INTRODUCTION. helper as seeing destructive behaviour or aggression

INTRODUCTION.Person-centered therapy and counselling. An approach developed by Carl Ransom Rogers has been historically described as a non-directive approach to therapy and has evolved into what we now know as client-centered therapy.

(Baruth & Huber, 1985) The theory itself can be considered as one that goes further than the counselling situation or counselling process. It emphasises the notion that it is solely the client whom can identify the problem and begin to approach it In a solvable manner to reach therapeutic saturation.(Corey,2017)Human motivation as well as human development within the person-centered therapeutic approach. Person-centered therapy described motivation behind behaviour of individuals as habitually developing to become positively fully potential constructs. Individuals innately aim to achieve the maximum level of achievement of actualization, which Carl Rogers describes as “maximizing the organism” meanwhile attempting to avoid any experience which may be potentially hazardous or detrimental to the individual.

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(Dryden & Reeves,2014)This approach describes the helper as seeing destructive behaviour or aggression as non-directive but rather as a means for growth in which the client asserts the acquisition of something as an enhancement towards their very existence.This approach being mainly encompassed by the centeredness of the client takes many aspects into account, to be discussed In this work of writing are the following: the actualizing tendency ,the self, experience, the need for positive regard and self -regard, organismic valuing processes and conditions of worth as components encompassing the person-centered therapeutic approach (Nelson-jones & Nelson-jones, 2001)Firstly, the actualizing tendency can be described as a primary process for humans in which they develop in ways that enable them to enhance themselves. It is a process involving not only psychological growth but also growth that is considered as biological.

This growth can be seen as autonomous and results in the regulation of the existence of the individual internally and drives the individual to higher complexity levels. (Nelson-Jones,2006)Secondly, the self , an important component encompassing the person-centered approach, sees individuals as constantly encountering experiences in the world as a means of growing . The experiences seen as having been experienced by the individual recognizes the self as “me” ,taking values into account that are linked to the compositions of the individual’s self-concept.In this regard Rogers sees experience as being inconsistent with the self-concept as resulting In a difficulty in enabling ourselves to then perceive this.Thirdly ,experience as one of the components as a beweavent of the person-centered therapeutic approach, can be understood as a term used in to ways. One way in which it can be understood is in regarding occurrences the individual encounters at a said moment , where emotions can be either distorted by social rules and norms or be suppressed by the individual or even denied.

(Noble ; Day,2015) Carl Rogers saw this as a process which occurs unconsciously and considered them to be experiential definitions that cannot be objectively studied but rather confined to the way in which individuals internalize events. Psychologically the term “experiences”, describes a process of internalizing occurrences, so to understand the term physiologically, we look at sensory occurrences occurring at a given moment . In both cases however, the extent to which individual’s perceived experiences determine their functioning with minimal or non-distortion whatsoever is determined by the contribution to an organism’s well-being of accurately having had discriminated between experiences as well as events in order to promote growth rather than to cause harm. (Purton,2004)The fourth component of the person-centered therapeutic approach as a central construct can be defined as the need for positive regard and self-regard which briefly describes a situation whereby individuals posses the innate need for positive regard , in which we can reduce that it is an extension from the system of the self.(Rogers, 1942) Basically, as human being, individuals give value and importance to the idea of love and affection of other individuals and possessing the innate need to value ourselves positively.

According to the works of Carl Rogers, there exists an uncertainty as to whether the need for regard is actually behaviour that results from learning or conditioning but there exists the notion that through having had experienced positive regard from other individuals and the surrounding environment we in turn establish it’s importance and learn it through such occurrences. This then brings about the ideas of what we understand self-regard. (Rogers,1942)Organismic valuing processes, another encompassing component within the central constructs of the person-centered approach. It can be thought if as seeing individuals as participating in continuous experiences of evaluative processes and hence individuals can be seen as regarding one event to the other in order to pinpoint if whether or not the particular events is a contributing factor to distracting the individual or rather to promote growth. As a basis for this is the self-actualizing tendency mentioned earlier within this piece of writing and encompasses experiences producing growth and shifting from those that interfere with it. Lastly , an important component of the abovementioned theory ,the conditions of worth as a component to the central constructs of the person-centered therapeutic approach.

Related to the need and stand point of positive regard, it is seen as a situation in which an individual positively perceives somewhat evaluated aspects as to ignite a condition of worth. These are initially external as they result from other individuals and are reinforced by individuals and are eventually internalized as the parts of one’s self. (Tuder,2006)With regards to the situation of Nokwazi, when viewing the organismic valuing proceed, it can be deduced that Nokwazi does view one experience the next , but in doing so she places much focus on the negative experiences which has come to make her feel that the negative experiences that she is encountering are somewhat snowballing. This can be supported by the idea that when she joined the training programme to become a train control officer, Nokwazi felt that she was confined to a restrictive structure, stemming from her experiences of not having been able to gain tertiary education dud to the fact that her mother whom is a single parent was unable to afford her this experience. The result of Nokwazi feeling somewhat trapped in her occupation resulted in her experiencing feelings of depression as well as anxiety in which she used alcohol as a coping mechanism for this. From the perspective of the need for positive regard and self regard m we can assume that Nokwazi experienced difficulty in gaining acceptance.

This can be supported by the ideas based on the case study that Nokwazi’s mother insisted that she help out around the house instead of playing sport which she then used as a form of coping. Considering that Nokwazi was an only child, whom was faced with the divorce of her parents and her father moving out of the house after divorce , a sense of self worth can get lost In the difficulties of dealing with divorce and overcoming the effects thereof, especially having been the only child gaining acceptance and affection in evidence from both parents to only being able to gain such from one parent at the age of five and growing up to this environment. Human development as a theory of the development of the individual as well as the person. The person-centered approach describes human behaviour as being motivated by the tendency and the potential to grow usually in order for an individual to reach a constructive full potential of one’s self. (Baruth ; Huber,1985)It takes in this regard infantile development and suggests that on the basis of the process of organismic evaluation our motivation stems from the actualizing tendencies. This is followed by allowing experiences to come to define us in order to get an idea of our full potential as well as what it requires to reach it and to develop a sense of self worth which leads the development of a more defined self-concept seen as finite and makes way for the establishment of positive regard where positive self-regard emerges. As this becomes more and more apparent behaviours become considered as being more positive and are thus more valued as opposed to initially. This results in an internalized evaluation of the conditions of worth in which the experiences of the self become consistent with the changing self and deny whatever or avoid whatever is inconsistent.

(Nelson-jones,2001)The aspects of health and dysfunction within the person-centered therapeutic approach The health and dysfunction aspects of the person-centered approach encompasses the ideas underlying congruence, emphatic understanding and unconditional positive regard which are the core components of the person-centered therapeutic approach. With regards to the health aspect of this approach, the aim is to have the outcome of a client that is said to be congruent. This implies that the person experiencing this therapeutic process discovers a situation whereby their experiences are consistent with the perception that they have of the self.

(Nelson-jones ; nelson-jones, 2001) This aspect does not take highly into consideration the notion of the conditions of worth but does however, enable the client to trust that the self they have come to know and develop is good for them and is derived from the basic construct of the organismic valuing process. In developing a self concept that is positive as well as the aspect of unconditional positive regard, the achievement of self -actualization is seen as moving naturally towards the involved client’s experiences. All of these aspects then can help direct the counselling process into a saturated notion whereby the individual involved can be able to take risks within their lives as well as to gain creativity in it’s aspects. (Waughfield ; Burckhalter,202)From a dysfunction prospects towards the person-centered therapeutic approach ,the aim is to have the client become exposed to a situation whereby the self-concept that is actually conditional and protective in it’s aspects can be overcome through the individual becoming rigid.

When describing the client as being inconsistent, we assume that this occurs with the real self where the development of the self-concept occurs and the real self’s voice is then silenced. An integrative experience however ,can be in challenge in that the individual is unable to achieve integrating the difficulties of gaining self-worth that are experienced this is the result of experiences being felt that interfere with the probability of achieving a clear sense of not only self positive regard but also achieving positive regard from others. Although the individual can be described as having lost the connection with the real self, the position directed towards others acceptance an result in the individual’s behaviour being motivated by this. (Waughfield & Burkhalter,2002) Tendencies to become self-actualized and to experience basic actualization can be seen as becoming in conflict with another in dysfunction, this is to the evaluation of experiences by the individual being in accordance with both the organismic valuing process as well as the individual’s conditions of worth. The therapeutic goals of the person-centered approach as well as the techniques of this approach. Aiming towards a situation whereby the client involved in therapy achieves a greater sense of integration as well as independence ,placing a large amount of focus on the client presenting their problem is one major focus of this approach.(Rogers,1942)It is seem as having the goal of creating a condition which in the individual becomes conduced to the idea of helping themselves.(Rogers, 1942) Rogers in describing the ideas of this approach has emphasised that in becoming increasingly actualized and an openness towards experience must exist where the client is able to have trust within themselves with an evaluation that is sourced internally as well as a willingness to develop and grow that is basic.

(Rogers,1942) The goal of therapy within this approach include, mainly, creating a situation in which people are able to be helped in achieving a self-actualized individual who has management of their lives as well as to empower a sense of change within the individual. It not only creates a sense of the client’s feelings as well as behaviours being congruent but it also promotes self-esteem as well as the awareness of the self. This allows for the client’s trust to be facilitated and to allow fin the present moment for ability to be achieved and saturated. This can then result in a client that does not feel like there is judgement coming from the counsellor and enables the client to engage in a process that is honest. (Noble ; Day,2015) Many techniques within the person-centered therapeutic approach, can be employed in treating situations like that which Nokwazi is experiencing.

It differs much from the other approaches in that this approach is more client based and places much emphasis on he experiences of the client. (Purton, 2004) The awareness of the client of such can have on influence not the amount of trust that client can and will develop and create a sense of openness that can exist within the therapeutic process. A major role in the technique processes of the client-centered therapeutic approach is the role of the therapist. (Waughfield ; Burckhalter, 2002) The therapist in this aspect must be fully aware of his/her bodily language and pay close attention to what he/she is saying so as to as to encompass the idea of them chin that moment as being present and fully attentive.

The therapist, should confusion arise and become a disrupting factor within the therapeutic process, should be able to address this with the client in a clear and open manner . (Dryden ; Reeves, 2014) This ensures that a sense of trust exists in continuation and that the client is put and ease with this being maintained throughout the therapeutic process. (Waughfield ;Burckhalter, 2002)Other techniques that can be made use of in the client-centered therapeutic approach include the process of the counsellor being able to reflect upon the feelings of the client, for example, “I get that you are feeling constricted within a snowballing and constructive structure” in this case of Nokwazi, Nokwazi would then respond either in agreement or disagreement and elaborate on these ideas therefore making way for the counsellor to progress with counselling process to perhaps reach some degree of therapeutic saturation that will positively effect Nokwazi’s sense of self worthiness and upgrade her self-esteem, another technique would be to ask open-source ended questions ,this describes the counsellor asking questions such as “And how did that make you feel?” in order to direct the client in identifying how the problems they are experiencing makes them feel ,one having been identified this makes way for the client to make conclusions on the way forward that are clear and concise , in the case of Nokwazi, the counsellor can ask Nokwazi for example, how being suspended made her feel perhaps somewhere in between the entirety of this experience she came across moments where she had been tempted to use alcohol in much higher use than she had been before, also the counsellor so can ask Nokwazi for example, that yes, she had indeed been sober for about 55 days before coming to seek help so finding out how that experience has been for Nokwazi as well as what no feelings she has experienced may be a good approach to initiating the therapeutic process in an effective manner and to pinpoint a finite way to move forward. (Tudor, 2006)Another technique that is widely used within the person-centered therapeutic approach is the act of paraphrasing, this describes the counsellor repeating what the client has just said in order to give the client a sense that the counsellor understands what the client is saying as well as to enable the client to elaborate if necessary and to provide clarity to the counsellor. In Nokwazi’s case perhaps upon seeing the counsellor, we can assume since she had been experiencing anxiety as well as stress that within the counselling process , she may having said something in the line of “I have been feeling somewhat anxious and also depressed for quite some time, this all started when my parents divorced when I was 5 years old but I was able to cope with this by taking part in sports whilst in school but somehow my mother constantly insisted that I help out around the house, but now I can see that my feelings of anxiousness and depression can be the result of maybe being suspended at my job as a train control officer due to the fact that I tested positive for alcohol testing and perhaps I feel guilty because as much as I felt restricted within this job I was using it as a way gain knowledge as well as to save so I could eventually take myself to tertiary because my mother couldn’t afford it” then the counsellor would say something in response sounding much like “so I understand that the feelings of depression as well as anxiety that you have been experiencing have come to a point where they are impacting your life everyday” ,where naturally the client, whom is Nokwazi In this case would agree or disagree and elaborate further upon this. (Corey,2017)Lastly another technique used within the person-centered therapeutic approach by the counsellor is the act of encouraging, this can be described as the situation whereby the counsellor gives the client the impression that are listening and uses that as mechanism to encourage the client to think for themselves , the way forward as to not only identify their problems but also to find a solution towards their problems as to how they can approach them and overcome them, so perhaps in this situation of Nokwazi, as the client she would say something such as “it makes me feel helpless, and at times, I do not know what to do” and the so the counsellor would respond with something In the line of “uh huh” In order to ignite a process or rather even a train of thought within the client as a means to institute understanding regarding how they will approach their problem.(Baruth ; Huber,1985)To employ such techniques in an effective manner , in order to bring about a sense of change towards Nokwazi, the application usually encompasses working with the client involved, as well as their families or social groups. This approach is an effective approach in treating situations as well as problems experienced due to factors such as alcoholism, depression, anxiety disorders and lastly interpersonal difficulties (Rogers,1942) which are all experienced by Nokwazi at different levels , with different degrees of effects and at different times , which has resulted I her actually having come and seek help.

(Corey,2017)Reasons why the selected approached employed by the writer in this piece of writing, is appropriate for Nokwazi and will be effective in treating as well as in counselling her taking her socio-cultural contact into consideration. Upon researching the client-centered approach, this writer found that despite that being much relevant literature as well as research to review based on this theory, majority thereof suggest that client’s whole were exposed to higher levels of warmth, emphatic understanding as well as genuineness conventionally understood as congruence, were generally seen as having spent less time in the helping process that client’s or individuals whom received a somewhat level of the core conditions.(Rogers, 1942)Therapy in this regard was seen to be helpful in reducing distress experienced psychologically as well as hassles that are family related within the person-centered therapeutic approach than any other referral deriving from agencies from the outside. (Waughfield ; Burckhalter, 2002)Particularly, somewhat helpful, the person-centered therapeutic approach is able to help client that are seen as being higher in reference such as Nokwazi whom constantly reacted to the negative situations that were taking place in her life and made that the focal points instead of being resistant which is a key component in dealing with problems within the person-centered therapeutic approach, which sees a reference as a higher level of dominance whilst seeing the measurement of submission as low. The strengths of this approach include, the ideas that ,the multiple aspects which are included in it are relevant to the perspectives of multiculturalism, secondly this approach offers an updated perspective as well as optimism. Client encountering the person-centered therapeutic approach learn to four on themselves as well as their problems.

In these experiences client also feel that they are able to express themselves to a much higher degree when they feel as if they are not being judged and that they are being listens to.(waughfield ; Burckhalter, 2002)The weaknesses of the person-centered therapeutic approach include the notion that, firstly, it is not really appropriate for clients whom are unfortunately not motivated to change. Also the theory can be considered somewhat unrealistic In optimism a well as for it being seen as being simplistic.

(Corey, 2017)Conclusion. The person-centered therapeutic approach describes individuals as being integrative in positive self-regard seen as a confidence in attitude. It stems from the reception of positive regard which brings about feelings if caring and affection from other individuals. When it received this can result in anxiety or depression and in some cases both.In order to help individuals that experience low levels if self-regard, the core conditions Whalen implemented in therapy can bring a about to a change that is positive.

INTRODUCTION: everyone. Each and everyone was nervous

INTRODUCTION:Adventure Tourism is a kind of niche tourism which involve fun, exploration, travel with risk and physical exertion which connects your mind with nature. So, tree top trekking is also one of the adventure travel where we can enjoy zip-lining, trekking and eco-tourism and it is located near by heart lake conservation area, this park offers a variety of different age-group courses with thrilling experience. This kind of traveling is for adventurous traveler and this will be your favourite adventure destination if you haven’t try this than try this once.KEY FEATURES:1.ZIP-LINING: it includes pulley suspended on a connection and mounted on slope.

It was expected to enable a traveler moved by gravity from the top with holding the pulley. It was one the best part of the park where I enjoyed a lot as it means an entertainment for me and best zip line I had ever tried. Moreover, instructions were given to us which makes the zip lining easier.

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It was one of the best way to take part and enjoy the physical activity.2.FRIENDLY STAFF: This trekking trip was successful for me just because of the good instructions given by the staff. Staff was very welcoming and friendly with everyone. Each and everyone was nervous about the trekking, but guiders were over there to examine everyone and help someone who stuck in course and remain with them until the end of the course. One of the best safety rule was that hook was never able to be detached from safety line until you got down on ground.3.AERIAL COURSES: This park offers 5 aerial courses with 7 zip lines.

They start from the basic one which was beginning point after than middle one which then get advance so that there must be different something in every part of step. It’s get harder by each course. This was a kind of recreational activity which needs strength, endurance and physical abilities.EXPECTATIONS: Time and money spent was well worth on price. It was one of the best experience we can get just 30 minutes away from city. It is being wonderful and awesome fun over there with tree top obstacles and zip lines. Fear of heights were finished over there which was one of my expectations from there. Overall a wonderful experience and great fun.

MOTIVATIONS: Tree top trekking was a kind of motivation which includes nature and discovery, learning, expanded worldwide, transformation and mental health. This was a new and different experiences which we all get over there with amazing nature loving place. It was a kind of physical, cultural and recreational activity which changes the life of busy man who can get enough time for enjoying the nature with mental stability as well. Mind gets fresh over there without thinking about the life and forgot he stress of life as well. It was now become a pleasant memory in our mind which we whenever remember always remaining happy.

So, it was a type of activities for them who want to enjoy the life with relax and peace. Moreover, wide range of travel may change the health problems. Secondly, this thrilling experience was very exciting and inspiring. By this we gained lots of knowledge about the niche tourism and eco-tourism.

We get to know how to respond to new challenges in life by participating in each part of obstacles and set some goals that how get out from those problems. By this I personally learned lots of things like self-confidence, strength and power. Thirdly, transformation is another motivation which changes the adventure tourism. Earlier there were no trekking spots were made to enjoy the trekking and hiking.

Now these man-made infrastructure increases adventure tourism just because of that. Fourthly, world wide experience of life changes if we go for adventure travel then we get emerged in nature and feel the nature so that we forgot the life and enjoy the world-wide view of nature. That was the unique and distinct experience which can be experienced by true adventure lover. Lastly, we can explore lots of things from nature which can be very relaxing for our mind. Likewise, tree top trekking is kind of place where we can feel the nature with lake side view as well.

Moreover, it is a kind of place where we can do photo shoots from heights and lake side as well. It is a kind of key feature which will motivate the traveler to go.RECOMMENDATIONS: As a traveler we all need some new and different experiences so that we don’t get bored of it. But tree top trekking doesn’t need any changes for that it is a good adventurous place where we can enjoy nature and recreational activity as well. But I recommend that there must be some changes over there for increasing more traveler for this summer. Firstly, there must be some food and beverage arrangements for travelers because it’s to hot over there and we felt so hungry after doing trekking. Moreover, this will increase the tourist over there.

Secondly, it must be open after October as well because adventure can be experienced not only in summers, but it can be experienced in winters as well. It will be unique experience for adventure traveler. Overall, it is a wonderful experience over there.

I highly recommend this adventure travel for adventurous people who want thrill in their life should go once.

Introduction: realize the promise of technology, helping them

Introduction:Ingram Micro is an American company that distributes technology products and provides logistics and procurement services, helps businesses fully realize the promise of technology, helping them maximize the value of the technology that they make, sell or use. They distribute a wide range of Value-Added solutions and products covering Data Centre solutions, Software & Virtualization, Servers, Storage, Cyber Security, Networking, Infrastructure Software, Services, and Telecommunication products from the world leading vendors in each segment.- History:Ingram Micro was founded by Geza Czige and Lorraine Mecca in July 1979 and is headquartered in Irvine, CA. They were a couple and both of them were teachers.

The company started in Southern California and in their first year they achieved approximately $3.5 million in sales. In 1983 the company rapidly expanded in the states and held its public offering. In 1986 Ingram Industries became a majority stockholder. In 1989 all of the common stock held by the company’s founders and bought all of the remaining Micro D shares. After the success in the united states: in 1993 Ingram micro decided to go global, so the company expanded the products and services to global markets.

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They offered its solutions throughout every major region in the world via a series of strategic acquisitions and export operations and that positioned them as the world’s largest distributor company in 1998. In 2013 revenues Reached its highest worldwide $42.6 billion and the company annually profit is $40.6B- Locations: The main location is in the united states, California. But as a global company, they have 56 branches all over the world in 6 out of 7 contents.

The Employees 27,700. The sale on more than 160 countries. Their major locations are in the META region (Middle East, Turkey and Africa)SWOT Analysis:Strength:- Strong Free Cash Flow: Ingram Micro has generated a great profit over years and tried their best to reduce their liability’s which qualifies the company to have a strong free cash flows that can help provide new resources in the hand of the company and enter new projects.

– Reliable suppliers: they have a strong base of suppliers because they rely on 1,400 suppliers. thus, helps the company to overcome any supply chain.• Evidence: – 2017 ChannelPro Readers’ Choice Awards: Best Financing Options, Best Sales Support- net sales have grown to $28.

1 billion in 1999 from $8.6 billion in 1995.Weaknesses:- Product demand forecasting: Ingram micro is not very good at predicting the demand on a certain product that satisfies the customer needs. That’s why the company keep ending up with higher inventory because they produce the wrong demand. – The financial planning is not done effectively and efficiently. Researches and analysis show that the company doesn’t use their money effectively. They keep producing and purchasing things they don’t need such as pilling raw materials, high inventories, producing the unwanted product. They are financially stable, but they keep missing opportunities because of the inefficient and ineffective money usage.

• Evidence: (The Company recorded substantially higher expenses totaling approximately $94.8 million ($48.4 million for the fourth quarter of 1999) related to excess and obsolete inventory as compared to $26.1 million for 1998 ($10.

8 million for the fourth quarter of 1998)Threats:- Currency fluctuations: As the company has a lot of branches in numerous countries, they are more exposed to currency fluctuations especially for the countries who have high chances in the political climate.- Rising raw material prices can be a huge threat to Ingram Micro profitability: The company relies on raw material because they produce new technologies and invent new products from the raw materials. So, increasing raw material prices would be a huge threat to Ingram Micro.- Evidence: “the Company has foreign currency risk related to debt that is denominated in currencies other than the dollar and cross-currency swaps hedging intercompany debt. The Company’s foreign currency risk management objective is to protect its earnings and cash flows resulting from sales, purchases and other transactions from the adverse impact of exchange rate movements”.

– Ingram micro has five competitors they are SYNNEX, Wayside technology group, Tech Data, Arrow Electronics, and Scan Source.Opportunities:- Customer spending behavior: Markets, Time, Economic has changed and affected customer behavior. People started to increase their spending and demanding more stuff. Therefore, it helped Ingram micro a lot especially they are one of the main producers in the technology categories and that where people started to spend more especially on phone and laptops.- Stable and high free cash flow: provides more opportunities to invest in closer product segments.

The higher the cash the more the company can invest in new technologies and in new products segments. This would help the company to expand in other product categories furthermore, will help the company to grow globally more. – Evidence: Apple iPhone prices, Dell and Hp laptops prices.Competitive advantage:- Increasing Effectiveness and efficiency: producing a product that customer don’t want leads to higher inventory and this is one of the problems that Ingram micro face. Thus, I highly suggest considering this problem by producing from each product some pieces rather than a huge amount, so they can be more aware of which products are more preferable.

After that they can produce more of it. instead of producing a huge amount of the wrong product each time and keep ending with high inventories. By that way, they will be increasing effectiveness by having the right demand for a product and increasing efficiency by lowering the cost of inventories.- Increasing quality: Ingram micro always creates new program and services.

Therefore, quality is really important to attract more customers. Although they have established a quality management system, but they don’t apply it in all product aspects. I suggest this system will apply to all aspects to ensure that quality will always be as highly as the customer demanding.

Introduction: preventing reoffending?”, “What were the most common

Introduction:Juvenile crime is and has been a relevant topic in New Zealand and the world for many years, and I was interested in what, when, where and why juveniles commit crimes, therefore I chose the topic of “Juvenile crime in New Zealand”. My main research inquiry question is “What were the major causes of juvenile crime in New Zealand in the past 10 years?” My key questions are: “How are juvenile offenders sentenced in New Zealand and is sentencing effective for preventing reoffending?”, “What were the most common ethnicity/ies and age/s of juvenile offenders in New Zealand in the past 10 years?”, “What were the most common type/s of crime among juveniles in New Zealand in the past 10 years?”, and “Who are considered juveniles in New Zealand?”How are juvenile offenders sentenced and is sentencing effective for preventing reoffending?According to Te Ara’s website, depending on the circumstances, different methods are used to punish juvenile offenders, including: Warnings from the police, Youth Aid officer meetings, family group conferences including the offender and their family, the victim, a police officer and a coordinator, and court cases in the Youth Court if the offender is aged 14 to 16. If the case is more serious, the juvenile offender will be dealt with in the District Court or the High Court.

“In 2014, 43% of offenders were dealt with through alternative action by Police Youth Aid (for example, written apologies, community work, reparation and counselling.” In the “Youth Justice Indicators Summary Report” written by the “Ministry of Justice” in April 2018, it discusses becoming part of the Youth Justice System, being part of the system, and reappearing in the system. I think that the point of view of this source is not opinionated and unbiased and I also think that it is a reliable source because there is a date of publishing included, and the spelling and grammar are correct.

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This source is a government source, therefore it is less likely to be biased. According to justice.govt.

nz’s website, almost one-third of youth were given orders due to their offending. “In 2017, youth were most often charged with burglary (25%), theft (19%) or robbery (15%) offences as their most serious offence”. In 2017, and 600 youth (32%) were given a sentence or order. The most common out of these were ‘monetary, confiscation, or disqualification’, which accounted for 22%, (or 129 youth) of all youth crime in New Zealand in 2017, and also, ‘supervision or community work’, which accounted for 19% (or 111 youth) of all youth crime in New Zealand in 2017.

‘Supervision with residence’ (96 youth), ‘education and rehabilitation programmes’ (12 youth), ‘supervision with activity’ (87 youth), are included as other orders. Out of the small number of youth who were convicted in court and received an adult sentence to serve fully (36 youth), most of them were given home detention or imprisonment for highly serious offending.Brinley McIntosh, author of the HMA article “Reducing recidivism rates among young offenders”, discusses the attributes of juvenile offenders, group work among juveniles, CBT with juvenile offenders, and inspiring juvenile offenders. I think that the point of view of this source is not opinionated and unbiased and I also think that it is a reliable source because there is a listed author, there is a date of publishing included, and the sources in the website are cited.According to Bennett (2009), “Current literature around young offenders and recidivism rates shown that in NZ there is a core group of young offenders that continue to reoffend despite going through the youth justice system.” This tells us that sentencing is not effective for preventing reoffending in New Zealand. To tackle the recidivism rate, in 2010, the Young Persons and Their Families Amendment Bill put forward and applied changes to the Children, Young Persons and Their Families Act (1989) to make way for harsher sentences (either residence or community based) for young offenders as well as their families.

This amendment elongated the length of time young offenders were able to be sentenced to supervision and/or residence orders, and also made way for requested parenting education programmes for both: parents who are young offenders, and also, parents of young offenders. They needed to do this to inhibit offending and also reoffending. This tells us that these individuals come from violent and/or poor etc. households, which may influence their recidivism greatly. According to McIntosh, the amendment also accentuated the need for mentoring, rehabilitation, and support for young offenders as well as their families, which are used as preventative measures towards recidivism. Subsequently, there was a powerful push towards developing and implementing programmes that lower recidivism rates of young offenders by aiming at criminogenic needs, and also promoting and teaching prosocial skills.

McIntosh claims that there is only a small amount of controversy in the literature that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and its variants are the most effective treatment for reducing recidivism among youth offenders. McIntosh also claims that the most economical and effective way to give interventions to young offenders in residential facilities is in a group layout.I disagree with this statement because to me, imprisonment seems like it would be the most effective preventative measure for recidivism among juvenile offenders. I believe this because it would essentially “keep juveniles off the streets” and give them less opportunity to re-offend. I also think that when more juveniles are involved in training, education, or employment, the less likely these individuals are to offend, as “idle hands are the devil’s playthings”, meaning if an individual is not occupied, they have a higher chance of getting into trouble. According to an infographic summary by the Ministry of Justice, in 2017, the majority of juveniles (78%) had charges proved, most acted in accordance with plans agreed at Family Group Conferences, and a third of them were given orders for their offending, including 129 confiscation, disqualification, or monetary orders, 111 supervision or community work orders, 96 supervision with residence orders, 87 intensive supervision or supervision with activity orders, and 36 adult sentences for serious offending. The number of juveniles charged in court has decreased by 25% since 2013 and by 5% since 2016, (possibly because in recent times juveniles have fewer opportunities to offend, which may be because they are involved in training, education, or employment), and only accounted for under 3% of all individuals charged in court in 2017.What were the most common ethnicity/ies and age/s of juvenile offenders in New Zealand in the past 10 years?According to https://www., “there have been very large reductions in the number of… young people aged 14 to 16 who offended (…

down from 14,183 to 5,188 young people).” I assumed that the offence rate of youth (aged 14 to 16) would have increased between 2009/10 and 2016/17, but I was wrong. The offence rate has actually decreased, to my surprise. In 2016/17, the most common ethnicity for juvenile offending was M?ori with 642 cases, the second most common was Pasifika with 256 cases, and the least common was European/Other with 131 cases.

In 2009/10, the most common ethnicity for juvenile offending was M?ori with 1,555 cases, the second most common was Pasifika with 654 cases, and the least common was European/Other with 504 cases. From 2008 to 2017, the percentage of M?ori juvenile offenders rose over that decade, from 49% to 64%. The number of juveniles charged with theft, burglary, or assault has been decreasing since 2013, which may be surprising to some, but the number of juveniles charged with robbery has increased since 2015 to 2017, which may not be surprising to some. This could be due to the stigma in New Zealand regarding juvenile crime. It has been said that the youth justice system is ‘racist’ towards M?ori, which I agree with. Regardless, the number of juveniles charged has decreased significantly among all ethnicities over the decade spanning from 2008 to 2017. The changes are as follows: M?ori changed from 2,421 to 1,197 individuals (a decrease of 51%) European changed from 1,749 to 426 individuals (a decrease of 76%), and Pasifika from 501 to 174 individuals (a decrease of 65%).

Theft is different to robbery because theft is taking property that doesn’t involve interaction between people. An individual simply takes property that they do not own. Comparing robbery and theft, robbery is where an individual takes property that involves interaction between people but involves intimidation, coercion, and/or force. Burglary, in comparison to both robbery and theft, is where an individual enters a residence or building while intending to commit a felonious crime, such as theft. Burglary doesn’t require interaction between individuals or property to be stolen. From 2008 to 2017, the number of juveniles charged in court had significantly declined (from approximately 160 per 10,000 juveniles), to approximately 60 per 10,000 juveniles), and the overall juvenile offending rate decreased 63% between 2009/10 and 2016/17, from 761 per 10,000 individuals to 285 per 10,000 individuals. It may be thought that the rate of juvenile crime is increasing but in fact, the rate is actually decreasing, which I am surprised about, and may be to other people’s surprise. During that time, the decrease in the offending rate has been much larger for European/Other (74%) than for Pasifika (61%), or M?ori (59%).

The age split of juvenile offenders has greatly stayed the same since 2013, whereof the offenders aged 14-16, 24% of those were 14 years old, 32% were 15 years old, and 41% of those were 16 years old. I am not surprised about the age ratio. What were the most common type/s of crime among juveniles in New Zealand in the past 10 years? In New Zealand in 2016/17, the percent by offence division if the most common type/s of crime among young people aged 14 to 16 are as follows (in descending order): The highest percentage of youth crime was theft at 26%, ‘other’ at 20%, unlawful entry and/or burglary at 16.6%, causing injury at 13.2%, public disorder at 10%, property damage at 8.5%, and finally, robbery and/or extortion at 5.7%.I think that theft is so high because many youths have chances to thieve, rather than have opportunities to commit other crimes.

Although theft is less serious than, for example, violent crimes because people’s lives are not necessarily in danger throughout a theft, they are during a violent crime.The “Youth Justice Statistics 2014/15” (about England and Wales), composed by the “Youth Justice Board/Ministry of Justice” on the 28th of January 2016, discuss, for example, moving through the Youth Justice System, proven offences by juveniles and measures of crime underwent by juveniles. According to Youth Justice Board/Ministry of Justice, In England and Wales, in the year ending March 2015, the main types of juvenile offence were; violence against the person (24%), theft and handling (17%) and criminal damage (12%). Additionally, there were 2,000 sexual offences in the same year in which a young person was cautioned or convicted, which accounted for 2% of all juvenile offences.Who are considered juveniles in New Zealand?According to Te Ara’s website, regarding the law, young people are those who are aged 14–16. “…

They can be charged and prosecuted for an offence and dealt with by the youth justice system. Those aged 17 and over are treated as adults in the general court system.”I think that this age is too young to get treated like an adult and go to prison with adults and I think the age should be raised to 18.

I assumed that the offence rate of youth (aged 14 to 16) would have increased between 2009/10 and 2016/17, but I was wrong. The offence rate has actually decreased, to my surprise.Conclusion:In conclusion, by answering the previous inquiry questions, I have been able to answer my main research inquiry question: “What were the major causes of juvenile crime in New Zealand in the past 10 years?”. Research shows that juvenile crime is caused by financial hardship (Scientific studies have shown that it is not just a juvenile’s brain that turns them into a criminal, but also poverty that changes an innocent juvenile into an inveterate criminal. If teens see that others such as their friends are more financially stable and richer than them, so they eventually begin to look for illegal ways to tide themselves over, and once they start offending, they are usually small crimes such as theft to accomplish their daily costs, but as time goes on, they re-offend and continue to re-offend. Peer pressure is another major cause of juvenile crime as surveys conducted show that teens that are friends with criminals have a higher likelihood to become eventually a criminal themselves, as it is reasonably natural for the individuals to be influenced by the criminals. Teens prefer to commit crimes in groups because it can be more exciting and also lowers their likelihood of getting caught offending.

I believe that one way to combat peer pressure and also juvenile crime is to make sure that juveniles’ friends are not negatively influencing the juveniles. Additionally, a lack of care from family is another major cause of juvenile crime as neglected juveniles are more likely to become criminals because they become violent and angry when they lack love and affection that they feel they deserve from the family. They then use their negative energy to commit crimes. Furthermore, bullying is another major cause of juvenile crime. Bullying is a crime and it also fuels other crimes. Multiple studies show that juveniles who bully others tend to become criminals later in life. Abusive behaviour encourages juvenile crime and juveniles who demonstrate abusive behaviour or are in a group of friends who demonstrate abusive behaviour wind up committing crimes. A few cases have been reported where the victims of bullying become criminals only for the purpose of retaliating on society.

Lastly, drug and alcohol abuse are also major causes of juvenile crime. It is a crime to take drugs or drink alcohol as a minor, and it also causes various other crimes. Juveniles’ judgement is impaired when they abuse drugs or alcohol, which increases the likelihood of committing crimes, such as property damage or public disorder. When a juvenile becomes intoxicated, their judgement and reasoning become obscure, causing them to commit a crime that they may never have wanted to commit originally.

In 2017 specifically, the highest percentage of youth crime was theft at 26%, ‘other’ at 20%, unlawful entry and/or burglary at 16.6%, causing injury at 13.2%, public disorder at 10%, property damage at 8.

5%, and the lowest percentage was robbery and/or extortion at 5.7%.I think that the age of 17 is too young and too harsh to get treated like an adult and go to prison with adults and I believe that the age should be raised to 18. The research indicated that overall, depending on the circumstances, different methods are used to punish juvenile offenders, of example, including warnings from the police, Youth Aid officer meetings, family group conferences including the offender and their family, the victim, a police officer and a coordinator, and court cases either in the Youth Court if the offender is aged 14 to 16. But for more serious cases, the juvenile offender will be dealt with in the District Court or the High Court.

Almost one-third of youth were given orders due to their offending. Studies show that in 2017, the most prevalent charges given to juveniles were confiscation, monetary, or disqualification. Research suggests that overall, sentencing is not effective for reoffending, because studies show that in New Zealand there is a main group of juvenile offenders that continue to offend regardless of being dealt with by the youth justice system. Research shows that in 2017, the most common ethnicity of juvenile offenders in New Zealand was M?ori with 642 cases, the second most common was Pasifika with 256 cases, and the least common was European/Other with 131 cases. Compared to 2009/10, the most common ethnicity for juvenile offending in New Zealand was M?ori with 1,555 cases, the second most common was Pasifika with 654 cases, and the least common was European/Other with 504 cases. Research also shows that in 2017, the most common age of offenders in New Zealand was 16 years old (41%), the second most common age was 15 years old at 32%, and lastly, the third most common age was 14 years old at 24%. These statistics did not surprise me.

Additionally, compared to 2013, the age ratio has largely stayed consistent. In 2016/17, the most common type of youth crime in New Zealand was theft at 26%, the second most common type of youth crime was ‘other’ at 20%, and the third most common type of youth crime was unlawful entry and/or burglary at 16.6%. In comparison to England and Wales, in 2015, the most common type of offence was violence against the person (24%), followed by theft and handling (17%), and then criminal damage (12%). Lastly, during my research, I have discovered that juveniles (regarding the law) are those aged 14–16.


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