In order to confirm the early results from the IBM study and to extend them to a variety of populations, six subsequent cross-national studies have successfully been conducted between 1990 and 2002. Covering between 14 and 28 countries, the samples included commercial airline pilots, students, civil service managers, ‘up-market’ consumers and ‘elites’. The combined research established value scores on the four dimensions for a total of 76 countries and regions.
In 1991 Michael Harris Bond and colleagues conducted a study among students in 23 countries, using a survey instrument developed with Chinese employees and managers. The results from this study led Hofstede to add a new fifth dimension to his model: long term orientation (LTO) initially called Confucian dynamism. In 2010 the scores for this dimension have been extended to 93 countries thanks to the research of Michael Minkov who used the recent World Values Survey. Further research has refined some of the original dimensions, and introduced the difference between country-level and individual-level data in analysis.