IntroductionServices in healthcarecan be divided into two parts: core services and support services.
The coreservices include medical services, care and cure services, while supportservices include corporate and facility management services. The provision ofFM and other non-core activities to healthcare organisations has been growinggradually, as has its impact on the quality and effectiveness of healthcareservices. Gelnay (2002) considers healthcare FM as one of the key elements forthe successful delivery of healthcare services. Nevertheless, he noted that inmost of the hospitals examined, the facilities manager was not yet involved inthe briefing, designing and cost analysing stages. Payne and Rees (1999)proposed that healthcare FM should be a flexible theme because, in general,organisations differ from one another, and this is also true for healthcareorganisations. Yet, researchers also stressed that facilities managers must beinvolved in the decision-making processes and that this is especially importantin healthcare facilities.
Therequirement to reduce expenditure on “non-core” activities, along withbuilding’s owners’ expectations for improved performance, are the main dilemmaswith which a facility manager deals on a regular basis (Lavy and Shohet, 2007).Five processes have led the area of facility management (FM) to become one ofthe most important for business success: (1) increased construction costs, particularlyin the public sector; (2) greater recognition of the effects of space uponproductivity; (3) increased performance requirements; (4) contemporarybureaucratic and statutory restrictions that decelerate start up of newconstruction projects; and (5) performance of high-rise buildings that arehighly dependent on maintenance (Shohet, 2005).The product of facilitymanagement is the delivery of services (European Committee for Standardization,2005) in response to needs (Gabler 2000). Taking the definition of qualitydeveloped by the European Committee for Standardization (2005), it becomesclear that the product is the service delivered to customers by the serviceprovider. ‘As the aim of facility management is to provide optimal support tothe core business, the requirements of the facility management are defined bythe primary processes it supports’ (Kunibert Lennerts, 2009).
A healthcare facility is oneof the most complicated and difficult types of facilities to manage, maintainand operate.Withthe rapid advancement of information and communication technologies,particularly the Internet and Web-based technologies during the past twodecades, various system integration and collaboration technologies have beendeveloped and deployed to architecture, engineering, construction, and facilitymanagement (AEC/FM). After many years of R&D, the AEC/FM industry has nowstarted to embrace and adopt software systems that support and promote theconcepts of integration and interoperability (Shen, Hao, Xue, 2012, p.
41). Literature reviewFacilitymanagement has traditionally been regarded in the old-fashioned sense ofcleaning, repairs and maintenance (Atkin and Brooks, 2000; Regterschot, 1990)while FM responsibilities were defined as “buying, selling, developing andadapting stock to meet wants of owners regarding finance, space, location,quality and so on” (O’Sullivan and Powell, 1990). Nowadays, facility managementis known as “an integrated approach to maintaining, improving and adapting thebuildings of an organization in order to create an environment that stronglysupports the primary objectives of that organization,” as well as to achieve abalanced, high performing organization (Barrett, 2000).Melinand Granath (2004) conducted a study in Sweden on the effect of “HorizontalIntegrated Care” (HIC deals with ways that care is delivered to patients) onfacility management; Payne and Rees (1999) discuss the importance of anintegrated facility management system in hospitals; Procter and Brown (1997)present a case study in which an information support system was implemented ina hospital in the UK; and Waring and Wainwright (2002) discuss the significanceof implementation of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in theNational Health Service (NHS) facility management system.Someresearch has been done in the area of healthcare facility management. Gallagher(1998), for instance, defines the following six issues as encouragingsuccessful implementation of healthcare FM: strategic planning, customer care,market testing, benchmarking, environmental management, and staff development.Amaratunga et al., (2002) define the following attributes as key processes forsuccessful implementation of FM: service requirements management, serviceplanning, service performance monitoring, supplier and contractor management,health and safety processes, risk management, and service coordination.
Shohetand Lavy (2004b) identify the following five core domains (the “pentagon”)within the area of healthcare facility management: maintenance management,performance management, risk management, supply services management, anddevelopment. Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) is treated as anintegrator among all five domains. Shohet and Lavy (2007) develop a strategicintegrated facility management model composed of the five core domains ofhealthcare FM defined above as the pentagon of healthcare FM. Figure 1:Healthcare facilities management core domains (Shohet and Lavy, 2004, pp 217) Building Automation Systems Computerized Maintenance Management SystemsCMMS(Computerized Maintenance Management System) software would traditionallybe used by hospitals to manage and schedule reactive and planned preventativemaintenance tasks, ensuring that work requests and repairs took place in atimely and economical manner. However, many establishments are now pushing theboundaries and unleashing the potential of their systems, transforming theperformance of staff and improving the level of patient care across theorganization as a whole.
Honeywell QFMQFMis a fully mobile and web enabled suite of CAFM (Computer Aided FacilitiesManagement) / IWMS (Integrated Workplace Management System) tools developedService Works Global which optimizes control of assets and resources, improvesservice delivery and delivers a rapid return on investment. Powerful reportingcapabilities provide essential insight into performance to support informeddecision making.QFMFacilities streamlines the management of a wide range of asset, building andservice activities to optimize facilities efficiency, improve service deliveryand reduce operational costs.
This CMMS (Computerized Maintenance ManagementSystem) software is a fully integrated suite of web-based management softwaretools, providing a centralized view of facilities and maintenance activitiesacross your entire property portfolio. Comprehensive reporting deliversessential insight into critical performance information to support strategicdecision-making.QFMFacilities is available as a modular software application or may be integratedwith other QFM products to deliver a wider IWMS solution.Integrationwith other systemsLargeorganisations like hospitals can benefit greatly from integrating their FMsoftware with other applications, bringing huge efficiencies and cost savings.When systems are disparate, reporting can be very time consuming, potentiallyresulting in errors because data is not centralized.
By linking them with FMsoftware, they can work together, tasks can be automated and actions across theorganization can be more easily prioritized.Oneof Australia’s newest, largest and most technologically advanced hospitals isdue to open soon. In it, Service Works’ QFM facilities management software hasbeen integrated with other specialized applications to create a best-of-breedtechnology solution which can be easily managed through their FM help desk.
Servicesintegrated with FM software include: Nurse Call – a self-service system in rooms where patients can request services like cleaning, which is then scheduled using QFM Meal Management system – to enable the service provider to meet food safety requirements and takes meal orders from patients. The connection to QFM software ensures that the right meal is delivered to the right location in the building Patient administration – patient information integrated with QFM allows requests to be linked to patient moves such as cleaning, porterage and equipmentAsthe help desk is able to co-ordinate with many other systems, time spent byclinical staff on reporting and follow up of requests will be eliminated,allowing them to maximize their time spent providing patient care.Efficiency through ease of use In addition to software used by the FM team,hospitals are also increasingly using self-service functionality. For example,using QFM, any visitor can use a designated public computer or kiosk to requesta job, without needing to log in or even be familiar with the location in orderto describe where the problem is. Service Works’ QFM software has a simpleinterface, and can be configured to make the user journey as easy as possible –including pre-populated lists of services, automatic addition of the kiosk’slocation to the job request, and the user can choose to receive a confirmationemail and update when the job is completed.
This feature is also an easy wayfor members of the public to report lost property, which is then managed withinthe system. Colour coding can be used to identify how long the lost propertyhas been with the hospital for, and can manage details of those who havereported lost possessions that have not yet been handed, ready to be flaggedwhen a match is found. By providing simple screens in busy areas, issues likespillages, broken equipment and exhausted supplies are more likely to bereported and can be more easily addressed by the hospital, increasing theefficiency of their FM services. Teamworkand communicationAnotherService Works’ hospital client in Canada had a challenging case for its FMteam, which was accordingly met with an innovative approach. With 20% of thenew hospital’s patient rooms being specialist infection control rooms, exactingstandards had to be met in line with SLAs in order to meet the contract andKPIs for each cleaning request; all of which need to be completed to the righttimescale and priority.ServiceWorks Global provides a detailed explanation of the service applications ofQFM. · QFM provides a range of integrated tools to manage,maintain and build a comprehensive Health & Safety strategy. It allows youto identify and evaluate potential hazards, record the results and act uponrisk assessments.
The software automates the management of test andinspections, creating job sheets and recording results to ensure completeauditability.· The help desk rapidly captures and prioritizesreactive maintenance requests, prioritizes tasks and identifies unresolvedcalls, which enables rapid job resolution. A web-based self-service portalenables building occupants to log jobs, report breakdowns and request services24/7, and track jobs from notification through to completion. Contractors canlog activities, notify progress and close tasks once completed, to deliver aproactive help desk, enterprise-wide visibility of FM performance and long-termcost savings.· . QFM Planned Maintenance Software enables you tointelligently schedule planned maintenance activities in order to increaseasset performance, ensure regulatory compliance and securesustainability and expenditure savings. The software provides all thetools you need to manage asset inspections, equipment servicing and health andsafety audits, providing visibility of critical dates, deadlines and costs.
· QFM provides a powerful set of user-definablereporting tools for real-time performance monitoring, trend analysis and KPI /SLA management. The software comes equipped with a comprehensive array ofdashboard, text based and graphical reports to ensure that vital business informationis readily available to key staff. QFM transforms data into meaningful andactionable information to support strategic decision making and makes apositive impact on your organization’s bottom line.
· QFM Resource Management allows you to intelligentlymanage personnel for reactive maintenance and planned preventativemaintenance (PPM) tasks. An intuitive graphical interface allows you toview open activities and assign resource based upon work schedules andoperatives’ skills. Jobs can be easily reallocated should an employee beabsent, in order to maintain high quality service levels for your customers.
Integration with mobile technology enables operatives and outsourcedcontractors to receive, action and sign-off jobs remotely and in real-time, allowingthem to stay in control of their workload.· QFMSatisfaction Surveys provides you with you valuable insight into how clientsview your service delivery standards. The software captures and measurescustomer feedback following job completion via user-friendly web-based surveytools. It allows you to measure the quality of your services and in turnimprove performance, to meet clients’ expectations and ensure businessretention.· Ensuring that service delivery levels meetcontractual obligations is essential to ensure client retention and increaserevenue. QFM SLA and Contract Management software centralizes the management ofyour service contracts, allowing you to monitor service delivery levels inreal-time, to improve contractor performance, optimize service quality andincrease cost efficiency.
· QFM Service Management allows you to flexiblyrecord, monitor and schedule service activities against pre-defined SLAs. Itstreamlines the management of quality inspections, risk assessments andcondition monitoring for both hard and soft services, to optimize servicedelivery, ensure customer satisfaction and maximize growth and revenue. Toadapt to new requirements and become more efficient, existing processes need tobe examined facility-wide.
The need to align on best practices and todemonstrate value is felt even more strongly in the case of mergers and scalingup of healthcare facilities. IntegratedFM software can help drive standardization, and generate data to gain betterinsights into performance. Inhealthcare organizations, FMs should keep their focus on best processes thatare aligned with regulatory and accreditation requirements.
IoTtechnology and utilization dataNewand affordable technologies for smart buildings enable FMs to improveoperations, driven by the realities on the ground. Fromwayfinding on campus to helping visitors find free parking space to drivingusage-based cleaning by putting door clickers on bathrooms, many smartscenarios can be implemented in healthcare settings. Let’stake a look at some examples. Connectedsensors help improve patient comfort through control of temperature, humidity,and air quality (CO2 levels).
They can also improve food safety, by monitoringcold storage and hygiene for food preparation. Sensors will send out earlyalerts, enabling you to detect and correct problems before things turnpotentially dangerous. By ensuring that food stays at the right temperatures,healthcare organizations can not only improve food quality and reduce the riskof unwanted bacterial growth, they can also extend the shelf life of food andreduce the amount of waste. Sensorscan be deployed to monitor asset condition and allow timely interventions,before equipment fails. Indoor positioning supports FMs to keep tabs on thelocation of assets and people traffic.
Smartmeters measure energy consumption at a granular level and can send alerts whenanomalies occur. Over time, the data provides insight into energy consumptionpatterns. It helps raise awareness and make healthcare organizations moresustainable.
Sensorsalso allow to monitor perception through micro polling: FMs can for exampleinstall smiley boxes in restrooms so that staff and visitors are encouraged togive instant feedback on how satisfied they are with the area’s cleanliness andhygiene. Sensorbig data can further be integrated with traditional data from facilitiesmanagement software and other data sources, offering great potential forreducing costs and improving the user experience. Waste management Kunibert Lennerts, 2009.Facility management in hospitals. In:Bern Rechel, Stephen Wright, Nigel Edwards, Barrie Dowdeswell, Martin McKeee.d.
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