Developing and growing is one of the main important stages of a child’s life. Children will develop and will grow at their own rate, some will grow and become mature much faster than other children.
On the other hand, we expect most children to reach a certain level of development to reach during childhood to adolescence.
Consequently, the children and young people’s development can be observed into 3 areas such as physical development, communication and intellectual development, also social and emotional development.
Physical development is mainly to do with movement, this is when the child will start to make movements. One of the main aspects of physical development is when children hit puberty, this can be a major change for children as their bodies are changing. Furthermore, physical development can also include gross motor skills as well as fine motor skills and eye hand co-ordination.
Communication and intellectual development
Communication and intellectual development will include how would the child or adolescence communicate with other people such as; teachers, friends and parents. In addition, intellectual development is all to do with learning. Some of the ways children and adolescence will progress their intellectual development is asking questions, listening to others, exploring and experimenting new things.
Social and emotional behavioural development
Social and emotional behavioural development can be supported by when the children interact with other children. On the other hand, emotional behaviour is when the child is maybe being starting to feel emotions such as happiness, sadness, jealousy and anger. This can be supported by arranging activities such as circle time where the children communicate with each as well taking part in an activity which involves sharing.
In this report I will be describing the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years in physical development, communication and intellectual development, social and emotional development.
The baby will gradually start growing, by 6months it will start movements, the baby will start opening and closing his/her eyes. It will start to adapt to its environment. Furthermore, the child will start turning his head towards sounds or even people for example when the parents will start feeding the child the child will start to familiarise faces. Also, the child will start to smile at people often. Moreover between 6 months and 1 year the child will start moving from sitting with support to sitting alone. On the other hand, the child will start to roll over from his tummy to his back. In addition, they will begin to turn and look when he/she hears their name. Another part of the child’s main stage will be when the child will start to reach his/her’s hand towards food or drink. Between one and 2 years the child start to begin to walk although they may trip or stumble. In addition, they will start to feed themselves independently. Also, the child will start to push and pull toys while walking. Moreover, the child will make it clear what they want from parents or carers.
In the age group of 3 years the child will start to kneel to play. Furthermore he/she will start to throw and kick balls. In the school setting the child will start building larger brick towers and aim for the highest. On the other hand, the child will be pouring liquids. Consequently he/she will start using pencils to make marks and circular scribbles. Also, will start to jump with two feet together. On the other hand, the child will start to gain control over eating foods. At the age of four the child will be able to start to use a bike and will be able to pedal. Consequently he/she will start to use scissors and glue stick. More over at the age of five the child will start hops when playing with other children. The child will also start kicking with aim as well as catching a ball. The chill will also be able to handle pencils with control. Children at this point will also be able to copy and write shapes. At the age of six the child has been development quite a lot. The child will be able to skip and climb confidently. Then the child will be able to write and can do his/her buttons and shoe laces.
In this stage of life, the child will start to run, jump, skip, hits a ball, climb and swings. The child then will be able to enjoy playing games by the age of eight. Sometimes the child can misjudge their own ability before age nine.
Adolescence starts at the age of 11 and can last up to the age of 19 or 20years. Adolescence is a transition period for the child. It can be a huge change for the adolescence.
Adolescence for boys will usually begin later than for girls. For boys it will begin at the age of 12 but may start as early as 9 years. Puberty is a process which goes on for several years. The first signs of puberty in boys will be that their testicles get bigger and the scrotum begins to thin and redden. On the other hand, pubic hair also starts to appear at the base of the penis. The penis will gradually start to grow every day. Boys may also have wet dreams. Moreover, the adolescence will start to get taller each day by approximately 3inches a year. On the other hand, their voice may become deeper this is known as “voice breaking”. Some boys can be worried about their lack of development because of this it can be difficult for slow developers to handle. This where responsible adults can play a huge role by reassuring them that their rate of development is not related to final physical potential.
Adolescence for girls will usually begin as early as the age of 9. The first signs of puberty in girls will be is that their breast will gradually begin to develop. Pubic hair will also grow and some of the girls will realise some hair on their legs and arms. On the other hand, girls will tend to sweat. In addition, when girls reach adolescence they will start to gain wait (this will be normal), this occurs because their body shape will be changing and developing.
Communication and intellectual development
The baby will start making sounds which indicate they are happy, on the other hand when the baby is sad he/she will start crying. When the baby is hungry it will start crying this is the only way for the baby to communicate that he/she is hungry. Furthermore, as times goes on the child will respond to music and different sounds around them. More over the child will watch his carers face especially the mouth and tries to copy its movements. Between 6 and 12 months the child will begin to laugh and chuckle to show feeling of excitement. Consequently, when the child is between 1 and 2 the child will start understanding key words, normally children would pick up these words from parents, the child will also start to express himself to carers. At the age of three the child may begin to start asking questions.
By the time the child turns three he/she could be using approximately several hundred words. In this stage the child will understand instructions for example if the brother or sister of the child asks him/her to do something e.g. ‘get me a glass of water or give the mobile phone to your brother’. The child will start communicating with other siblings and children. At the age of five to seven years the child will begin to understand about different aspects of life. Furthermore he/she will know the differences between solids, liquids and gases.
At this point the child will be able to read by him/herself on the other hand, they will take an interest in certain subjects by nine. They also may have an interest in physical education especially with the boys. By the age of twelve they would be speaking fluent speakers of a language. Consequently, they should be able to solve problems a physical activity e.g. balancing, co-ordination and agility.
During this period, they are entering adulthood however sometimes they may need guidance and support.
Social and emotional behavioural development
New born babies will communicate through sounds and sight. The responsible adult will need to give enough time for the baby to communicate. At the age of 3 the child will become more independent and motivates. The child will feel more secure and able to cope with unfamiliar surrounds and adults for some time. On the other hand, the child will become more cooperative with adults or carers and would like to help.
Between four and seven the child will start making new friends at school. Consequently, they may understand rules however they may still find taking turns difficult. They also will enjoy playing in group games.
Between the age of 7-12years they will become less dependent on adults for support, and they should be able to cope with a wider environment. On the other hand, they can become arrogant and bossy or shy and uncertain. In addition, they can they may also like to play with same sex friends. as well as being less dependent on adults they may need adults to sort out arguments and disagreements with others.
Teenagers at this point will become mature however often they will still have periods of childish behaviour. Teens will start to seek intimate relationships. However, some adolescences will emotionally invest in relationships which can make them vulnerable.
Overall growing and developing is an important part of a child’s life. The child will see many aspects of life and will learn and make mistakes throughout these stages of life. It is important to know these changes that will occur, and it is important to identify on what we as responsible can do to help children when they are developing.
Supporting Teaching and Learning in Schools Level 2 Course Notes (pages 12 – 21)
NHS Choices (2017) Accessed 12 April 2018, Available at: https://www.nhs.uk/livewell/puberty/pages/puberty-signs.aspx
About kids’ health (2018) Accessed 12th April 2018 Available at: https://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/Article?contentid=712;language=English
Home-based Childcare Student Book by Riddall-Leech, Sheila Paperback