INTRODUCTION Sports and recreationalactivities have been a popular extracurricular activity for adolescents for howmany years.
According to Paula (2017), youths that are involved in sports andrecreational activities have positive effects in psychology and also increasedboth emotional and behavioral well-being. In addition, they also develop higherself-esteem and confidence which they acquire in actively participating insports. “They also lead to less involvement in risky and destructive behaviorpatterns,” Paula said. Involvement in sport activities can help the adolescentsto have a higher level of social and leadership skills based from the kind ofsports they play.However, there are some variables or factorsthat influence the development of sports and recreational activities. On theresearch that will be conducted, the following will be measured in order toidentify the effect of the factors: (1) participation in sport and recreationalactivity; (2) type of sport and recreational activities (3) barriers andinfluences to sport and recreational activity (4) parental influences; (5)facility used; (6) lifestyle behaviours and recreational activity and; (7)sedentary behaviours and sport and recreational activity including thedemographic variables such as age, gender and history related to sports. It isproven that psychological attributes toward sports are also affected by thedemographic variables of the participants which will be added to the findingsof this current research (Ampofo-Boaleng, Barnabas & Yeng, 2013). It isalso recommended by previous researches related to sports that includingdemographic variables will be appropriate to further researches.
Moreover,based from the article of World Owl (n.d.), friends, gender, culture/ethnicityand family are the most influential to the participation of adolescents insports.Based from the research of Gorman(2010) in Eastern Tennessee, the effect of athletic participation on academicperformances of athletes and non-athletes were compared in terms of femaleand male senior students. Moreover, the involvement of teachers, school andcommunity were included in the findings. It was stated on the conclusion thatthere is a positive effect of participation in any kind of sports, schoolsystem in conducting sports and recreational activities, parental involvementand academic performances to sports that the participants played.
Adolescentswhose parents both play/ed and active in sports and recreation has largeinfluences than athletes who’s one or neither of the parents that play/ed insports.Likewise, another research made byDelaney (2013) in Waterford City found out that most of the participants statedthat “facilities are expensive, have many restrictions and are at poor standardswhich have a negative effect on the performances of students in sports. This issupported by the research of Rozita, Norzana, Khairulzaman and Norlizah(2014) which found that “facility ambience, operation quality, and staffcompetency has a relation on customer satisfaction and behaviour intentions.”Although, based on the collected data of Kabugne (2012) in Mombasa Country,”Inadequate facilities and equipment is a factor influencing success inperformances of sport activities among the youth in Mombasa.” The reason behindthis is that the participants avoid these problems getting their way insuccessful sports activities. However, they stated that having facility mayhelp and prevent time consuming on development in successful sports. Furthermore, a research done by Chen,Synder and Magner (2010) examined that three categories which are the athleticidentity (AI), sport commitment (SC), and effects on athletic involvement(EAI)as series of factor analysis. It is concluded that there is an effect onathlete’s participation and experience in sports to the responses from the threecategories (“Personal role, Importance of sports, Sport commitment, Personalattribute, core benefits, Social relationship, and special behaviours”).
Moreover, participants that joined the team-type of sports developed inpersonal attribute, personal roles, core benefits, social relationships andspecial behavior. These approaches were used to measure the maintainability of the athletes in sports and it were also linked to healthbenefits, increase of sport participation, athletic performances, self-esteem,development of social relationships and confidence based from the research ofHorton and Mack (2001). Barriers such as lack of finances,facilities and equipment are the possible variables that interrupt in producingworld-rate participants. Stress is also related or connected to barriersand issues in performances of sports (DiBartolo & Shafter, 2002). Basedfrom the research of Abedalhafiza, Altahaynehb & Al-Haliqc (2010), stressof “injury and illness”,”pressure of competition”,”conflict with thecoach, referee and spectators” are the major reasons of not performing well.
The reasons also suggest that using avoidance and approach styles prevents themfrom these barriers. However, research found out that there is a negativesignificant correlation between approach and avoidance coping style. Somecoaches and psychologist stated that avoiding this situation or engaging inwishful thinking or luck does not assist the participants at high levels ofsports. Sports and recreational activitiesare two of the challenges keeping teenagers physically active in the society.The purpose of this research is to show the place of sports and recreational