In the German language, a game is any activity whichis executed only for pleasure and without a conscious purpose. In thisdefinition, every activity that brings pleasure is a game. For example, peopledance, play musical instruments, act in plays, and play with dolls and modeltrains.
This definition people use today comes from theworks of Johan Huizinga (Homo Ludens, 1938) and Friedrich Georg Jünger (DieSpiele, 1959). But there are more ways to define games. Manfred Eigen’s andRuthild Winkler’s definition for the game goes beyond the definition used byHuizinga. They see a game as a natural phenomenon: half necessity and halfcoincidence (Das Spiel, 1975). Their definition of games comes closer toAdorno’s’ definition, who set himself apart from Huizinga by identifying gamesas an art form. But in our sense these definitions are too wide, wedefine game more succinctly. Thus, I am writing about games which belong to theclass that includes Chess, 9 Man’s Morris, Checkers, Halma, Go, Parchisi,Monopoly, Scrabble, Skat, Rummy, Bridge, Memory, Jack Straws, Dominoes, and soon.
Unfortunately, our language does not have a good term to call these games.Terms like table games, society games, tournament games are too narrow. In myopinion, the best term would be “rule games” = “games withrules”. Grammar may be defined as the rules of language,governing the way in which word are we put together to convey meaning indifferent contexts. An utterance (in speech) or sentences (in writing) isgrammatical if it doesn’t.
Grammar is the whole system and structure of a language or of languages in general,usually taken as consisting of syntax and morphology (including inflexions) andsometimes also phonology and semantics. Knowledge of grammar enables languageusers to put words together in the correct order to communicate ideas andintentions efficiently. It is possible that someone who can produce perfectlycorrect sentences and communicate efficiently may not to be able to explain therules of grammar.
This is true of many speakers of English language. knowledgeof grammar to be able to describe and explain the rules. Thischapter shall explain the Methodologies that will be employed in this research.The chapter shall first explain the research design followed by the populationconcerned. Following that, the samples and the sample selection methods will bedescribed in detail. The instrumentation shall then be discussed upon and alsoissues of validity and reliability. After that, the chapter explicitlydescribes the procedures for data collection that the researcher intends topractice together with the methods of analysis.
This chapter shall then beclosed with a conclusion. For this study, a quantitative approach was used tocollect the data. This quantitative survey is a formal and objective type. APre-Test and Post-Test has been used for this survey. The test method was usedto find the research on how the usage of games in teaching grammar is working amongthe 30 standard 4 students from Sekolah Kebangsaan (2) Petaling Jaya. For thisstudy, the data was collected by the researcher through the self-administrativepre-test and post-test in a test paper form that the students have to answer ontheir own.
These tests were very time-consume. This also proved that thequestions are answered properly by the students. The population of this study will be year 4 upperprimary students from Sekolah Kebangsaan (2) Petaling Jaya. These students willbe sitting for their entrance exam for the secondary level which we called “UPSR”.
This population also concerns the gender and their age. It estimated that thetotal of number almost 30 students in the classroom. Basedon the population year 4 students, the samples of this study will be upperprimary students from a public school in Petaling Jaya. Based on the Morgantable for sample size determination a total of 30 students from each year 4will be selected as respondents for the survey exam (quantitative). The methodsof selecting these samples will be explained in the following.
30 students will be my respondents (quantitative).My respondents will be in Petaling Jaya Area. Upper Primary student’s whichYear 4 is. Sample selection: randomly select.
Theinstruments for collecting data in this research consisted of pre-test ingrammar, mainly on verbs and preposition. Validityis the degree to which the test actually measures what it is intended tomeasure, Brown (2000). Brown states two types of validation. Before anyinstruments are used in any research, the instruments must be tested out firstto know the instruments’ validity and reliability. Content validity of the instruments used in this research paper was determinedbased on the materials given to the samples. Instruments used in this researchwere constructed based on the samples’ status and level which are standard 4students with intermediate level.
Constructdenotes to any underlying skill or trait which is hypothesized in a theory oflanguage ability. The tools in this research paper reflect that in a way thosetest given are suitable for analysis pre-test and post-test. Reliabilityis explained as measurement consistency from one measurement consistency fromone measurement or another. A pre-test will be done in order to measure thereliability of the instrument. The reliability analysis consistency will beapplied to test the reliability of pre-test items for the survey exam. Onecommon one method to check reliability is to Test-Retest which to give thetest. Forcomplete this research year 4 students will be chosen as the responded inPetaling Jaya area.
Following the research proposal, the researcher will askpermissions to any of the principal to complete this survey at any publicschool in Petaling Jaya area. Year 4 students will be identified to be tested.These students will be approached by the researcher during the practicum time.Once the class is confirmed to be tested, a date, time and place will beinformed. After that, collect data on the particular date by testing the year 4students.
Firstly I will conduct a pre-test to check Year 4students knowledge in grammar particularly on verb and preposition. This wasbecause “pre-test” measure students understanding of a subject area. Studentswill be given 20 verbs and preposition questions and they were supposed toanswer the question correctly. Usage of games in teaching grammar for year 4 students.The result from the pre-test and post-test are able to measure theeffectiveness of using games in teaching grammar. The usage of games inteaching grammar can increase the student’s attention and interest to learn thesubject.
The study elaborates onthe analysis of the data of the findings. The findings shall be analyzed in accordance with the pre-test andpost-test questions with the findings of the demographic data preceding it. Thechapter concludes with a summary.
Thissection elaborates the data analysis of the research. The data analysis will beelaborated by quantitative data. The data has been tabulated in table form thenconverted in to bar chat and graph chat. Every finding from the data collectedhas been collected by students pre-test and post-test marks.