INTELLIGENT necessary. The intelligent building is also

INTELLIGENT BUILDING A Seminar Report Submitted by Rakesh Tamang 0214147 Department of Civil Engineering College of Science and Technology Rinchending :: Phuentsholing October 22nd, 2018i ABSTRACT Intelligent building emphasize on multi-disciplinary effort to integrate and optimize the building structures, systems, services and management in order to create a productive, cost effective and environmentally approved environment for the occupants.

The concept of Intelligent Building is still uncommon in Bhutan though substantial amount of literature on intelligent building has been generated internationally. Therefore, this seminar report is prepared for a comprehensive understanding on the development, applications and benefits of Intelligent Building on human society. For this purpose, this report reviews the literature related to the subject area of Intelligent Building. The report contains information to make a focused understanding about the aims and objectives of Intelligent Building. The special sectors of building, such as, security, safety, maintenance, control and comfort are explained precisely, with clear figures and data where ever necessary. The intelligent building is also compared with ordinary building for better understanding in this report. The energy efficiency and economical aspects of intelligent building are also covered in the reportii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to express my sincere gratitude and appreciation to Mr. Tshewang Nidup and Miss Sangay Dema, Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, for providing their invaluable guidance, comments and suggestions throughout the course of the seminar and to the Department of Information and Technology for providing internet facilities.

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Last but not least I would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation, gratitude and love to my friends and my beloved parents for their direct and indirect supports, strength and help.iii TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT …….

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i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ……

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iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ……

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…………… 1 1.1 Definition ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 1.2 History………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1 1.3 Overview …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2 2. Building Automation System ………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 3. Intelligent Building Systems …………………………………………………………………………………… 3 3.1 Controllers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 3.2 Occupancy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4 3.3 Lighting …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4 3.4 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning, and Indoor Air Quality ………………………….. 4 3.5 Elevators and Escalators ……………………………………………………………………………………… 4 3.6 Distributed Building Control ……………………………………………………………………………….. 5 3.7 Intelligent Controllers …………………………………………………………………………………………. 5 4. MAJOR ASPECTS OF INTELLIGENT BUILDING ……………………………………………… 6 4.1 Security …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6 4.1.1 Access control ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 6 4.1.2 Finger Print Lock …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 4.1.3 Voice and Video Intercom …………………………………………………………………………….. 8 4.1.4 Code Based Access System……………………………………………………………………………. 8 4.1.5 Swipe Card Access System ……………………………………………………………………………. 9 4.1.6 Biometric Access System ………………………………………………………………………………. 9 4.2 Life Safety and Surveillance ………………………………………………………………………………… 9 4.2.1 Surveillance ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10 4.2.2 Safety ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10 4.3 Tele Communication …………………………………………………………………………………………. 11 4.3.1 Cabling ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12 4.3.2 Consolidated Communications …………………………………………………………………….. 13 5. Management Systems …………………………………………………………………………………………… 13iv 5.1 Energy Management: ………………………………………………………………………………………… 14 5.1.1 Electrical Demand Control …………………………………………………………………………… 14 5.1.2 Program Scheduling ……………………………………………………………………………………. 14 6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Intelligent Building…………………………………………… 14 7. Environmental Benefits of Intelligent Building ……………………………………………………… 15 8. Economy Consideration ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 15 9. Wireless Technology in Intelligent Building ………………………………………………………….. 16 10. Difference between Ordinary Building and Intelligent Building …………………………… 16 11. Intelligent Building in India………………………………………………………………………………… 17 12. Future Directions of Intelligent Building …………………………………………………………….. 18 13. Challenges Facing Intelligent Building Technologies……………………………………………. 19 14. Lifespan of Intelligent Building …………………………………………………………………………… 19 15. Importance of Responsibilities ……………………………………………………………………………. 20 16. Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21 REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22v LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Finger Print Lock. …………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 Figure 2: Voice and Video Intercom. …………………………………………………………………………….. 8 Figure 3: Code based Access System. ……………………………………………………………………………. 8 Figure 4: Swipe Card Access System …………………………………………………………………………….. 9 Figure 5: Biometric Access System. ………………………………………………………………………………. 9 Figure 6: Surveillance. ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10 Figure 7: Safety. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11 Figure 8: Telecommunication System. …………………………………………………………………………. 12 Figure 9: Intelligent Building in India. …………………………………………………………………………. 17 Figure 10: NIIT Building in India. ………………………………………………………………………………. 18vi LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Sl. No. Terms Descriptions 1 IB Intelligent Building 2 LAN Local Area Network 3 BAS Building Automation System 4 HVAC Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning 5 UPS Unlimited Power Supply 6 CAD Computer Aided Design 7 IBMS Intelligent Building Management System 8 PWAC Present Worth of Annual Charge 9 NPV Net Present Value1 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Definition An intelligent building is one that integrates technology and process to create a facility that is safer, more comfortable and productive for its occupants, and more operationally efficient for its owners. Advanced technology—combined with improved processes for design, construction and operations—provide a superior indoor environment that improves occupant comfort and productivity while reducing energy consumption and operations staffing. An Intelligent Buildings are designed and constructed on an appropriate selection of quality environment modules to meet the user’s requirements by mapping to the appropriate building facilities to achieve a long-termed building value and equipped with robust telecommunication infrastructure, allowing for more efficient use of resources and increasing the comfort and security of its occupants. 1.2 History The Intelligent Building concept arose as a direct response of the relationship between developing technologies and buildings in the early 1980’s and generally advocated extensive use of elaborate centralized electronic systems to facilitate control of building support and communication systems for voice and data. The newest evolutionary models pair building automation systems with sophisticated telecommunications and data processing capabilities, translated into a new angle on a building’s marketability and organization’s efficiency. Builders and owners were pressured to develop intelligent buildings, in spite of high premium costs, at that time, for prestige reasons and for enhanced rental potential. The Building Automation System and the Communication System industry as well as other specialized interest group soon developed specific products and applications to meet and facilitate the implementation of Intelligent Building Concept. The high technology concept of intelligent building systems was introduced in United States. The Intelligent Building concept is now well developed and applied in Europe, Asia and North America.2 1.3 Overview The successful integration of various technology and management systems will produce three dimensions of building intelligence. Most intelligent-building systems are characterized by: 1. standardized building wiring system that permit full building control over a single infrastructure. 2. higher building value and leasing potential via increased individual environmental control. 3. consumption costs that are managed through zone control on a time of day schedule. 4. tenant control over building systems via computer or telephone interface. 5. comprehensive tracking of tenant after hour use for chargeback purposes. 6. a single human resources interface that modifies telephone, security, parking, local area network, wireless devices, building directories, etc. Three Dimensions of Intelligent Building: 1. Building Automation System Building Automation System enables the building to respond to external factors and conditions (like climate variations, fire etc.), simultaneous sensing, control and monitoring of the internal environment and the storage of the data generated. 2. Office Automation System and Local Area Network It provides management information and decision support aids with link to the central computer system. 3. Advanced Telecommunication It enables rapid communication with outside world, via the central computer system using optical fiber installations, microwave and conventional satellite links.3 2. Building Automation System A Building Automation System is a computer-based control system installed in buildings that controls and monitors the building’s mechanical and electrical equipment such as ventilation, lighting, power systems, fire systems and security systems. The BAS functionality reduces building energy and maintenance costs when compared to a non-controlled building. A building controlled by a BAS is often referred to as an intelligent building system. Most building automation networks consists of a primary and secondary bus which connect high-level controllers with low lower-level controllers, input/output devices and the user interface (also known as a human I interface device). Most controller are proprietary. Each company has its own controllers for the specific applications. Some are designed with limited controls: for example, a simple Packaged Roof Top Unit. Others are designed to be flexible. Inputs and outputs are either analog or digital. A digital input indicates if a device is turned on or not. Some examples of a digital input would be a 24VDC/AC signal, an air flow switch, or a volt-free relay contact. Digital outputs are used to open and close relays and switches. An example would be to turn on the parking lot lights when a photocell indicates it is dark outside 1. 3. Intelligent Building Systems 3.1 Controllers Controllers are essentially small, purpose-built computers with input and output capabilities. These controllers come in range of sizes and capabilities to control devices commonly found in buildings, and to control sub-networks of controllers. Inputs allow a controller to read temperatures, humidity, pressure, current flow, air flow, and other essential factors. The outputs allow the computers to send command and control signals to slave devices, and to other parts of the system. Inputs and outputs can be either digital or analog.4 3.2 Occupancy Occupancy is one of two or more operating modes for a building automation system and it is usually based on time of day schedules. In occupancy mode, the BAS aims to provide a comfortable climate and adequate lighting, often with zone-based control so that users on one of a building have a different thermostat than users on the opposite side. Some buildings rely on occupancy sensors to activate lighting and/or climate conditioning. Given the potential for long lead times before a space becomes sufficiently cool or warm, climate conditioning is not often initiated directly by an occupancy sensors. 3.3 Lighting Lighting can be turned on and off with BAS based on time of day, or on occupancy sensors, photo sensors and timers. One typical example is to turn the lights in a space on for a half hour since the last motion was sensed. A photocell placed outside a building can sense darkness, and the time of day, and modulate lights in outer offices and the parking lot. 3.4 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning, and Indoor Air Quality HVAC systems are generally controlled by building automation systems that can: ?? permit individual occupants to adjust workspace temperatures (within prescribed limits)??? adjust indoor air quality based on room occupancy and building standards;??? adjust humidity, temperature and air flow speeds; and??? use either variable air volume or constant volume air distribution designs.??? monitor temperatures, and adjust according to a usage profile.? 3.5 Elevators and Escalators Intelligent building systems can provide occupants with improved elevator service. Elevator control can be quite complex, particularly with multiple elevator groupings and incorporating traffic patterns into the system. Some elevators may be shut down for part of the day to conserve energy. Current designs frequently include communications within the elevators to permit the use of access control cards, and closed circuit surveillance is becoming widespread. An5 effective access control system can permit dynamic changes to user privileges so that, for example, certain floors may not be accessible even with an approved access control card, unless there are already people occupying that floor. Escalators can save energy by slowing down or stopping when detectors indicate no traffic. This approach to energy savings also benefits the mechanical components that need not run continuously. 3.6 Distributed Building Control Distributed controllers can provide total building automation. These devices, which communicate using a dedicated network, allow the use of standard access control, intrusion monitoring and surveillance devices, and can include multiple switched inputs and outputs, analog and digital input and output controls. The communications network can interact seamlessly with associated video and audio switches, allowing the operator screens to be used to select and control many different device types. The primary benefit of a distributed control system is the ability of individual controllers to continue functioning when some elements of the network or main computer fail. These controllers often interact with audio and videos switches and other building management systems. 3.7 Intelligent Controllers As processors and memory are built into the controllers activating HVAC and other building systems, there are opportunities to provide closed loop control. In traditional controllers, no response confirms that the requested action has occurred, e.g., if the room needs heat and warm air is called for, it is assumed that the baffle has acted as required, which is not always true. Intelligent controllers would confirm the success or failure of the baffle movement, closing the information loop. The intelligent controller can perform self-diagnostics and report potential failures sometimes before they occur, e.g., the controller can report that the actuator needed to move multiple times before the baffle achieved the desired position, indicating a mechanical malfunction. These controllers also function in a degraded manner if the communications link fails. Intelligent controllers may be applicable to any of the systems contained in, and controlled by, an intelligent building system and can report status information to the central control system. The same approach also allows periodic diagnostic cycles in order to perform directed maintenance.6 4. MAJOR ASPECTS OF INTELLIGENT BUILDING 4.1 Security The security system includes controlling access, surveillance and communication. 4.1.1 Access control Access control restricts how and when people enter and/or exit an area. Your particular needs will determine how that is accomplished. Access Control Systems allow people or vehicles into a restricted area via identification through coded keys, magnetic cards, or biometric readers such as hand, face, voice, finger or retina readers. These systems are used in many businesses, hotels and apartment complexes. 4.1.1.1 Common Features of Access Control 1. Limit access Systems can be programmed to allow certain users to enter specific areas only at certain times. Other users can be allowed to enter all locations at all times. 2. Automating Systems can automatically lock a door or gate each evening at a certain time and unlock it automatically at another time. Security Telecommunication system Energy Management Comfort Safety7 4.1.1.2 Working of an Access Control 1. First a barrier is needed to prevent someone from entering or exiting, such as a locked door or gate. 2. Next a way is needed to determine who is trying to enter. 3. A credential reader is used to read the information on a key or card, to register a combination of numbers entered on a pad or to identify some characteristics that the user has, such as a fingerprint the shape of a hand, a pattern in the eye, etc. 4. This identifier is sent to a controller that has stored a record of those identifiers that are authorized to enter the area. 5. If the credential holder is authorized the controller unlocks the gate or door and the credential holder is allowed to enter. 6. In many systems a record of all authorized and unauthorized credentials is stored in the system for future reference. 4.1.2 Finger Print Lock Finger Print Lock is easy and simple to install. It is unlocked by fingerprint or code. It can store up to one hundred fifty finger prints. Figure 1.Finger Print lock8 4.1.3 Voice and Video Intercom This type of access control is most commonly used in blocks of flats or apartments, where access to the front door needs to be controlled remotely. Communication between the internal phone and the outside speaker is established, before authorization to enter is granted. Figure 2. Voice and Video Intercom 4.1.4 Code Based Access System A secure pin code entered onto a touch screen is required, before Access to a controlled area is allowed. Figure 3. Code Based Access System9 4.1.5 Swipe Card Access System Swipe Card Access System allows entrance to a secured area, through the “swiping” of a pre-programmed card with magnetic strip through a reader. Figure 4. Swipe Card Access System 4.1.6 Biometric Access System The newest technology in access control, biometric systems verify a person’s identity, by unique physical characteristics, such as a fingerprint or retina. Figure 5. Biometric Access System 4.2 Life Safety and Surveillance Intelligence with respect to life safety in an intelligent building consists of the use of high technology to maximize the performance of fire alarm and security systems while at the same time minimizing costs. Life safety factors involved in intelligent buildings include: 1. Reduced manpower dependence 2. Closed-circuit television10 3. Card access control 4. Smoke detection 5. Intrusion alarms 6. Emergency control of elevators, doors and 7. Uninterruptible power supplies. Many BAS have alarm capabilities. If an alarm is detected, it can be programmed to notify someone. Notification can be through a compute, pager, cellular phone, or audible alarm. Security systems can be interlocked to a building automation system. If occupancy sensors are present, they can also be used as burglar alarms. Fire and smoke alarm systems can be hard-wired to override building automation. For example: if the smoke alarm is activated, all the outside air dampers close to prevent air coming into building, and an exhaust system can isolate the alarmed area and activate and activate the exhaust fan to move smoke out of area. Life safety applications are normally hard-wired to a mechanical device to override building automation control. 4.2.1 Surveillance Surveillance helps in monitoring movement within and outside a building and its periphery through camera (Closed-Circuit Television Camera) or perimeter devices like intrusion alarms. Also helps in alerting the security manager, in case of violation of pre-set norms. Figure 6. Surveillance 4.2.2 Safety Life safety systems, often called “fire systems”, are typically driven by code considerations. Security systems are required to release doors per code constraints under emergency conditions.11 HVAC systems are also driven by life safety needs, e.g., smoke extraction, stairwell pressurization and elevator recall. This system deals with the Fire Alarm System, the Emergency Lighting, the Egress Lighting System and the Smoke Evacuation System. Fire protection system pumps water to the areas where the fire occurs, so as to douse it automatically through sprinkler bulbs and also manually through the fire brigade. Sufficient water pressure should be maintained throughout. Early warning systems like smoke detection systems, detects the fire at a very early stage and pinpoint to the caretaker where exactly it is occurring, so that the fire is extinguished locally through manual fire extinguishers. Figure 7. Safety 4.3 Tele Communication Intelligence with respect to telecommunications in an intelligent building consists of the offering to tenants of many sophisticated telecom features at a considerably reduced cost due to the fact that the equipment is shared by many users. Some of the telecom features involved in intelligent buildings are: 1. private telephone exchange systems 2. cablevision 3. audio-visual and video-conferencing 4. satellite communications and 5. electronic mail, Intranets and Internet access12 Telecommunication Systems and Office Automation Systems like the UPS and the Public Address system provides the required support in the event of security violation or fire. Figure 8. Telecommunication Systems 4.3.1 Cabling Separate cabling within a building is typically provided for each system requiring communications interaction, i.e., separate cables are provided for telephones, local area networks, building automation, fire systems and elevator controls, depending on the systems in the structure. The cabling required for intelligent building technologies applications should, to the extent possible, adhere to a number of basic criteria for integration. In the future, individual cables will not be needed because the communications systems will be integrated. Most integrated cable systems will: 1. multiplex or otherwise consolidate the communication needs between different systems; 2. use a single, common communications raceway or communications tray; 3. locate all common equipment in shared communications rooms where the equipment can readily be interconnected as required; 4. ensure that the communications rooms are secure; 5. use the same type of cabling wherever possible, so applications and cables are interchangeable over the lifetime of the building; 6. use the same kind of termination equipment for all cables; 7. manage the cable infrastructure as a building resource; and 8. follow a structured cabling design, as recommended by Telecommunications.13 4.3.2 Consolidated Communications The concept of consolidated communications addresses the provision of a single communications backbone throughout a building that uses intelligent building technologies. With a single backbone, all communications requirements for the needs of the users and of the building can be co-located. The resulting single communications path will be smaller and much less costly than the aggregate of individual paths that would otherwise be needed, and ensures that spare capacity can be consolidated between all applications. This single, consolidated communications infrastructure will also use a limited number of different cable types. The need for specialized wiring types is applicable only to special applications. If all systems use the same wiring, spare capacity can be shared among all systems. In some cases, several signals will be consolidated on a single cable. In other situations, individual cables of the same type will each carry a single signal. Multiplex allows multiple signals to travel on a single communications link. This approach is far more cost and service effective when most data are digital packets on a single network. Whether the backbone is a single cable or a group of cables will vary from project to project. A key aspect is the association with the communications rooms. These strategically located rooms must have sufficient space and services to securely accommodate communications equipment. This equipment will then bridge and link the distribution network feeding the end users and the consolidated backbone infrastructure of the building. 5. Management Systems Energy-effective systems balance a building’s electric light, daylight and mechanical systems for maximum benefit. Adding daylight to a building is one way to achieve an energy effective design. And with the reduced need for electric light, a great deal of money can be saved on energy. A number of facility management programs are available. They vary in complexity as well as in their ability to integrate complex systems such as: 1. CAD drawing records of floor and office layouts 2. Furniture inventory 3. Maintenance management program 4. Preventive maintenance of building structures 5. Real time data acquisition on equipment run time14 6. Dynamic energy consumption total per tenant 7. Historical data storage 8. Cost control and budgeting capabilities 9. Analytical programs 5.1 Energy Management: Energy management forms an integral part of the Intelligent Building and should be built to allow Real Time and dynamic interaction with the energy consuming elements of the building. 5.1.1 Electrical Demand Control No energy management program can be effective unless critical energy consuming areas are monitored individually and allow the energy management program the required intervention capabilities such as turning equipment on/off or limiting its capacity where possible through electrical load shedding or load stabilization routines. 5.1.2 Program Scheduling The ability to schedule operation of any significant energy consuming equipment on the basis of season, occupancy load, time of day, statutory holidays, daytime natural light visibility, etc. is possibly the most significant energy saving feature to incorporate in the building. 6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Intelligent Building The Intelligent Building has following advantages; 1. Higher level of security and safety 2. Simplified operation for users and administrators 3. Simpler staff tracking 4. Reduced administration costs 5. Smartcards-single card for security and cash transactions 6. Reduced system costs by sharing infrastructure 7. Easier integration into university systems 8. Information can be delivered to all the interested parties in the manner they need 9. Increased mobility-not tied to a specialist workstation15 10. Training is minimized, use standard operating environments The Intelligent Building has following disadvantages; 1. Increased complexity of system 2. Very high initial cost 3. Normal building last longer than intelligent building 7. Environmental Benefits of Intelligent Building An intelligent building starts with an environmentally friendly design. It creates a project that is environmentally friendly and energy efficient ties in closely with many of the intelligent attributes. Intelligent buildings are designed for long-term sustainability and minimal environmental impact through the selection of recycled and recyclable materials, construction, maintenance and operations procedures. Providing the ability to integrate building controls, optimize operations, and enterprise level management results in a significant enhancement in energy efficiency, lowering both cost and energy usage compared to non-intelligent projects. 8. Economy Consideration Creating an intelligent building does require an investment in advanced technology, processes, and solutions. An upfront investment is required to realize a significant return later on. It is unrealistic to expect to make a project intelligent unless there is early buy in on investment. One of the challenges is to educate owners on the benefits of an intelligent building design. This makes the education of both owners and architects about the benefits of intelligent solutions critical for success.16 9. Wireless Technology in Intelligent Building Wireless technology can simplify a variety of tasks and cut personnel costs. Sensors can activate lawn sprinklers when the soil is too dry. In bathrooms, paper towel holders and soap dispensers can be connected wirelessly to the building’s network. When soap runs out, an e-mail can automatically alert the maintenance department. Also it eases the movements of the staff in the building, instead of going to certain floors to activate a device, they can do it wirelessly using an intelligent tool such as remote controls. Many wireless devices and protocols are currently being promoted. Burglar alarm systems for residential applications, patient wandering systems for hospitals and other applications of voice systems, such as Bluetooth communicate without a hard wired infrastructure. Wireless communications are particularly attractive where offices and partitions are frequently reconfigured, and applications change frequently. The wireless solution competes favorably with wired alternatives. HVAC requirements can be economically and efficiently met using wireless controls. 10. Difference between Ordinary Building and Intelligent Building Intelligent building adjusts the inside functional aspects such as lighting, ventilation, air conditioning, etc. automatically with the changes in environmental conditions controlled by computer. In ordinary building there will be different room conditions depending on the changes in the environmental conditions. While planning an intelligent building, a Building service engineer, an Architect & Hardware Engineer is required, but in case of ordinary building, a Building service engineer and an Architect is enough. In an Intelligent Building, the security system, communication system, etc. are coordinated and automatically controlled by computer work station. The cost of construction of Intelligent Building is very high as compared to an ordinary building. The development cost of an Intelligent Building is 8 – 10% higher than that of an ordinary building. But this can be justified by the resulting energy saving, which is only 25 – 35% of energy required by normal building.17 11. Intelligent Building in India . Figure 9. Intelligent Building in India The need for Intelligent Buildings rose with the emergence of the IT sector. IT firms need uninterrupted working environment for 365 days a year. Some kind of round the clock monitoring is also necessary. Techno-campus of Cognizant Technology Solutions, Thoraipakkam on old Mamallapuram road is one of the Intelligent Buildings in India. It took 14 months to evolve a fully integrated design plan and arrive at the IBMS solution that covers security, safety and automation, and since January 2004 the concept has been functional in the 400,000-sqft complex. Some of the features of Intelligent Building Management System in Cognizant are:4 1. Smoke detection systems 2. Bio metric finger scanning systems 3. 73 CCTV cameras 4. Control of HVAC 5. Control of water levels in overhead tanks 6. Automatic lighting control18 Figure 10. NIIT Building in India 12. Future Directions of Intelligent Building The most successful intelligent buildings indicate that the greatest advantages come from integrating communications and ensuring that the traditional systems have the ability to intercommunicate and interoperate. A single operator interface must recognize status and control information of all available systems. The primary benefit comes from the shared space, infrastructure and operating staff. Current trends to work from home encourage remote interaction with building communications and services. These trends are being influenced by technologies and the current market situation. Construction methods and technologies are breaking down some conventional barriers. Increasing concern with environmental impacts and with security needs are market forces that influence intelligent buildings functionality. Intelligent buildings depend on the increasing reliability of secure and resilient communication infrastructures. Mobile telephones are well established, encouraging mobile communications in many other forms. This technology has value for in-building applications. For the occupants/tenants and the operators, these technologies yield substantial efficiencies. These evolving concepts will lead to intelligent building technologies that are not yet on the drawing board.19 13. Challenges Facing Intelligent Building Technologies Challenges to the widespread introduction of intelligent building technologies arise from many diverse considerations. A significant consideration is always the financial impact, including capital costs, expense costs and revenue. Good business practice requires that financial implications must be correctly assessed, taking into consideration the time value of money and the effect of taxation. Low initial costs are attractive to developers, while the owners/operators and occupants/tenants are more interested in long term operational costs. Intelligent building technologies offer significant opportunities to generate increased revenue. Intelligent buildings offer more value, hence sell and/or rent for higher prices and/or more rapidly. Financial decisions based on the comparison of alternative plans of action that consider only initial cost will inevitably be wrong. If the revenue stream of the alternatives is the same, then revenue can be ignored and the continuing expenses can be factored in using the metric present worth of annual charges (PWAC). If the alternatives are expected to generate different amounts of revenue, which will generally be the case when intelligent building technology applications are under consideration, the correct metric is net present value (NPV). The initial cost must, of course, be considered, but should only be the deciding factor when the correct metrics for the comparison of alternatives, (PWAC where expected revenue is uniform and NPV where expected revenue varies) are the same or very close. 14. Lifespan of Intelligent Building The evolution of electronic technology is moving rapidly, with lifespans and life-cycle times in the range of five to ten years. Buildings typically have a lifespan between major refits of approximately 25 years, or two to three technology cycles 4. A significant advantage of intelligent building technologies is the ability to upgrade the electronics while continuing to use the cabling that is already in place. Equipment and system vendors have an opportunity to design graceful growth into their product evolution plans; to enable their products that are in service to be upgraded to add the most recently introduced features and functions. Building automation depends on many systems and components. Existing solutions will continue to function with the current implementation and capabilities, when newer products in the market place have displaced the installed product.20 15. Importance of Responsibilities The design process of Intelligent Building must allocate responsibilities to suitably qualified engineers and contractors who are responsible for the design and implementation of the: 6 1. common infrastructure;??2. infrastructure testing;??3. infrastructure acceptance and commissioning;??4. system selection;??5. system interaction;??6. system testing and commissioning;??7. system verification; and??8. documentation, servicing, maintenance and repair.? In an intelligent building, these roles are now consolidated into a single series of responsibilities. The challenge for the architect as the primary contract manager is to select engineers and contractors qualified to undertake these activities. Since the involvement of more parties in the construction process could make it more difficult to assign responsibilities, early and clear resolution of disputes is important.21 16. Conclusion The Intelligent Building system is the advancement of the building components of the future. The goal of having an intelligent building only starts with early planning in the design stage. In many ways, this mirrors the design and fulfillment of many green projects today, but it uses technology to provide for a superior space. There are enormous benefits to be gained by creating intelligent buildings. With proper marketing such buildings will entice tenants to sign on with a much greater ease. By supporting the tenants in as many services as possible the building owners also gain from the profits realized from these services and tenants profit from the discounts to be had on their end as well. Reduced energy costs are seen as a major benefit of intelligent building technologies equated to HVAC. However, other benefits, e.g., reduced staff levels and improved occupant satisfaction, are often overlooked. The degree of confidence in intelligent building technologies is inadequate largely because of a lack of awareness and understanding of its value. There is a lack of properly assessable intelligent building technology reference projects. Intelligent building technologies are generally available, but not yet widely adopted and many changes and initiatives are needed for use of these technologies to become widespread.22 REFERENCES 1. Heiselberg P, Christiansson P, Reinhold C (2007) Intelligent Buildings / Smart Homes. Architectural Engineering and SBI, Aalborg University. January 2007. (6 pp.) 2. Rawlson, N.K., “What are Intelligent Building Technologies”, Electronic Design, 2006. 3. Amatya S., “Intelligent Building Research, A Review”, Automation in Construction 14″, 2005. 3. “Intelligent Building”, Document and Research for Small Business and Professionals retrieved from http://www.docstoc.com/docs/135019986/Intelligent-Building—DOC 4. “Technology Roadmap for Intelligent Building”, Federal Interdepartmental Forum of Construction, 2002. 5. Sharma D., “Intelligent Buildings”, retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/40206748/Intelligent-Buildings-Ppt 6. “Homes and Buildings”, A Magazine of the Continental Automated Building Association 2006.

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