Introduction: synthesize antibody which has a single specificity.

Introduction: Normally the antigen expresses several epitopes. And finally a complex form of antibodies is synthesized. Every B cell is committed to synthesize antibody which has a single specificity. When a antigen has multiple epitopes , it can impulse a series of B cells. And at last multiple clones of plasma cell are produced . They can synthesize antibodies of multiple specificities. Those antibodies are called polyclonal Antibodies .But the scientists were trying to separate out antibodies which have a single specificity . They are called Mono clonal Antibodies. They Have monospecific epitope at a time .Monoclonal antibody is used to determine the unknown substance. It plays an important in role bio –molecular science, pharmacy .

There are many techniques applied to produce unlimited supply of monoclonal antibodies. In all those techniques, artificial medium is used where B cell should be grown on . But B cell died eventually . At last technique is produced where B cells are fused with myeloma cell and they become immortal . This technique is called Hybridoma Technology . . Kulkarni, G. (2002)

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Principle : Before the production of hybridoma technology , there are many problems were arised in producing unlimited monoclonal antibodies . But in hybridoma technology , all the problems were solved by scientist Little Field .

He used an enzyme – Hypoxanthine Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase ( HGPRT ) and a medium containing Hypoxanthine , Aminopterin,and Thymidine( HAT Medium ) . . Kulkarni, G. (2002)

Figure:Hybridoma Technology Used in Monoclonal Antibodies

There are several steps in hybridoma production They are :-

1. Immunization
2. Cell fusion
3. Selection
4. Screening
5. Cloning
6. Characterization and storage

Immunization:A mixture is made with immunogen and adjuvant and then it is injected to the mice intra dermally and subcutaneously . It is applied repeatedly at various sites and at different times .

Cell fusion:A mixture is made with splenocytes and plasmacytoma cells . This mixture is placed in a proper medium with high concentration of PEG . After some time , fusion is occurred.

Selection and Screening: When fusion is completed ,all the substances are brought to HAT medium and incubation is occurred.The most used screening aassay is the ELISA.Here,we can give an example:p_nitrophenyl phosphate is turned into the yellow colored p_nitrophenol with the help of alkaline phosphate.When the incubation is completed,the activity of the enzyme is also finished and optical density is measured with the help of a technique.This machine is called plate reader or ELISA reader. . Kulkarni, G. (2002)

Cloning:In this method ,there is a semisolid method is used to proliferate the malignant cells.In this case,soft agar method and limiting dilution method are used.In many cases,this two methods need to combined.Then repeated dilution is occurred and transfer,frozen method are used. . Kulkarni, G. (2002)

Characterization and Storage: Biochemical and biophysical characterization are needed to subject for the desired specificity.There are used many methods.They are spectrometric,electrophoretic and chromatographic methods.It is also very important for detecting the class and epitope.
Characteristics of monoclonal antibodies are also very significant. So,for this reason
storage and freeze are very important .Here, liquid nitrogen is used. Kulkarni, G. (

Introduction: nasal tip, while Farrior, 3 demonstrated

Tip support mechanisms play a central role in tip stability and positioning. Different studies were published to demonstrate the most crucial factor in nasal tip support mechanisms. Historically it was thought that fibrous connection between the upper and lower lateral cartilages play a vital role in the nasal tip support mechanism. 1
Anderson 2 described the tripod theory of tip support and assumed that this tripod (lateral and medial crura) is supposed to be the major support of nasal tip, while Farrior, 3 demonstrated that the lateral crus has a scroll relationship overlapping the upper lateral cartilage and this is important in maintaining the nasal tip support and projection.
Six minor mechanisms for tip support were defined including; ligamentous sling spanning the domes of alar cartilages, dorsal portion of cartilaginous nasal septum, sesamoid complex, attachment of alar cartilage to the overlying skin and musculature, nasal spine and finally membranous portion of nasal septum. 4
The shape of the nose tip is determined by the size, shape, and consistency of the underlying lower lateral cartilages
Ghavami et al. 5 stated that the lower lateral cartilages together with the ligamentous attachments between these paired structures are critical in supporting the nasal tip, while Xavier 6 mentioned that the scroll area is mandatory and should be preserved to prevent weakening of tip support.
Quatela and Pearson 7 mentioned that the medial crural foot plates play an important role in nasal tip support and projection, while Shomouelian et al. 8 added that disruption of the scroll area attachment in addition to the attachment of the medial crura to the caudal septum could result in loss of the nasal tip support.
In aging nose, to best address the patient’s wishes, surgeon must possess a sound understanding of the atrophic changes associated with the aging nose, including tip ptosis, increased nasal bulbosity, long nose and altered nasal airflow patterns. 9
Surgical emphasis is placed on conservative structured reduction to address functional concerns. Over-resection risks destabilizing the nasal tip and altering the patient’s concrete self-image. 10
Facial skeleton and overlying soft tissue undergo a gradual transformation throughout the aging process, and there are several consistent age associated changes of the three-layered structure, consisting of skin and subcutaneous tissues, bony and cartilaginous support and mucosa. 11
Macroscopic changes affecting the nasal tip include; downward migration of the lateral crura of the lower lateral cartilages and an unfurling of the scroll area, leading to drooping of the nasal tip. 12 In addition, maxillary alveolar bone resorption causes posterior displacement of the pyriform aperture and divergence of the medial crura, reducing tip projection further and exaggerating the already acute nasolabial angle. 13
Microscopically, there is a reduction in dermal collagen synthesis and an increase in the number of disorganized elastic fibers, resulting in thinner, less elastic skin, particularly over the dorsum and columella; meanwhile, despite an overall reduction in sebum production, the size of sebaceous glands in the nasal tip increases, making it heavy and bulbous. 14
In spite of all the previous data regarding the aging nasal tip and its support, the main factor in determining the major tip support mechanisms is still debatable. Also there is no previous study compared the age related histological changes that occur in different components of nasal cartilages and also the age related histological changes that occur in fibrous attachments of major nasal tip support.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the age related cellular and architectural changes of nasal tip support mechanisms namely cartilages and soft tissue attachments in correlation to its anthropometric measurements specifically nasolabial angle (NLA) and projection.

The demands of rhinoplasty in the aging patient are no different. Regardless of patient age, the principles of structure rhinoplasty remain constant: Augmentation is required
Chung V, Rao N and Toriumi DM. Rhinoplasty in the Aging Patient in Master Techniques in Facial Rejuvenation (Second Edition). 2018, 333-346.

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Patients and Methods:
This prospective study was conducted on eighty patients undergoing aesthetic rhinoplasty operations in the period between June 2015 and January 2018. Patients selected to be include in the study had the criteria of being adult above 18 years old seeking cosmetic rhinoplasty with no history of previous nasal or septal surgeries. Patients with intra-nasal pathology or history of previous nasal trauma were excluded.
Patients were admitted to the study after being instructed properly about it and signing a written consent for approval and the independent ethics committee of the university approved the study protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to age; Group 1: includes 40 patients with age range 19-39 years. Group 2: includes 40 patients with age range ? 40years.
All patients had full medical history taken in addition to general and local nasal examination to evaluate the deformity. Standard endonasal examination by nasal speculum to detect excessive hypertrophied inferior turbinates, any intra nasal masses and anterior end enlargement of middle turbinate.
For all patients, full face photographs: frontal, lateral, oblique lateral and basal views were used in preoperative assessment. Two anthropometric measurements were documented; NLA and tip projection. Tip projection was evaluated by measuring the ratio of the nasal length to tip projection while the nasolabial angle was measured by drawing a straight line through the most anterior and posterior points of the nostrils as seen on the lateral view. This line with a perpendicular line to the natural horizontal facial plane forms the nasolabial angle.
All patients were operated upon using open rhinoplasty technique done according to patient’s needs independent of this study.
Six tissue (3 cartilage and 3 fibrous attachment) samples were taken through the usual steps of rhinoplasty procedure. They were preserved in Formalin 10% for 3 days, then in Ethanol 70% for 1 day, then in Ethanol 90% for 6 hours, then in Ethanol 100% for another 6 hours. After that they were put in Zylone for 6 hours, then in Paraffin at temperature 60 c for 4 hours to make a main block, then small blocks of 5 micron thickness were done followed by its fixation for 2 hours and the its staining with H;E, Mallory and safranin stains.
The cartilage Samples were as follows; Sample (1): harvested from the lower lateral cartilage (LLC) during cephalic trimming measuring at least 1 x0.5 cm. Sample (2): harvested from the upper lateral cartilage (ULC) during removal of the cartilaginous hump measuring at least 0.5 x 0.5 cm. Sample (3): harvested from the septal cartilage (SC) either dorsal during removal of cartilaginous hump or caudal during septoplasty measuring at least 1 x 0.5 cm.
The Fibrous attachment samples were as follows; Sample (1): Attachment in-between the dome of lower lateral cartilages (Interdomal attachment; IDA) was harvested measuring at least 0.5 x0.5 cm. Sample (2): Attachment in-between upper and lower lateral cartilages (inter-cartilaginous attachment; ICA) was dissected and harvested following cephalic trimming of the lower lateral cartilage measuring at least 0.5 x 0.5 cm. Sample (3): Attachment in-between the caudal septum and the medial crural foot-plate (septo-crural attachment; SCA) was dissected and harvested measuring at least 0.5 x 0.5 cm.
Each cartilage specimen was sectioned in 5-?m sections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H;E) to examine chondrocytes cellularity, clusters nests formation and chondrocytes necrosis, Mallory stain to detect perichondrial fibrosis and organization and safranin O stain to highlight the concentration distribution of proteoglycan content.
A modified Mankin scale (MM) 15 were used to score each nasal cartilage sample. Scored features for H;E staining including irregular perichondrium, organization, cellularity, chondrocyte clusters, perichondrium fibrosis, chondrocyte necrosis, and fibrinoid degeneration, with a maximum possible score of 16. Each sample will have a cumulative score for all H;E staining features.
All fibrous attachments samples were collected and examined by image analyzer (Leica Q500 MC Program, Cambridge, UK) for quantitative assessment. Briefly, microscopic images (x400) in ten consecutive fields will be digitalized to assess area percentage of elastic fibers, amount of collagen fibers, number of cells, type of cells and vascularity. 16
Correlation were analyzed using Statistical Program for Social Science (SPSS), Version 20.0, NY: IBM Corp. Quantitative data were expressed as mean± standard deviation (SD). Qualitative data were expressed as frequency and percentage.
The following tests were done: ANOVA test with post hoc Tukey’s test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) test was used for correlating data. The confidence interval was set to 95% and the margin of error accepted was set to 5%. So, the p-value was considered significant as the following: P-value

INTRODUCTION.The policies in line with the maximization

INTRODUCTION.The United Nations Global Compact initiative was launched in 2000 as an approach to encourage businesses globally to take on a sustainable approach to doing business, an approach which would see them making and supporting policies in line with the maximization of human rights, the address of labor issues and corruption as well as consideration for the environment. Beder (2013) defines the initiative as a collection of complimentary ideas whose end goal is to achieve the realization of a responsible global corporate citizenship. For the purpose of this assignment we are going to be focused on corruption as one of the guiding principles in the initiative. Corruption is defined by Jain (2002) as the dishonest use of power by those in authority to advance personal interests. This definition is supported by Hough (2017) who defines it as the misuse of power for private gain. There are different levels at which corruption can occur in business, these are known as scales of corruption and there are three scales of corruption. The first is petty corruption which is defined by Yadav (2011) as corruption which occurs in a situation where basic laws and regulations are in place but supervising officials ignore them to benefit personally. It is the lowest level of corruption where there is minimal gain and minimal harm done as a result. The second is grand corruption, which is defined by Jain (2002) as corruption which occurs amongst the elite in institutions and requires a certain amount of social and political capital to be able to commit. The last, systematic corruption is defined by Yadav (2011) as corruption which is due to the weaknesses that exist within organizations. These weaknesses could be as a result of monopolies in business, the lack of transparency and at times conflicting incentives of those in power. For this piece of work we will be focusing on extortion, bribery and nepotism as globally rampant forms of corruption under all the scales and assess their nature and solutions to curb them in a manner aligned with the Global Compact Initiative.

TYPES OF CORRUPTION.BRIBERY.Bribery is defined by Rendtorff (2017) as the act of exchanging items of value and for some kind of influence and power. The items of value often include money, gifts or promises and these are used to influence the behavior or actions of the person on the receiving end. Pollock (2011) argues that people pay bribes for the sake of convenience. She further elaborates on this by arguing that bribes make it easy to fast track applications and for the convenience of avoiding multi-step processes. Bribery has multiple effects on all affected parties, on the individuals directly affected they live with the fear of their acts being publicly exposed and losing their jobs, businesses involved in bribery also run the same risk whilst for society, they have to bear the burden of inefficiencies and inequities that come about as a result of bribery. It can however be very difficult to identify acts of bribery as many businesses often engage in the exchange of gifts with each other for various reasons some of which are legitimate thus making it harder to tell the difference. According to Rendtorff (2017) in different countries, several organizations have used gift giving and entertainment as cultural forms of economic transactions. This only makes it even more difficult to differentiate between practices that are acceptable and those that are not.

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NEPOTISM.Jones (2013) defines nepotism as a set of psychological and social processes associated with observed phenomena with respect to family membership and relationships in and around organizations. It can also be defined as undue favors given to relatives and friends by those with considerable amount of power and influence. Often when this is done, those doing it assume they are helping their close relatives and giving them access to opportunities they otherwise would not have. This is negligent of the fact that, whilst in an effort to secure opportunity for those close to them they are also taking away the same opportunity from somebody else who might actually deserve it. Taylor (2009) argues that in more established institutions, people use nepotism as a way of protecting their own interests as they know that by hiring people closest to them they are most likely always going to have them as allies in the place of work. Bellow (2004) takes a different approach and argues that human beings have an inherent human inclination towards nepotism and argues that a lot of families have established great names for themselves and those associated with them through these acts. In his book Bellow (2004) cites examples of American families such as the Gores, the Kennedys and the Bushes and how they have, through nepotism had positive effects on their family lines and the communities they work with. This however does not take away from the fact that nepotism eats off of, fair play and meritocracy.

EXTORTION.Extortion is the crime of obtaining something from an individual or organization through the use of force, threats or blackmail. Storm (2015) alludes to threats to damage one’s reputation and threats to one’s financial wellbeing as different examples of extortion. Even though extortion generally involves the use of threats against individuals it does not have to include any kind of physical harm or relate to any other unlawful act to become wrong in and of itself. A lot of extortion culprits include competing businesses, disgruntled employees, opportunistic criminals and online hackers. Though extortion is often a risk most companies cannot control there are several factors that can be used to mitigate against it, in developed countries there are extortion insurance policies whilst in developing countries, members can be educated on extortion laws which put them in a position to understand and protect themselves against harm.

SOLUTIONS TO CORRUPTION IN THE WORK PLACE.EMPLOYEE EDUCATION AND SENSITIZATION.Small scale acts of corruption have in the past proven to be able to grow large and uncontrollable especially where the harms related with these acts are not clearly explicit. Employees who take small bribes to implement small favors could pollute the organization without even recognizing it. It is therefore important that they receive at all times the effects of corruption not only on themselves but on the welfare on the institution. Rinderman (2018) argues that by educating those around us, we put ourselves in a position to shape the world how we want it to turn out, which in this regard is an anti-corrupt system. This can also help to avoid instances where people excuse corruption by saying that it is everywhere or that it has always existed.

ADOPTING A SYSTEMATIC ANTI CORRUPTION APPROACH.Systematic approaches according to Emery (2002) always take into consideration the boundaries, inputs and outputs, subsystems and relationships which lead to certain acts happening or failing to happen. This means that in order to understand corruption and how to curb it, corporations need to put in the work to finding out what its causes are within their industries and how the solutions they put in place will mitigate it in the long run. This is ideal for avoiding a problem-solution mismatch which often occurs as a result of assuming that because one approach works for one entity it would work for you too.

IMPLEMENTATION OF ANTI-CORRUPTION LAWS.Though found in different parts of each constitution, a lot of countries have anti-corruption laws which are put in place to try and curb corruption. They include laws such as extortion laws, bribery acts and administrative misconduct acts. States need to be more proactive in bringing to justice the people who intentionally go against these laws and in ensuring that the public knows what constitutes as illegal activity so that they can help bring perpetrators to justice. If the State is seen as primary actor in the fight against crime, this will have a large symbolic impact on how society view it and the approach they take to solving it.

CONCLUSION.Corruption has been perceived as a social trends which exists as a result of broken value systems and the lack of implementation of rule of law. It has been excused by identifying it as something that has always been there and having been to some degree culturally acceptable. It has however also proven to be very bad and that its harms outweigh whatever short term benefits we think we could accrue from it. Not only does it distort markets, allow for the establishment of organized crime and threats to human security, corruption also actively neglects and ignores the rule of law and social justice. The end result of this is the social costs that comes it, these include the normalization of corruption, creation of toxic societies and creation of wrong models of leadership for upcoming generations The best way to curb corruption is by adopting interactive mechanisms which work together to building a corrupt free business environment. The Global Compact Initiative plays a fundamental role in this by bringing together all concerned parties to help find and uphold efficient solutions that will help put an end to corruption.

Introduction: and in sub-Saharan Africa alone, it is

Schistosomiasis; sometimes known as snail fever or bilharzia, is an acute and chronic disease caused by a group of parasitic worms called schistosomes or blood flukes. The main three species of schistosome worms that are known to infect humans and cause schistosomiasis disease are: S. haematobium, S. mansoni and S. japonicum. Schistosomes; predominantly found in rural areas upholding agriculture and inland fisheries, are mainly concentrated across Africa, Asia and South America. Following malaria, Schistosomiasis is the most prevalent parasitic infection; affecting an approximate 200 million people worldwide, and in sub-Saharan Africa alone, it is the primary cause of over 200,000 deaths each year. Schistosomiasis can be categorized into two main formats of the disease; intestinal and urogenital.
The cause of infection:
Schistosomes have a very intricate and complex lifecycle revolving around a list of hosts that includes: humans, snails and freshwater sources such as lakes, ponds and reservoirs. Schistosomes have five key developmental stages: eggs, miracidia, sporocysts, cercariae and adult worms. The lifecycle of Schistosomes begins when an infected individual releases Schistosoma eggs into a freshwater environment through urine, faeces or other bodily secretions. Upon coming into direct contact with a freshwater environment, The Schistosoma eggs hatch, producing free living and ciliated forms of their earlier selves; named miracidium. Using unique ciliary movements, Miracidium can freely swim towards their target through propelling-like motion and penetrate the soft tissue of a suitable snail intermediate host; in which they develop into mother sporocysts. The mother sporocysts then reproduce asexually to produce daughter sporocysts which travel to and grow in the hepatic and gonadal tissue of the infected freshwater snail. After a period of time, daughter sporocysts undergo metamorphosis; a process of development by which sporocysts grow into adult forms known as cercariae. Eventually, sunlight stimulates the emergence of free-swimming, fork-tail cercariae from the mollusk of the infected snail into the contaminated freshwater. When an individual gets into direct contact with the contaminated water, the immature and infective cercariae penetrate the skin of the human host via mechanical activity and the action of proteolytic enzymes. During the process of penetration, the cercariae lose their tail; developing into schistosomules (adult worms) allowing easier entry through the epidermis and dermis before entering the blood or lymphatic vessels. Once in the bloodstream, schistosmules begin to reproduce in the blood vessels where they remain in a set state of copulation throughout their adulthood. Blood vessels act as a strategic pathway for reproduction as newly formed eggs can easily migrate to a wide selection of organs, on which they can act. Upon deposition in organs and soft tissues, eggs may cause inflammation, chronic pain, scarring and in some cases, renal failure. A small fraction of other eggs are transported into the gut and are eventually excreted from the body via the individuals faeces, reinjecting the water source, and hence, restarting the entire cycle.

There are two main factors determining the impact of schistosomiasis: The type of schistosomiasis (intestinal or urogenital) and the stage of infection. Schistosoma mansoni is largely responsible for inducing the intestinal form of the disease, while S. haematobium is directly linked to the development of urogenital schistosomiasis. Intestinal schistosomiasis can result in abdominal pain, malnutrition and diarrhoea. In some more serious and chronic cases, liver enlargement can be frequent and is strongly linked with the accumulation of fluid in the abdomen and therefore hypertension of the abdominal blood vessels. The typical sign of urogenital schistosomiasis is haematuria (presence of red blood cells in the urine).Haematuria can therefore directly lead to anaemia. In more serious cases, fibrosis of the bladder and ureter may occur, possibly causing the rise of other complications, including bladder cancer. In women, urogenital schistosomiasis may lead to genital lesions, vaginal bleeding and pain during sexual intercourse. In men, urogenital schistosomiasis may bring about infection of the seminal vesicles, prostate and other organs. An even more serious and frightening consequence of this disease is infertility.
Diagnosis of schistosomiasis is implemented using parasitological (Detection of parasite eggs in stool or urine specimens using microscopical methods) or immunological techniques (Detection of antibodies and/or antigens in blood samples). For urogenital schistosomiasis, a simple filtration technique using materials as basic as paper filters can be used to detect infection thro ugh the presence of blood in urine (indicating haematuria); this can also be detected by chemical reagent strips. For intestinal schistosomiasis, the diagnosis is carried out by examination of stool samples using a method called Kato- katz thick smear method.This method can provide both qualitative and quantitative examinations of intestinal schistosomes. The main advantages of the Kato-katz method is that it is highly specific, cheap, and to some extent simple. However, it was shown by enough evidence that this method lacks the ability of detecting low worm burdens.
In most cases, schistosomiasis can be treated with a short course on a drug named Praziquantel; an acylated quinoline-pyrazine efficacious against all schistosome species parasitizing humans. Even though Praziquantel has been used as the Primary drug for treating and controlling schistosomiasis for many years, its exact mechanism of action remains unclear. The drug acts within one hour of ingestion and effectively kills the targeted schistosome by paralysing the worm and severely damaging its tegument. Side-effects are relatively mild and may include nausea, vomiting, malaise, and abdominal pain. However, in heavy infections, a strong and sudden renal pain (known as acute colic) with bloody diarrhoea can occur shortly after treatment, most likely provoked by large worm shifts and antigen release. However, like with any disease, being proactive is always better than being reactive. And so, its recommended to avoid swimming, paddling, washing or drinking in fresh water that is suspected to be infected. Additionally, it is always advised to wear waterproof clothing if there is a possibility of being near infected areas.
In summary, schistosomiasis is by no means a disease that can be taken lightly, if left untreated it can be extremely potent in both its urogenital and intestinal form; as illustrated in some of its severe symptoms. The well adapted nature of schistosomes have made the disease the second most prevalent parasitic infection but a short course of Praziquantel can prove to be effective against schistosome’s.

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