In houses, rodent droppings, water, litter, fecal matter,

In Indian scenario intensification in poultry industry has been resulted in increased susceptibility of birds to infections. Poultry acts as a reservoir of infections which are of public health significance. (Dadheech, T et.al., 2016). Poultry houses, rodent droppings, water, litter, fecal matter, dust and feeds are considered as possible sources of E. coli . Strains of E.coli are potential of causing either intestinal or extra-intestinal form of diseases. (Moawad, et al., 2017).
Continuous exposue of bacterial pathogens to ?-lactams resulted in host adaption, vital and massive production and mutation of ?-lactamases. (Pitout, J. D. D et.al., 2008). Third-generation cephalosporins resistant Escherichia coli proportion within 6 years increased from 2% in 2004 to 8.5% in 2011 among 90% of these isolates are extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBL). (Editor, 2013).

Extended-spectrum ? lactamases (ESBLs),are group of ? lactamases, have the ability to hydrolyse and cause resistance to various types of the newer ?-lactam antibiotics, which covers expanded-spectrum :third-generation cephalosporins (eg, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime) and monobactams (eg, aztreonam), not the cephamycins (eg, cefoxitin and cefotetan) and carbapenems (eg,imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem).( Pitout et al., 2008)

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