I. as the potential of other wars

       I.           BackgroundSince Postwar Japan foreign policy has change whichJapan’s leader consider to change the foreign policy to increasing thecapability of security and economic environment (Jain, 2000). The security policyof Japan was influenced by the United State.

Then Japan was imposed pacifistconstitution which is Article IX published in 1947. This article IX consist ofpoint as below (Jain, 2000):1.     “Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based onjustice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereignright of the nation and the threat or use of force as a means of settlinginternational disputes”.2.

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       “In order to achieve the aim of the precedingparagraph, land, sea and air forces, as well as other war potential, will neverbe maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized”.ThisConstitution made has purpose for Japan to no longer have the potential tostart a war with the crippling forces against the Japanese both land, sea andair as well as the potential of other wars that existed after the war, and toreduce the use of military force in international settlement or conflictresolution. Then US step-up provides security as well as asecurity umbrella against Japan from outside attacks coming and will exert itsstrength to counterattack, as stated in the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation andSecurity in 1960 (Ministry Foreign Affair of Japan, 2014),which is a revision of the Mutual Security Assistance Pact Agreement signed onin 1952, in which Japan allowed the United States to build bases and placetroops inside Japanese territory. Otherwise,unlike other defense agreements, the agreements made are no longer balancedwhich are placed in a more passive position, where Japan is no longer the sameif attacked by other forces.

The contents of chapter IX are contested thelatter shows the strengthening of the Japanese defense capability and some of thethings that are meant is something contrary to what is meant in the article.This is even more significant, when Japan in May 2008 passed a law to use spacefor defense purposes. This is the opposite of Japan’s defense law. Given theexisting East Asian regional conditions, the Japanese government needs to beimplemented on its political security program. The National Defense Guideline(NDPG) which guides Japan’s defense in 2010 with the concept of Dynamic DefenseForce (DDF) concept. This concept enabled the Japanese to form a moreaggressive and mobilitative SDF army. The 2010 NDPG also contains the task ofstrengthening Japan’s maritime and air force to deal with conflicts that areattacks from outside Japan.

Here the author would to examine the securitypolicy of Japan under Shinzo Abe administration. First by review the securitypolicy since Postwar until the administration of Shinzo Abe, what faced byJapan and how Shinzo Abe resolve it.    II.           ContentShinzoAbe was started his second administration as the Prime Minister of Japan on2012. In this administration Japan security policy has three pillar are (Sakaki, 2015):1. “Japan’s own capabilities and defense measures, 2. the alliance with the US,and 3. cooperation with other countries”.

Abe Shinzo was succeed to reorienthis country’s security policy, which approve for the first time in a decade bythe increased Defense Budget.  Thesecurity policy become urgency for Japan because of tense situation faced from dueto its neighboring china and North Korea which was threatening Japan Security. Factorsmake Japan change the security policy are: 1.

Increased Japanese economiccapability. 2. Nationalism. 3. Nuclear and Missile North Korea as a threat.

4.China’s military increase. While US interests in encouraging Japan’s defenseand security policy are: a) East Asian Regional Stability b) Extended USDeterrence against China and North Korea Military Strength c) Security of USTrade Lines in East Asia. Opposition to Dynamic Defense Force is China’s firstChina, which protests if Japan’s military capabilities increase or the closerUS-Japan security cooperation. The second is North Korea, basically Japan’sstrong defense growth is affected by the threat coming from North Korea.InNorth Korea’s missile and nuclear technology advances posed a major threat toJapanese security. Over the past few years the regime in Pyongyang has managedto increase the range and accuracy of its ballistic missiles in successivetests. With each test in 2006, 2009, and 2013, NorthKorea has consolidated its status as a nuclear state along with gradually expandingits nuclear weapons yield (Singh, 2015).

 Recentlyon 15th September North Korea launched the Hwasong-12 medium-rangemissile that crosses the Japanese spacecraft, triggering an emergency sirenbefore it falls into the Pacific Ocean (James Griffiths, 2017). The missiles covera distance of around 3,700 kilometers and reach height of 770 kilometers. Thismeans that this missile can reach Guam, the largest US military base in thePacific Ocean that is about 3,400 kilometers from North Korea. This latestlaunch is the first time it promised to be higher than North Korea. On Friday United Nations, held the emergency meetingof the Security Council.

The sanctions are tested on a nuclear test on September 3, which Pyongyang saysis the most powerful and a hydrogen bomb. North Korea exchanged with advancesin weapon technology under the leadership of Kim Jong-un.Chinathreatening because the aggressive stance on the East China Sea, especiallyregarding the disputed Senkaku / Diaoyu islands.

Beside that China sent a navalsubmarine close to the Senkaku Islands in June, 2016. Therefore, Abe’s policiessuch as a review of the Constitutional peace clause, the establishment of theNational Security Council, and the increase of the defense budget with afive-year development plan, are solely taken to cope with Japan’s defenseneeds, as well as to address the changing geopolitical and security conditionsat Northeast Asia. With these initiatives, the objective of Abe’s governmentpolicy, namely to maintain a credible defense capability in the midst of China’sincreasingly aggressive, not to “return to militarism”. In additionrespond the China, Japan permanently increased the number of F-15 fighters inOkinawa and also prepares to mobilize the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Forcevessel to support the Japanese Coast Guard if needed (Cooper, 2016).

Shinzo Abe alsoplans to acquire three Global Hawk reconnaissance drones in fiscal which droneswill help Japan to conduct reconnaissance and surveillance of Chineseactivities around the Senkaku Islands. Then Japan will also continue tostrengthen bilateral (Japan-Australia, Japan-UK, Japan-Indonesia,Japan-Philippines) and trilateral (US-Japan-Australia, US-Japan-India,US-Japan-ROK) and relationships.Meanwhile,Shinzo Abe’s efforts in improving Japan’s defense are divided into 3, are: 1.in cooperation with ASEAN to reduce China’s influence in the region, PrimeMinister Shinzo Abe is making efforts to strengthen Asian diplomacy by firstvisiting Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia. The diplomatic efforts undertaken byJapan in Southeast Asia and Australia are illustrating the economic andstrategic importance of the new government in Tokyo. Japan wants to dampen therise of the marked China by the rise of the military and its economic influencein Southeast Asia.

2. Re-Interpretation of Article IX, In July, the Abe cabinetapproved the reinterpretation of a pacifist treaty called Article IX. ShinzoAbe as the leader of the Liberal Democratic Party seeks to campaign in Japanesepolitics and society that Japan needs to build adequate defense force to dealwith changing security conditions in the Region.

The effort was succeed on July1, 2014 the Japanese Cabinet ratified the re-interpretation of Article 9. Forexample, Tokyo has for years reframed cases of collective self-defense as individualself-defense, such as the deployment of Japanese armed forces in the IndianOcean as part of the “war on terrorism” (Sakaki, 2015). Increasing theopenness of the Asian economy Pacific in order to encourage the economic growthof the Region. Several countries such as Australia, India, the Philippines andVietnam have started to cooperate in the field of Japanese defense industry. Asa follow-up of the visit of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in Australia in July2014, the two countries agreed to cooperate on the construction of aJapanese-made Soryu submarine called one of the best diesel-powered submarinesin the world. On 1 April 2014 Shinzo Abe was revision the arms exports ruleswhich permitted to exports arms for providing Japan’s security.

 In this new rules Japan has succeed expandedits arms exports in the East Asian region and already taken advantage which iscurrently negotiating with India to the delivery of US-2 amphibious airplanes.However in other side majority of Japan’s citizens reject it. According to thesurvey percentage, 17 percent pro the relaxation of rules proposed by Abe, with77 percent cons (Sakaki, 2015).  III.           ConclusionSincethe postwar the security policy of Japan was influenced by the United State.Then Japan was imposed by the constitution which is Article IX published in1947. Because of it United State give the security guarantee for Japan whichhas military basis in Okinawa Japan. Since the administration of Shinzo Abe on2012 more focus to increasing the security capability.

  The Security policy has three pillar are (Sakaki, 2015):1. “Japan’s own capabilities and defense measures, 2. the alliance with the US,and 3. cooperation with other countries”.  The factor make Shinzo abe more focus to thesecurity capability because the threat come from the neighboring North Koreawith the missile program and China dispute in Senkaku Island.  Shinzo Abe’s efforts in improving Japan’s defenseare divided into 3 are: in cooperation with ASEAN to reduce China’s influencein the region, Re-Interpretation of Article IX, Increasing the openness of theAsian economy Pacific in order to encourage the economic growth of the Region.

Also revised arms exports to make Japan involved in Defense Military. Shinzo Abe’sreign is Japan’s policy to participate in increasing its military to protectits national security, so this Japanese effort spawned a Japan is expected toachieve its national interests and security.                                                                                                                    I.           BackgroundSince Postwar Japan foreign policy has change whichJapan’s leader consider to change the foreign policy to increasing thecapability of security and economic environment (Jain, 2000). The security policyof Japan was influenced by the United State.

Then Japan was imposed pacifistconstitution which is Article IX published in 1947. This article IX consist ofpoint as below (Jain, 2000):1.     “Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based onjustice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereignright of the nation and the threat or use of force as a means of settlinginternational disputes”.2.

       “In order to achieve the aim of the precedingparagraph, land, sea and air forces, as well as other war potential, will neverbe maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized”.ThisConstitution made has purpose for Japan to no longer have the potential tostart a war with the crippling forces against the Japanese both land, sea andair as well as the potential of other wars that existed after the war, and toreduce the use of military force in international settlement or conflictresolution. Then US step-up provides security as well as asecurity umbrella against Japan from outside attacks coming and will exert itsstrength to counterattack, as stated in the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation andSecurity in 1960 (Ministry Foreign Affair of Japan, 2014),which is a revision of the Mutual Security Assistance Pact Agreement signed onin 1952, in which Japan allowed the United States to build bases and placetroops inside Japanese territory. Otherwise,unlike other defense agreements, the agreements made are no longer balancedwhich are placed in a more passive position, where Japan is no longer the sameif attacked by other forces. The contents of chapter IX are contested thelatter shows the strengthening of the Japanese defense capability and some of thethings that are meant is something contrary to what is meant in the article.This is even more significant, when Japan in May 2008 passed a law to use spacefor defense purposes. This is the opposite of Japan’s defense law.

Given theexisting East Asian regional conditions, the Japanese government needs to beimplemented on its political security program. The National Defense Guideline(NDPG) which guides Japan’s defense in 2010 with the concept of Dynamic DefenseForce (DDF) concept. This concept enabled the Japanese to form a moreaggressive and mobilitative SDF army. The 2010 NDPG also contains the task ofstrengthening Japan’s maritime and air force to deal with conflicts that areattacks from outside Japan.

Here the author would to examine the securitypolicy of Japan under Shinzo Abe administration. First by review the securitypolicy since Postwar until the administration of Shinzo Abe, what faced byJapan and how Shinzo Abe resolve it.    II.           ContentShinzoAbe was started his second administration as the Prime Minister of Japan on2012. In this administration Japan security policy has three pillar are (Sakaki, 2015):1. “Japan’s own capabilities and defense measures, 2. the alliance with the US,and 3. cooperation with other countries”.

Abe Shinzo was succeed to reorienthis country’s security policy, which approve for the first time in a decade bythe increased Defense Budget.  Thesecurity policy become urgency for Japan because of tense situation faced from dueto its neighboring china and North Korea which was threatening Japan Security. Factorsmake Japan change the security policy are: 1. Increased Japanese economiccapability. 2. Nationalism. 3. Nuclear and Missile North Korea as a threat.

4.China’s military increase. While US interests in encouraging Japan’s defenseand security policy are: a) East Asian Regional Stability b) Extended USDeterrence against China and North Korea Military Strength c) Security of USTrade Lines in East Asia. Opposition to Dynamic Defense Force is China’s firstChina, which protests if Japan’s military capabilities increase or the closerUS-Japan security cooperation.

The second is North Korea, basically Japan’sstrong defense growth is affected by the threat coming from North Korea.InNorth Korea’s missile and nuclear technology advances posed a major threat toJapanese security. Over the past few years the regime in Pyongyang has managedto increase the range and accuracy of its ballistic missiles in successivetests. With each test in 2006, 2009, and 2013, NorthKorea has consolidated its status as a nuclear state along with gradually expandingits nuclear weapons yield (Singh, 2015).

 Recentlyon 15th September North Korea launched the Hwasong-12 medium-rangemissile that crosses the Japanese spacecraft, triggering an emergency sirenbefore it falls into the Pacific Ocean (James Griffiths, 2017). The missiles covera distance of around 3,700 kilometers and reach height of 770 kilometers. Thismeans that this missile can reach Guam, the largest US military base in thePacific Ocean that is about 3,400 kilometers from North Korea. This latestlaunch is the first time it promised to be higher than North Korea. On Friday United Nations, held the emergency meetingof the Security Council.The sanctions are tested on a nuclear test on September 3, which Pyongyang saysis the most powerful and a hydrogen bomb.

North Korea exchanged with advancesin weapon technology under the leadership of Kim Jong-un.Chinathreatening because the aggressive stance on the East China Sea, especiallyregarding the disputed Senkaku / Diaoyu islands. Beside that China sent a navalsubmarine close to the Senkaku Islands in June, 2016. Therefore, Abe’s policiessuch as a review of the Constitutional peace clause, the establishment of theNational Security Council, and the increase of the defense budget with afive-year development plan, are solely taken to cope with Japan’s defenseneeds, as well as to address the changing geopolitical and security conditionsat Northeast Asia.

With these initiatives, the objective of Abe’s governmentpolicy, namely to maintain a credible defense capability in the midst of China’sincreasingly aggressive, not to “return to militarism”. In additionrespond the China, Japan permanently increased the number of F-15 fighters inOkinawa and also prepares to mobilize the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Forcevessel to support the Japanese Coast Guard if needed (Cooper, 2016). Shinzo Abe alsoplans to acquire three Global Hawk reconnaissance drones in fiscal which droneswill help Japan to conduct reconnaissance and surveillance of Chineseactivities around the Senkaku Islands.

Then Japan will also continue tostrengthen bilateral (Japan-Australia, Japan-UK, Japan-Indonesia,Japan-Philippines) and trilateral (US-Japan-Australia, US-Japan-India,US-Japan-ROK) and relationships.Meanwhile,Shinzo Abe’s efforts in improving Japan’s defense are divided into 3, are: 1.in cooperation with ASEAN to reduce China’s influence in the region, PrimeMinister Shinzo Abe is making efforts to strengthen Asian diplomacy by firstvisiting Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia.

The diplomatic efforts undertaken byJapan in Southeast Asia and Australia are illustrating the economic andstrategic importance of the new government in Tokyo. Japan wants to dampen therise of the marked China by the rise of the military and its economic influencein Southeast Asia. 2. Re-Interpretation of Article IX, In July, the Abe cabinetapproved the reinterpretation of a pacifist treaty called Article IX. ShinzoAbe as the leader of the Liberal Democratic Party seeks to campaign in Japanesepolitics and society that Japan needs to build adequate defense force to dealwith changing security conditions in the Region.

The effort was succeed on July1, 2014 the Japanese Cabinet ratified the re-interpretation of Article 9. Forexample, Tokyo has for years reframed cases of collective self-defense as individualself-defense, such as the deployment of Japanese armed forces in the IndianOcean as part of the “war on terrorism” (Sakaki, 2015). Increasing theopenness of the Asian economy Pacific in order to encourage the economic growthof the Region. Several countries such as Australia, India, the Philippines andVietnam have started to cooperate in the field of Japanese defense industry. Asa follow-up of the visit of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in Australia in July2014, the two countries agreed to cooperate on the construction of aJapanese-made Soryu submarine called one of the best diesel-powered submarinesin the world. On 1 April 2014 Shinzo Abe was revision the arms exports ruleswhich permitted to exports arms for providing Japan’s security.  In this new rules Japan has succeed expandedits arms exports in the East Asian region and already taken advantage which iscurrently negotiating with India to the delivery of US-2 amphibious airplanes.

However in other side majority of Japan’s citizens reject it. According to thesurvey percentage, 17 percent pro the relaxation of rules proposed by Abe, with77 percent cons (Sakaki, 2015).  III.           ConclusionSincethe postwar the security policy of Japan was influenced by the United State.

Then Japan was imposed by the constitution which is Article IX published in1947. Because of it United State give the security guarantee for Japan whichhas military basis in Okinawa Japan. Since the administration of Shinzo Abe on2012 more focus to increasing the security capability.  The Security policy has three pillar are (Sakaki, 2015):1. “Japan’s own capabilities and defense measures, 2.

the alliance with the US,and 3. cooperation with other countries”.  The factor make Shinzo abe more focus to thesecurity capability because the threat come from the neighboring North Koreawith the missile program and China dispute in Senkaku Island.  Shinzo Abe’s efforts in improving Japan’s defenseare divided into 3 are: in cooperation with ASEAN to reduce China’s influencein the region, Re-Interpretation of Article IX, Increasing the openness of theAsian economy Pacific in order to encourage the economic growth of the Region.Also revised arms exports to make Japan involved in Defense Military.

Shinzo Abe’sreign is Japan’s policy to participate in increasing its military to protectits national security, so this Japanese effort spawned a Japan is expected toachieve its national interests and security.                                                                                                             

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