Initiation the project, a business opportunity, requirement

• In the initiation phase of the project, a business opportunity, requirement or problem is identified.
• A project manager is assigned. Brain storming with team members occurs as how to bring resolve to the problem or meet the need.
• The project objective is the defined, the major deliverables are identified and the project is decided whether it is feasible to carry out.

• Once the project is approved, it can moved forward to the planning phase.
• In this phase, larger project broken down into smaller tasks, teams are build, and preparation of schedules, costs and the completion of assignments are done.
• After obtaining the go ahead, developed a plan and built a team, the work can be started.
• The execution phase turns the plan into action.
• Execution of the following steps has to take place, work has to be kept on track, members have to be organized in teams and timelines managed. Also the work has to done according to the original plan.
• Once the team has completed work on a project, the closure phase is entered.
• In the closure phase, final deliverables are provided, project resources are released, which determine the success of the project.

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4.2 Briefly discuss why the effort curve shown in a typical project life cycle has the shape it has. (Hint: use the phases to assist you in describing the reason for the shape of the curve). (12)
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• This shape is common for most projects as they begin slowly, accelerate during the main execution phase, and then wind down again towards the project’s completion, as productivity declines and work runs out.
• Work starts at a relatively slower pace in the initiation phase as minimum effort is required as the project is still being defined.

• The project manager and teams are selected.
• In the planning phase, more effort is required as activities increase.
• Preparation of schedules, costs and the completion of assignments are done.
• In the execution phase most of the work is done in the middle of the project timeline and with greater speed.
• As there are fewer activities towards the end of a project it gradually slows down.
• Hence initially you have a gentle slope, indicating a slower start.
• Initially the project starts with few activities and gradually you start more activities as time progresses.
• As the number of activities increases, more is being done each day and the S curve also starts to get steeper.

• Slowing down of resources occur during the close-out phase as the project nears completion and finally stops when the project is finished,


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