In houses, rodent droppings, water, litter, fecal matter,

In Indian scenario intensification in poultry industry has been resulted in increased susceptibility of birds to infections. Poultry acts as a reservoir of infections which are of public health significance. (Dadheech, T, 2016). Poultry houses, rodent droppings, water, litter, fecal matter, dust and feeds are considered as possible sources of E. coli . Strains of E.coli are potential of causing either intestinal or extra-intestinal form of diseases. (Moawad, et al., 2017).
Continuous exposue of bacterial pathogens to ?-lactams resulted in host adaption, vital and massive production and mutation of ?-lactamases. (Pitout, J. D. D, 2008). Third-generation cephalosporins resistant Escherichia coli proportion within 6 years increased from 2% in 2004 to 8.5% in 2011 among 90% of these isolates are extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBL). (Editor, 2013).

Extended-spectrum ? lactamases (ESBLs),are group of ? lactamases, have the ability to hydrolyse and cause resistance to various types of the newer ?-lactam antibiotics, which covers expanded-spectrum :third-generation cephalosporins (eg, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime) and monobactams (eg, aztreonam), not the cephamycins (eg, cefoxitin and cefotetan) and carbapenems (eg,imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem).( Pitout et al., 2008)

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