In this 21st century, access to basic sanitation remains as a challenge to leaders despite advancement in modern science and technology. It cannot be denied that many people living in certain regions of the world still practice open defecation. Around 2.5 billion people in the world are still without access to improved sanitation and 75% of these people are living in rural area4. Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) Report 2012 points out that the two thirds of people practicing open defecation are living in Southern Asia. The report also indicates that 45% of the population living in Sub-Saharan Africa do not have access to basic sanitation.
It is essential to understand the term basic sanitation first. In this context, basic sanitation can be defined as improved sanitation and the examples include flush toilet, composting toilet or ventilated improved pit latrine4. Access to basic sanitation determines the qualities of health of communities and affects child survival. Besides, non-hygienic management of human excreta may pollute river and other water sources which will threaten ecological balance.It is estimated that 10% of the global diseases can be avoided if safe drinking water and good sanitation is provided.3 Global sanitation problem also marks the occurrence of poverty in terms of material deprivation.
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Furthermore, gender inequalities also exist where women need travel long distances to get water for their families.2 Therefore, development of better sanitation facilities can reduce their time on this non-productive work and improves the security and health of women. In view of the contribution of sanitation, United Nation has included sanitation into Millennium Development Goal (MDG), which is to ‘halve by 2015 the prop…