieved Zambia of their extensive position as a colony.
From then on, Zambia took a position of neutrality in World War II, and the Cold War. They joined the Non-Aligned Movement, and participated in the various conferences that followed. As a matter of fact, a summit for non-aligned states was held in Lusaka, Zambia in 1970.
This summit specifically addressed the problems involving the peace, freedom, development, and cooperation of international relations in regards to the present states. These discussions were specifically tailored in how the non-aligned countries would respond to the various propaganda techniques the Soviet Union was utilizing. Seeing as though Zambia has recently gained independence, we are working on establishing a stable economy, and developing an efficient government.
Considering our history, the Republic of Zambia sympathizes for the people of Western Sahara, and hopes that the conflicting governments can reach a reasonable, and peaceful solution. Zambia recognizes the stance the Polisario Front has taken. We understand the position the Sawarhis are in, and hope to guide them throughout this conflict. Zambia believes that not only does the political conflict have to come to an end, but the people of Western Sahara need to receive aid. Zambia’s current government is a commonwealth, and we believe that the people deserve a say in their rights. We hope to propose solutions that will help ease the transition of the Sawarhis as they relieve themselves of colonial rule.
Zambia also hopes that the conflicting governments reach a solution that causes the least amount of harm to the people of Western Sahara. In the 1960’s, the UN General Assembly established the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. This was issued on the belief that it would improve social conditions, and build a consensus of stability. The Republic of Zambia believes that this document is extremely important in protecting the rights of colonial countries. It is imperative that more documents are established on the consensus to protect the rights of the people, and the sovereignty of nations that were previously colonies. The Republic of Zambia also recognizes how the UN approached this issue in the wrong way. Specifically in Western Sahara, the establishment of this document caused conflict in the citizens of Western Sahara.
Sawarhis faced several domestic issues when choosing which side to support. The UN General Assembly recognized the faults of their initial declaration, and issued Over time, the UN General Assembly began to Resolution 3292. Resolution 3292 recalled the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples. Along with this statement, the General Assembly began to consider whether or not their decisions in regards to colonial states was wise.III. Proposed Solutions Zambia suggests revising the current code of conduct between the participating parties as well as their neighboring nations. EAch country has abided by the code of conduct in the past so by allowing members to make revisions and place an emphasis on the no tolerance policy for violence this will provide incentives for these parties to reach a resolution in a non-violent or destructive manor.
This would include refers to treatment policies and an establishment of a single uniform set of rules to enforce across the borders of countries. This would entail dealing with those who have broken the rules put in place by the code in a similar way regardless of country origin. The ideal goal would be to revise past documents or even constructing a new and improved documents that represents ideas from every nation directly involved in the conflict as well as the desires of neighboring nations. Each nation will be allocated fair amounts of resources as and land depending on population and involvement in the conflict. Nations are incentivized to agree to the new terms as long as each keep a sufficient amount of territory and are given good reason to withdraw troops guarding their claimed land. Zambia recognizes that even after the political dispute has subsided, Western Sahara will not be able to establish a stable nation without a suitable economy. Considering this, Zambia recommends the utilization and development of pastoral nomadic farming techniques in the Western Saharan region.
Pastoral nomadic farming is the practice of the migration of livestock and agriculture fields in regards to the weather and markets during that time. This practice has been used several years in Western Sahara; however, it is not sustainable because there are several time periods during the year in which farmers have no crops to sell. For these reasons, Zambia suggests a series of techniques be utilized by farmers in Western Sahara that practice this trade. These techniques include the mixing of on farm versus between farm fields, mixing within crops and animals to create a diversity in case of disease, and raising crops with different life cycles to allow harvest to occur year round. Zambia specifically favors the utilization of the latter technique because it would allow for a viable and continuous economy to bloom in Western Saharan communities. Zambia recognizes the limit in which the demographics of Western Sahara place on their economy. However, Western Sahara does have a significant access to fishing areas. For these reasons, Zambia recommends the implementation of a program similar to a developed-developing nation agreement.
These agreements tend to be based around trade, and often involve an exchange of natural resources and semi manufactured goods. However, the Western Saharan program would be different in that local fisheries would partner with larger, corporate fish companies. This would include the drafting of contracts with these larger companies, as well as forming treaties regarding the presence of these multinational corporations in Western Sahara. Creating these fishing relationships will allow Western Sahara to further integrate itself into the world economy.
Integration into the world economy in the early stages of the nations development is extremely important if Western Sahara hopes to become a successful and thriving nation. Additionally, Zambia would like to establish a cohesive borders policy. This would require regulation and laws to go beyond the borders of western sahara and into neighboring nations. Zambia believes that Problems do not stop at the borders so we should not let our solutions only be enforced within out territory. Each nations would agree on a set rules and punishments for the area and purpose it to neighboring nations. Of course we cannot threaten the sovereignty of the area so we cannot require actions to take on this rule but seeing as punishments are already similar across borders and many regulations are uniform it would make sense to establish these rules across borders. Additionally, these nations would be incentivized to adhere to these regulations to stay out of the international mixed court system. With a unified international community that is on the same page in how to deal with border policies we are putting our best foot forward towards a brighter future.
Furthermore, Zambia would like to establsih a Mixed Court System (MCS) cross the Sahara and the involved parties in the conflict. Based out of Zambia which is a typically conflict free region, we can ensure that issues within the Sahara are dealt with efficiently. This is providing and effective way to ensure that conflict between powerful groups is eliminated. The MCS would operate in Lusaka, Zambia seeing as it is neutral.This court would serve to call for mixed court trials on a wide variety of issues that the parties are facing. These trials would be made up of representatives from those directly involved in the issues addressed and final decsions would be made by unbiased third-party mediators in best attempt to ensure a fair verdict is made. Cases would be priortized based on urgancy. The trial would deal with the most pressing issue of conflciting claims to territory and the violence pertaing to that.
This tria would consist of representatives from the Government of National Accord, the General National Congress, the House of Representatives, and a jury of citizens from each side. This would be with the general goal to rid of instability and ineffectiveness of the opposing powers. These groups are incentivized to attend the given trial due to their belief in having significant power over specific regions of the Sahara and this will give them a good chance at getting complete control over the area. The jury and varyign representatives would strategically ensure that ruling are carried out completely accoridng to the verdict made. Organization within the governing bodies will be establsihed without the threat of conflict and trials will continue based on issues that arise.
Military power is awlays a last resort but verdicts will be protecting in the event of uprising following the dcsions made in the Mixed Court System. The court will be effective in adressing probles in all areas pertaining to the region anf is fully willing to accept memebers from outiside regiosnd epending on their involvment in th conflcit. Zambia would like to stress the importance in focusing on short term solutions in addition to long term goals as well. This can ensure that those suffering in the area are gaining the immediate aid and relief that they much need while we are simultaneously setting out goals to be accomplished in the future.
With the ultimate goal being a peaceful relations in the international community we must ensure that we are also giving citizens a opportunity to change their lives so they don’t fall back into the same repetitive cycle of violence and chaos in their community. The violence in the area is detrimental to both parties involved and it is harming innocent citizens so with the help of humanitarian aid and outside integration we can provide immediate relief. However, years of aid is not sustainable for the area so setting for plans such as the above mentioned mixed court system and code of conduct we can ensure that history will not repeat itself.